|Department of Chocó
Departamento de Chocó
|Established||November 3, 1947|
|• Governor||Hugo Arley Tobar Otero|
|• Total||46,530 km2 (17,970 sq mi)|
|• Density||11/km2 (27/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||CO-CHO|
Chocó is a department of Colombia known for its large Afro-Colombian population. It is in the west of the country, and is the only Colombian department to have coastlines on both the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. It also has all of Colombia's border with Panama. Its capital is Quibdó.
Chocó has a diverse geography, unique ecosystems and unexploited natural resources. However, its population has one of the lowest standards of living of all Departments in Colombia. In March 2007 Colombian media reported that some 50 children starved in less than three months, creating awareness of the grave condition Chocó inhabitants are facing. Infrastructure problems were also revealed. For example, despite its status as the world's rainiest lowland, with close to 400 inches of annual precipitation, Chocó's capital Quibdó was left without water.
The Department was created in 1944 being speaker at House of Representatives Pedro Yances Salcedo, but it was never legally established. Due to its low population, inhospitable topography, and distance from Bogotá, Chocó has received little attention from the Colombian government. During the government of military dictator Gustavo Rojas Pinilla Chocó was to be eliminated as a department and divided between Antioquia department and Valle del Cauca department, but Pinilla's intentions were thwarted by the 1957 coup d'état of General Gabriel París Gordillo.
The municipality of Lloró holds the Highest Average Annual Precipitation record measured at 523.6 inches (13,300 mm) which makes it the wettest place in the world. Three large rivers drain the Chocó Department, the Atrato, the San Juan and the Baudó, and each has many tributaries. The Baudó Mountains on the coast and the Cordillera Occidental are cut by low valleys with an altitude less than 1,000 meters that form most of the territory. Most of the Chocó is thick rainforest. Much of Colombia's internal consumption of wood come from the Chocó, with a small percentage harvested for export.
Chocó is inhabited predominantly by descendants of African slaves brought by the Spanish colonizers after conquering the Americas. The second race/ethnic group are the Emberá, the remaining Native American people, with more than half of their total population in Colombia living in Chocó, some 35,500. They practice hunting and artisan fishing and live near rivers.
Towns and municipalities
Quibdó is the largest city with a population of almost 100,000. Other important cities and towns include Istmina, Condoto, Nóvita and El Carmen in the interior, Acandí on the Caribbean coast, and Solano on the Pacific coast. Resorts include Capurganá on the Caribbean coast, and Jurado, Nuquí, and Bahía Solano on the west coast.
- Alto Baudó
- Bahía Solano
- Bajo Baudó
- Belén de Bajirá
- Carmen del Darién
- El Cantón de San Pablo
- El Carmen de Atrato
- Litoral del San Juán
- Medio Atrato
- Medio Baudó
- Medio San Juán
- Río Iró
- Río Quito
- San José del Palmar
- Unión Panamericana
- (Spanish) todacolombia.com - Chocó Department
- Meyer, Irina Marún et al. (2012). Chocó: La dimensión territorial y el logro de los ODM. Fondo para el Logro de los Objetivos del Milenio, United Nations Development Programme. p. 11.
- Kline, Harvey F. (2012). "Chocó, Department of". Historical Dictionary of Colombia. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-8108-7813-6.
- "DANE". Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- James J. Parsons (November 1978), "Review of Slavery on the Spanish Frontier: The Colombian Chocó, 1680-1810 by William Frederick Sharp", The Hispanic American Historical Review (Duke University Press) 58 (4): 717–718, JSTOR 2513352
- "¿Se debe acabar Chocó?". Semana (in Spanish) (Bogotá: Semana.com). 31 March 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- NOAA Satellite and Information Service Global Measured Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation
- "86 tribus subsisten en Colombia". El País (in Spanish) (Cali, Colombia: elpais.com). 23 March 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2010.[dead link]
- "La visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos colombianos" (in español).
- Mosquera-Machados, Silvia del Carmen (2002) "Cadre général du département du Choco" in Analyse multi-aléas et risques naturels dans le département du Chocó (nord-ouest de la Colombie) Université de Genève, Geneva in French
- "Mision de Observacion a la Situación de las Comunidades Afrodescendientes en Colombia: Anexo 1" in Spanish;
- Choco 7 dias - local newspaper founded by Elacio Murillo, former member of the Choco state assembly who was assassinated by gunmen on January 12, 2007.
- Alternative Development, Economic Interests and Paramilitaries in Uraba, TNI Drug Policy Briefing No 27, September 2008 by Moritz Tenthoff