Chlorpropham

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Chlorpropham
Chlorpropham
Identifiers
CAS number 101-21-3
PubChem 2728
ChemSpider 2627
EC number 202-567-1
KEGG C14506
ChEBI CHEBI:34630 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C10H12ClNO2
Molar mass 213.66
Appearance beige to brown solid
Density 1.18 g/cm3
Melting point 41-42 °C
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Chlorpropham (commercial names: Bud Nip, Taterpex, Preventol, Elbanil, Metoxon, Nexoval, Stickman Pistols, Preweed, Furloe, Stopgerme-S, Sprout Nip, Mirvale, Bygran, ChlorIPC, CHLOROPROPHAM, Spud-Nic, Spud-Nie, Chloro-IFK, Chloro-IPC, Keim-stop, Triherbicide CIPC) is a plant growth regulator and herbicide used as a sprout suppressant for grass weeds, alfalfa, lima and snap beans, blueberries, cane fruit, carrots, cranberries, ladino clover, garlic, seed grass, onions, spinach, sugar beets, tomatoes, safflower, soybeans, gladioli and woody nursery stock. It is also used to inhibit potato sprouting and for sucker control in tobacco. Chlorpropham is available in emulsifiable concentrate and liquid formulations.

Chlorpropham is within the maximum residue limit regulation in Germany germination inhibitors approved for the treatment of potatoes for the purpose of preservation after harvest. Chlorpropham products are approved as a germination inhibitor for potatoes in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

Toxicity[edit]

Chlorpropham displays a low level toxicity profile, with no signs of acute toxicity after exposure of less than 1000 mg/kg/day. Long term exposure at high doses (≥ 1000 mg/kg/day) could cause reduction of body weight gain, decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and increase in blood reticulocytes.

Regarding the carginogenic risk, chlorpropham is classified by the EPA as group E (non-carcinogenic).[1] However, one of its metabolites (3-chloroaniline, for which there are no carcinogenicity data available) is structurally similar to the known carcinogen 4-chloroaniline.

The acceptable daily intake ranges from 0.03 mg/Kg (FAO 2001[2]) to 0.05 mg/Kg (EPA 1996[1] and EC 2003[3]).

Stability[edit]

Chlorpopham is partially degraded in the environment under aerobic conditions (15% to 30% after 100 days) and partially hydrolysed in water solution (90% after 59 to 130 days).[3]

A study of the stability of chlorpropham in potatoes (estimated concentration of chlorpropham: 1.8 to 7.6 mg/kg at 10 days post-application) revealed that mean concentration of chlorpropham in the tuber decreased spontaneously by 24% and 42% at 28 days and 65 days postapplication respectively.[4] The study also showed that peeling removed 91-98% and washing 33-47%. Residues of chlorpropham were detected in the boiled potatoes, in the boiling water, in the French-fried potatoes and in the frying oil. According to this study, the theoretical dose for a 20kg infant eating 100g of crude-peeled tuber would be 0.00018 to 0.00342 mg/kg.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Registration Eligibility Decision (Chlorpropham)". Registration Eligibility Decision (Chlorpropham). Environmental Pretection Agency. 1996. 
  2. ^ "Clorpropham: Toxicological evaluation". Pesticide Residues in Food, 2000. Food and Agriculture Organization. 2001. pp. 41–4. ISBN 978-92-5-104547-3. 
  3. ^ a b HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL. chlorpropham. European commission. 
  4. ^ Lentza-Rizos, Chaido; Balokas, Alfaios (2001). "Residue Levels of Chlorpropham in Individual Tubers and Composite Samples of Postharvest-Treated Potatoes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (2): 710–4. doi:10.1021/jf000018t. PMID 11262017. 

External links[edit]