Chlorophyll c

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Chlorophyll c is a form of chlorophyll found in certain marine algae, including the photosynthetic Chromista (e.g. diatoms, brown algae) and dinoflagellates.[1][2][3]

It has a golden or brownish color and is an accessory pigment, particularly significant in its absorption of light in the 500-600 nm region, since water causes red light to be no longer as effectively utilized for photosynthesis by chlorophyll a.[3] Like chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, it helps the organism gather light and passes a quanta of excitation energy through the light harvesting antennae to the photosynthetic reaction centre. Chlorophyll c is unusual because it does not have an isoprenoid tail or a reduced ring D, features typical of the other chlorophylls commonly found in algae and plants.[2]

Chlorophyll c can be further divided into chlorophyll c1, chlorophyll c2 [3] and chlorophyll c3,[4] plus at least 8 other newly found subtypes.[5]

Chlorophyll c1[edit]

Chlorophyll c1
Chlorophyll c1.svg
Chlorophyll c1 molecule
Identifiers
PubChem 25245630
ChemSpider 21865345
Properties
Molecular formula C35H30MgN4O5
Molar mass 610.94 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Chlorophyll c1 is a common form of chlorophyll c. It differs from chlorophyll c2 in its C8 group, having an ethyl group instead of vinyl group (C-C single bond instead of C=C double bond). Its absorption maxima are around 444, 577, 626 nm and 447, 579, 629 nm in diethyl ether and acetone respectively.[6]


Chlorophyll c2[edit]

Chlorophyll c2
Chlorophyll c2.svg
Chlorophyll c2 molecule
Identifiers
PubChem 25244281
ChemSpider 21865346
Properties
Molecular formula C35H28MgN4O5
Molar mass 608.93 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Chlorophyll c2 is the most common form of chlorophyll c.[7] Its absorption maxima are around 447, 580, 627 nm and 450, 581, 629 nm in diethyl ether and acetone respectively.[6]


Chlorophyll c3[edit]

Chlorophyll c3
Properties
Molecular formula C36H28MgN4O7
Molar mass 652.94 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Chlorophyll c3 is a form of chlorophyll c found in microalga Emiliania huxleyi, identified in 1989.[4] Its absorption maxima are around 452, 585, 625 nm and 452, 585, 627 nm in diethyl ether and acetone respectively.[6]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Speer, B.R. "Photosynthetic Pigments". Retrieved 2 August 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Blankenship, Robert E. (February 2002). Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis. Wiley-Blackwell. 
  3. ^ a b c Dougherty, Ralph C.; Strain, H. H.; Svee, W. A.; Uphaus, R. A.; Katz, J. J. (May 1970). "The Structure, Properties, and Distribution of Chlorophyll c". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92 (9): 2826–2833. doi:10.1021/ja00712a037. 
  4. ^ a b Fookes, Christopher J. R.; Jeffrey, S. W. (1989). "The structure of chlorophyll c3, a novel marine photosynthetic pigment". J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. (23): 1827–1828. 
  5. ^ Zapata, Manuel; Garrido, José L.; Jeffrey, Shirley W. (2006). "Chlorophyll c Pigments: Current Status". Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls: Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration 25: 39–53. doi:10.1007/1-4020-4516-6_3. 
  6. ^ a b c Fawley, Marvin W. (1989). "A New Form of Chlorophyll c Involved in Light-Harvesting". Plant Physiol. 91 (2): 727–732. Retrieved 2 August 2014. 
  7. ^ Jeffrey, S. W. (28 June 2014). "The Occurrence of Chlorophyll c1 and c2 in Algae". Journal of Phycology 12 (3): 349–354. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1976.tb02855.x.