Chloride peroxidase

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Chloride peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.10) is a family of enzymes that catalyzs the chlorination of organic compounds. This enzyme combines the inorganic substrates chloride and hydrogen peroxide to produce the equivalent of Cl+, which replaces a proton in hydrocarbon substrate:

R-H + Cl- + H2O2 + H+ → R-Cl + 2 H2O

Many organochlorine compounds are biosynthesized in this way.

This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on a peroxide as acceptor (peroxidases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is chloride:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called chloroperoxidase. It employs one cofactor which may be either heme or vanadium.[1]

The heme-containing chloroperoxidase (CPO) exhibits peroxidase, catalase and cytochrome P450-like activities in addition to catalyzing halogenation reactions.[2] Despite functional similarities with other heme enzymes, the structure of CPO is unique, which folds into a tertiary structure dominated by eight helical segments. The catalytic acid base, required to cleave the peroxide O-O bond, is glutamic acid rather than histidine as in horseradish peroxidase.

Structural studies[edit]

As of late 2007, 30 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1A7U, 1A88, 1A8Q, 1A8S, 1A8U, 1BRT, 1CPO, 1IDQ, 1IDU, 1QHB, 1QI9, 1VNC, 1VNE, 1VNF, 1VNG, 1VNH, 1VNI, 1VNS, 2CIV, 2CIW, 2CIX, 2CIY, 2CIZ, 2CJ0, 2CJ1, 2CJ2, 2CPO, 2J18, 2J19, and 2J5M.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Butler, Alison; Carter-Franklin, Jayme N. (2004). "The role of vanadium bromoperoxidase in the biosynthesis of halogenated marine natural products". Natural Product Reports 21 (1): 180–8. doi:10.1039/b302337k. PMID 15039842.  (this paper also discussed chloroperoxidases.
  2. ^ Poulos TL, Sundaramoorthy M, Terner J (1995). "The crystal structure of chloroperoxidase: a heme peroxidase--cytochrome P450 functional hybrid". Structure 3 (12): 1367–1377. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00274-X. PMID 8747463. 

Other reading[edit]

  • Hager LP, Hollenberg PF, Rand-Meir T, Chiang R, Doubek D (1975). "Chemistry of peroxidase intermediates". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 244: 80–93. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb41524.x. PMID 1056179. 
  • Morris DR, Hager LP (1966). "Chloroperoxidase. I. Isolation and properties of the crystalline glycoprotein". J. Biol. Chem. 241 (8): 1763–8. PMID 5949836. 
  • Theiler R, Cook JC, Hager LP and Siuda JF (1978). "Halohydrocarbon synthesis by homoperoxidase". Science 202 (4372): 1094–1096. doi:10.1126/science.202.4372.1094. PMID 17777960.