Choiceless Awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in mid-20th-century by Jiddu Krishnamurti, in whose philosophy it signifies a main theme. Similar or related concepts had been previously developed in several religious or spiritual traditions; the term or others like it has also been used to describe traditional and contemporary secular and religious meditation practices. However, Krishnamurti's approach to Choiceless Awareness was unique, and differs from both pre-existing and later-developed notions.
Choiceless Awareness is a major concept in the exposition of Indian philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895–1986). Beginning in the 1930s, he often commented on the subject, which became a recurring theme in his work. He is considered to have been mainly responsible for the subsequent interest in both the term and the concept.
Krishnamurti held that outside of strictly practical, technical matters, the presence and action of choice indicates confusion and subtle bias: an individual who perceives a given situation in an unbiased manner, without distortion, and therefore with complete awareness, will immediately, naturally, act according to this awareness – the action will be the manifestation and result of this awareness, rather than the result of choice. Such action (and quality of mind) is inherently without conflict.
He did not offer any method, gradual or sudden, to achieve such awareness; acceptance of any method is considered a choice, and its practice a series of further choices; such constant application of choice cannot possibly evolve into, or result in, true choicelessness – just as unceasing application of effort leads to illusory effortlessness, in reality the action of habit; additionally, in his opinion all methods introduce potential or actual conflict, generated by the practitioner's efforts to comply. According to this analysis, all practices towards achieving Choiceless Awareness have the opposite effect: they inhibit its action in the present by treating it as a future, premeditated result, and moreover one that is conditioned by the practitioner's implied or expressed expectations. For true choicelessness to be realized, choice – implicit or explicit – has to simply, irrevocably, stop; however the ceasing of choice is not the result of decision (another choice), but implies the ceasing of the functioning of the chooser or self as a psychological entity; therefore Krishnamurti asserted that Choiceless Awareness is a natural attribute of non-self-centered perception, which he called "observation without the observer".
Accordingly, Krishnamurti advised against following any doctrine, discipline, teacher, guru, or authority, including himself. He also advised against following one's own psychological knowledge and experience, which he considered integral parts of the "observer". He denied the usefulness of all meditation techniques or methods, but not of meditation itself, which he called "perhaps the greatest" art in life.
Krishnamurti's ideas on Choiceless Awareness were discussed by among others, influential Hindu spiritual teacher Ramana Maharshi (1879–1950) and they attracted the attention of psychologists and psychoanalysts in the 1950s; in the following decades Krishnamurti held a number of discussions on this and related subjects with practicing psychotherapists and with researchers in the field.
In late 1980, almost half a century after he started discussing it, Krishnamurti included the concept in The Core of Krishnamurti's Teaching, a pivotal statement of his philosophy: "Freedom is found in the choiceless awareness of our daily existence and activity."
In contrast with Krishnamurti's approach, other articulations commonly include Choiceless Awareness (or related ideas and terms) as part, or as the hoped-for result, of specific methodologies and meditation techniques. Similar concepts and terms appeared or developed in various traditional and contemporary religious or spiritual doctrines and texts, and also within secular disciplines such as psychotherapy, rehabilitation medicine, and counseling.
One term that is often used as a near-synonym is "mindfulness", which as a concept has similarities to or may include Choiceless Awareness. Initially part of Buddhist meditation practice, it has been adapted and utilized for contemporary psychological treatment.
Kindred themes can be found in the doctrine and meditation practices (such as Vipassanā) associated with the Theravada school of Buddhism; and also in 20th-century offshoots like the Thai Forest Tradition and the Vipassana movement. Within these and similar fields – for example, the Shikantaza practice in Zen Buddhism, Choiceless (or Effortless) Awareness is considered to frequently be the result of a mature progression of practice.
The concept was included in the discourse of independent Hindu spiritual teacher Osho (Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh) (1931–90) while Tibetan Buddhism teacher Chogyam Trungpa (1939–87), who engaged in dialogue with Krishnamurti, used the term to describe the experience of "shunyata" (Śūnyatā) – in Sanscrit, "emptiness", or "ego-less perception".
Among other fields, the term has appeared in dispute resolution theory and practice, and has found application in artistic endeavors. In dramatic theory, theater criticism, and acting, it has been used to denote spontaneous creativity and related practices or attempts; it has additionally appeared in music works.
- J. Krishnamurti 2001.
- J. Krishnamurti [a], para. 12. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Cortright 1997, p. 128; Mu Soeng 2004, p. 76.
- J. Krishnamurti 2001, "Part VII: In Summation", pp. 145–152.
- J. Krishnamurti 2009.
- J. Krishnamurti [b], para. 37. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- J. Krishnamurti 1975, p. 116 (para. 312). Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Osborne 1996, p. 70.
- Kelman 1956.
- Lutyens 2003, pp. 206, 217.
- J. Krishnamurti [c], para.3.
- Risom 2010, "Step 10: Choiceless Awareness", pp. 44–45.
- Ashtavakra Gita 1994.
- Germer et al. 2005, pp. 16, 83.
- Carlson & Speca 2011, "Chapter 10: Deepening and Expanding", pp. 137–141.
- Cohen-Posey 2010, "Handout 2.8–Being Present: Choiceless Awareness", pp. 48–49.
- Germer et al. 2005.
- Mu Soeng 2004, pp. 76, 127.
- Osho [n.d].
- J. Krishnamurti 1996, "[Chapter:] What is Meditation?", pp. 236–242. [Discussion at San Diego, 15 February 1972].
- Trungpa 1994, "[Chapter] 3: Choiceless Awareness", pp. 87–99.
- Riskin 2006.
- Lamont 1970.
- Eastin 2010.
- Marshall 1978, "[Track] A2: This Choiceless Awareness" [duration 5 min 2 sec].
- [Unknown] (28 May 1994) [original date unknown]. "Chapter XV" (in Sanscrit). Ashtavakra Gita. Translated by John Richards. Wikisource. verse 5. "You are choiceless, awareness itself and unchanging – so live happily."
- Carlson, Linda E.; Speca, Michael (2011). Mindfulness-based cancer recovery: a step-by-step MBSR approach to help you cope with treatment and reclaim your life. Oakland, California: New Harbinger Publications. ISBN 978-1-57224-887-8.
- Chögyam Trungpa (1994). Sherab Chödzin, ed. Illusion's game: the life and teaching of Naropa. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-0-87773-857-2.
- Cohen-Posey, Kate (2010). More brief therapy client handouts. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-49985-6.
- Cortright, Brant (1997). Psychotherapy and spirit: theory and practice in transpersonal psychotherapy. SUNY Series in the philosophy of psychology. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3466-6.
- Eastin, Steve (19 February 2010). "Something To Not Think About". Back Stage. (National ed.) (New York: Prometheus Global Media) 51 (7): 11. ISSN 1946-5440. Retrieved 2011-09-06.
- Germer, Christopher K.; Siegel, Ronald D. & Fulton, Paul R., eds. (2005). Mindfulness and psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-59385-139-2.
- Jiddu, Krishnamurti (n.d[a]). "First public talk at Ommen, 25 July 1936". J. Krishnamurti Online. Krishnamurti Foundations. JKO 360725 [web document id]. Retrieved 2011-08-20. Check date values in:
- Jiddu, Krishnamurti (n.d[b]). "Seventh public talk in Saanen, 24 July 1977". J. Krishnamurti Online. Krishnamurti Foundations. JKO SA77T7 [web document id]. Retrieved 2011-08-23. Check date values in:
- Jiddu, Krishnamurti (n.d[c]). "The Core of the Teachings". J. Krishnamurti Online. Krishnamurti Foundations. Retrieved 2011-09-21. Check date values in:
- Jiddu, Krishnamurti (1975) [originally published 1969]. Lutyens, Mary, ed. Freedom from the known (1st US paperback ed.). San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 978-0-06-064808-4. JKO 237 [web document id]. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- Jiddu, Krishnamurti (1996). Questioning Krishnamurti: J. Krishnamurti in dialogue. London: Thorsons. ISBN 978-0-7225-3284-3.
- Jiddu, Krishnamurti (2001) [originally published 1992]. Patterson, Albion W, ed. Choiceless awareness: a selection of passages for the study of the teachings of J. Krishnamurti (revised ed.). Ojai, California: Krishnamurti Foundation of America. p. 1 [in "Foreword"]. ISBN 978-1-888004-04-5. "The passages in this Study Book have been taken directly from Krishnamurti's talks and books from 1933 through 1967."
- Jiddu Krishnamurti (12 June 2009). The art of meditation: fourth public talk at Brockwood Park, 3 September 1978 (flv) (Webcast). J. Krishnamurti Online. JKO Various clips: The Art of Meditation [web document id]. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
- Kelman, Harold (1956). "Life history as therapy: Part II; On being aware". The American Journal of Psychoanalysis (New York: Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis) 16 (1): 68–78. doi:10.1007/bf01873714. ISSN 0002-9548.
- Lamont, Rosette C. (1970). "Beckett’s Metaphysics of Choiceless Awareness". In Friedman, Melvin J. Samuel Beckett now: critical approaches to his novels, poetry and plays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 199–218. ISBN 978-0-226-26346-5.
- Lutyens, Mary (2003) [originally published 1983. London: John Murray]. Krishnamurti: the years of fulfilment. Bramdean: Krishnamurti Foundation Trust. ISBN 978-0-900506-20-8.
- Marshall, Steve (Producer, performer) (1978). Do what you will (LP record). San Francisco: Reynolds Records. PR-716 [catalog no.] Retrieved 2011-09-06.
- Mu Soeng (2004). Trust in mind: the rebellion of Chinese Zen. Foreword by Jan Chozen Bays. Somerville, Massachusetts: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-391-2.
- Osho (Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh) (n.d.). Choiceless Awareness (flv) (Webcast). New Delhi: Osho World. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- Osborne, Arthur (1996) [original US ed. published 1971]. The teachings of Ramana Maharshi (2nd revised ed.). San Francisco: Weiser Books. ISBN 978-0-87728-897-8.
- Riskin, Leonard L. (2006). "[Chapter] 27: Knowing Yourself: Mindfulness". In Kupfer Schneider, Andrea & Honeyman, Christopher. The negotiator's fieldbook. Washington D.C.: American Bar Association. pp. 239–250. ISBN 978-1-59031-545-3.
- Risom, Jens-Erik (2010). Presence meditation: the practice of life awareness (in Danish). Translated by Marianne Bentzen. Foreword by Peter A. Levine. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-912-4.
- Jiddu, Krishnamurti (1991). Choiceless Awareness. Collected Works. 5 (1948–1949). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 978-0-8403-6238-4.
- Mathur, Dinesh Chandra (1 January 1984). "J. Krishnamurti on Choiceless Awareness, Creative Emptiness and Ultimate Freedom". Diogenes (Paris & New York: SAGE Publications [in association with the International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies]) 32 (126): 91–103. doi:10.1177/039219218403212606. ISSN 0392-1921.
- Sabzevary, Amir (2010). Choiceless awareness: psychological freedom in the philosophy of Krishnamurti. Saarbrücken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing. ISBN 978-3-8383-0385-7. – "This work provides readers an insightful and timely commentary on Krisnamurti's most fundamental ideas" (publisher's description). From a professor of Philosophy and Humanities at Laney College, in Oakland, California.