Chloroplatinic acid

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Chloroplatinic acid
Dihydrogen hexachloroplatinate (IV) hexahydrate
Chloroplatinic acid.jpg
Identifiers
CAS number 16941-12-1 YesY
PubChem 61859
ChemSpider 55731 YesY
UNII Q65224GJ7F YesY
EC number 241-010-7
RTECS number TP1510000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula H2PtCl6
Molar mass 409.81 g/mol
Appearance Reddish brown solid
Density 2.431 g/cm3
Melting point 60 °C (333 K)
Boiling point decomp
Solubility in water highly soluble
Structure
Crystal structure Anti-fluorite.
Coordination
geometry
octahedral
Dipole moment 0 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU Index 078-009-00-4
EU classification Toxic (T)
Corrosive (C)
R-phrases R25, R34, R42/43
S-phrases (S1/2), S22, S26, S36/37/39, S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Other anions Hexachloropalladic acid
Other cations Potassium hexachloroplatinate,
Ammonium hexachloroplatinate,
Rubidium hexachloroplatinate,
Caesium hexachloroplatinate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Chloroplatinic acid or hexachloroplatinic acid is the chemical compound usually found as the hexahydrate with the formula H2PtCl6·(H2O)6. This is one of the most readily available soluble compounds of platinum. It is rarely obtained in the pure state. The commercial product is the hydronium salt of the hexachloroplatinate(IV) anion. Therefore, the correct formula is [H3O]2[PtCl6]·4H2O.[1][2] The related palladium compound, [H3O]2[PdCl6], is extremely unstable and has not been isolated in pure form.[3]

Production[edit]

Platinum is being dissolved in hot aqua regia

Chloroplatinic acid is produced by dissolving platinum metal sponge in aqua regia. This reaction is rumored to produce nitrogen-containing platinum compounds, but the product is H2PtCl6.[citation needed] Chloroplatinic acid is brownish-red, and can be isolated by evaporating this solution to a syrup.[4]

Pt + 4 HNO3 + 6 HCl → H2PtCl6 + 4 NO2 + 4 H2O

Alternative methods have been heavily investigated, but the older literature can be unreliable.[5]

Reactions[edit]

When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum(IV) chloride and platinum(II) chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise, cleanly:[1]

(H3O)2PtCl6·n H2O is in equilibrium with PtCl4 + 2 HCl + (n + 2) H2O
PtCl4 is in equilibrium with PtCl2 + Cl2
PtCl2 is in equilibrium with Pt + Cl2

All three reactions are reversible.

Applications[edit]

Potassium determination[edit]

Chloroplatinic acid was popularized for the determination of potassium. The potassium is selectively precipitated as potassium chloroplatinate. Determinations were done in 85% (v/v) alcohol solutions with excess platinate ions, and the precipitated product was weighed. Potassium could be detected for solutions as dilute as 0.02 to 0.2% (m/v).[6]

This method for determination of potassium was advantageous vs. the cobaltinitrite method used previously, since it required a single precipitation reaction.[citation needed] Today, the concentration of potassium is determined with an ion-selective electrode. These modern methods remain subject to interference.

Purification of platinum[edit]

Treatment with an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride, gives ammonium hexachloroplatinate,[7] which is very insoluble in ammonium solutions. Heating the ammonium salt in hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum. Platinum is often isolated from ores or recycled from residues thus.[8]

Catalysis[edit]

Like many platinum compounds, chloroplatinic acid is used in catalysis. This compound was first reported by John Speier and colleagues from Dow Corning Corporation to catalyze the reaction of silyl hydrides with olefins, hydrosilylation. Typical of his reactions, Speier used isopropanol solutions containing trichlorosilane (SiHCl3), and methyldichlorosilane (CH3HSiCl2), with pentenes. Prior work on the addition of silanes to alkenes required radical reactions that were inefficient.[9][10] It is generally agreed that chloroplatinic acid is a catalyst precursor. A possible role for colloidal platinum or zero-valent complexes has also been considered.[11]

Related compounds[edit]

Chloroplatinic acid prepared from aqua regia is occasionally contaminated with nitrosonium hexachloroplatinate, (NO)2PtCl6. This species is obtained by the reaction of nitrosyl chloride, NOCl, and Pt metal.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b A. E. Schweizer, G. T. Kerr (1978). "Thermal Decomposition of Hexachloroplatinic Acid". Inorg. Chem. 17 (8): 2326–2327. doi:10.1021/ic50186a067. 
  2. ^ Holleman, Wiberg (2001). Inorganic Chemistry (First ed.). New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-352651-5. 
  3. ^ Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (Second ed.). New York: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3365-9. 
  4. ^ George B. Kauffman; Thurner, Joseph J.; Zatko, David A. (1967). "Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate(IV)". Inorganic Syntheses 9: 182–185. doi:10.1002/9780470132401.ch51. 
  5. ^ Paul Rudnick and R. D. Cooke (1917). "The Preparation of Hydrochloroplatinic Acid by means of Hydrogen Peroxide". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 39 (4): 633–635. doi:10.1021/ja02249a011. 
  6. ^ G. F. Smith, J. L. Gring (1933). "The Separation and Determination of the Alkali Metals Using Perchloric Acid. V. Perchloric Acid and Chloroplatinic Acid in the Determination of Small Amounts of Potassium in the Presence of Large Amounts of Sodium". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 55 (10): 3957–3961. doi:10.1021/ja01337a007. 
  7. ^ George B. Kauffman; Thurner, Joseph J.; Zatko, David A. (1967). "Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate(IV)". Inorganic Syntheses 9: 182–185. doi:10.1002/9780470132401.ch51. 
  8. ^ Cotton, S. A. Chemistry of Precious Metals, Chapman and Hall (London): 1997. ISBN 0-7514-0413-6.
  9. ^ J. L. Speier, J. A. Webster, G. H. Barnes (1957). "The Addition of Silicon Hydrides to Olefinic Double Bonds. Part II. The Use of Group VIII Metal Catalysts". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (4): 974–979. doi:10.1021/ja01561a054. 
  10. ^ John C. Saam, John L. Speier (1958). "The Addition of Silicon Hydrides to Olefinic Double Bonds. Part III. The Addition to Non-terminal Olefins in the Presence of Chloroplatinic Acid". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80 (15): 4104–4106. doi:10.1021/ja01548a073. 
  11. ^ L. N. Lewis, K. G. Sy, G. L. Bryant and P. E. Donahue (1991). "Platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation of alkynes". Organometallics 10 (10): 3750–3759. doi:10.1021/om00056a055. 
  12. ^ R. T. Moravek, G. B. Kauffman and T. Mahmood (1967). "Nitrosyl Hexachloroplatinate(IV)". Inorganic Syntheses 9: 217–220. doi:10.1002/9780470132555.ch63.