|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||265.91 g mol−1|
|Appearance||white crystalline solid|
|Density||1.8 g cm−3, solid|
|Melting point||250 °C|
|Boiling point||350 °C (760 mmHg)|
|Solubility in water||0.06 g/100 ml|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is a polychlorinated aromatic mainly used as a broad spectrum, nonsystemic fungicide, with other uses as a wood protectant, pesticide, acaricide, and to control mold, mildew, bacteria, algae. Chlorothalonil-containing products are sold under the names Bravo, Echo, and Daconil. It was first registered for use in the US in 1966. In 1997, the most recent year for which data are available, it was the third most used fungicide in the US, behind only sulfur and copper, with some 12 million lb used in agriculture alone that year. Including nonagricultural uses, the EPA estimates, on average, almost 15 million lb were used annually from 1990-1996.
In the US, chlorothalonil is used predominantly on peanuts (about 34% of usage), potatoes (about 12%), and tomatoes (about 7%), though the EPA recognizes its use on many other crops. It is also used on golf courses and lawns (about 10%) and as a preservative additive in some paints (about 13%), resins, emulsions, and coatings.
Chlorothalonil is commercially available in many different formulations and delivery methods. It is applied as a dust, dry or water-soluble grains, a wettable powder, a liquid spray, a fog, and a dip. It may be applied by hand, by ground sprayer, or by aircraft.
Mechanism of action
Chlorothalonil reduces fungal intracellular glutathione molecules to alternate forms which cannot participate in essential enzymatic reactions, ultimately leading to cell death, similar to the mechanism of trichloromethyl sulfenyl.
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, chlorothalonil is a toxicity category I eye irritant, producing severe eye irritation. It is in toxicity category II, "moderately toxic", if inhaled (inhaled LD50 0.094 mg/l in rats.) For skin contact and ingestion, chlorothalonil is rated toxicity category IV, "practically nontoxic", meaning the oral and dermal LD50 is greater than 10,000 mg/kg.
Chlorothalonil is highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates, but not toxic to birds.
At a concentration of 164 µg/l, chlorothalonil was found to kill a species of frog within a 24-hour exposure.
Common chlorothalonil synthesis procedures frequently result in contamination of it with small amounts of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which is toxic. US regulations limit HCB in commercial production to 0.05% of chlorothalonil. According to the EPA report, "post-application exposure to HCB from chlorothalonil is not expected to be a concern based on the low level of HCB in chlorothalonil."
Chlorothalonil has been detected in ambient air in Minnesota and Prince Edward Island, as well as in groundwater in Long Island, New York and Florida. In the first three cases, the contamination is presumed to have come from potato farms.
Research has been done by the University of South Florida and Biologists Taegan McMahon and Jason Rohr report that chlorothalonil killed amphibians, snails, zooplankton, algae, and aquatic plants below estimated environmental concentrations previously deemed safe by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The loss of these herbivores and plants freed the algae from predation and competition, which eventually resulted in algal blooms that were similar to the effects of eutrophication.
The main breakdown product of chlorothalonil is 4-hydroxy-2,5,6-trichloroisophthalonitrile (SDS-3701). It has been shown to be 30 times more acutely toxic than chlorothalonil and more persistent in the environment. Laboratory experiments have shown it can thin the eggshells of birds, but no evidence supports this happening in the environment.
Chlorothalonil can be produced by the direct chlorination of isophthalonitrile or by treating tetrachloroisophthaloyl amide with phosphoryl chloride. It breaks down under basic conditions, but is stable in neutral and acidic media. Technical chlorothalonil contains traces of dioxins and hexachlorobenzene, a persistent organic pollutant banned under the Stockholm Convention.
- Reregistration Eligibility Decision for chlorothalonil, US EPA, 1999.
- PESTICIDE USE IN U.S. CROP PRODUCTION: 1997 National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy, 1997.
- Tillman, Ronald; Siegel, Malcom; Long, John (June, 1973), "Mechanism of action and fate of the fungicide chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) in biological systems : I. Reactions with cells and subcellular components of Saccharomyces pastorianus", Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 3 (2): 160–167, doi:10.1016/0048-3575(73)90100-4
- Environmental Health Criteria 183, World Health Organization, 1996.
- Taegan McMahon, Neal Halstead, Steve Johnson, Thomas R. Raffel, John M. Romansic, Patrick W. Crumrine, Raoul K. Boughton, Lynn B. Martin, Jason R. Rohr "The Fungicide Chlorothalonil is Nonlinearly Associated with Corticosterone Levels, Immunity, and Mortality in Amphibians" Environ Health Perspectives, 2011, Online: 4 April. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002956
- Pesticides and Air Pollution in Minnesota: The Frequency of Detection of Chlorothalonil, a Fungicide Used on Potatoes. Pesticide Action Network North America, Oct 2007.
- White, Louise M; et al., WR; Julien, G; Garron, C; Leger, M (2006), "Ambient air concentrations of pesticides used in potato cultivation in Prince Edward Island, Canada.", Pest Manag Sci 62 (2): 126–136, doi:10.1002/ps.1130, PMID 16358323
- Univerysity of South Florida. "Common Fungicide Wreaks Havoc on Ecosystems". USF. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- Cox, Caroline (1997), "Fungicide Factsheet: Chlorothalonil", Journal of Pesticide Reform 17 (4): 14–20