|A Chow Chow puppy|
|Other names||Chow, Chowdren, 鬆獅犬|
|Country of origin||China|
|Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Chow Chow (sometimes simply Chow) is a dog breed originally from northern China, where it is referred to as Songshi Quan (Pinyin: sōngshī quǎn 鬆獅犬), which means "puffy-lion dog". The breed has also been called the Tang Quan, "Dog of the Tang Empire." It is believed that the Chow Chow is one of the native dogs used as the model for the Foo dog, the traditional stone guardians found in front of Buddhist temples and palaces.
The Chow is a unique breed of dog thought to be one of the oldest recognizable breeds. Research indicates it is one of the first primitive breeds to evolve from the wolf. Recent DNA analysis confirms that this is one of the oldest breeds of dog that probably originated in the high steppe regions of Siberia or Mongolia, and much later used as temple guards in China, Mongolia and Tibet. From what records survive, some historians believe that the Chow was the dog described as accompanying the Mongolian armies as they invaded south into China as well as west into Europe and southwest into the Middle East. A bas-relief from 150 BC (during the Han Dynasty) includes a hunting dog similar in appearance to the Chow. Later Chow Chows were bred as a general-purpose working dog for herding, hunting, pulling and guarding. Chows are reputed to be one of the many dog breeds in China fattened up and eaten during times of famine by peasants living in sparse, rural lands. Recent DNA analysis confirm that this breed is one of the oldest dog breeds.
Research indicates it is one of the first primitive breeds to evolve from the gray wolf, and is thought by many to have originated in the arid steppes of northern China and Mongolia, although other theorists conjecture that its origin is in Siberian regions of Asia.
Chinese legends mention large war dogs from central Asia that resembled black-tongued lions. One Chinese ruler was said to own 5,000 Chows. The Chinese also used Chows to pull dog sleds, and this was remarked upon by Marco Polo.
A legend says that the original teddy bears were modeled after Queen Victoria's Chow Chow puppy. It's said that she carried the dog everywhere she went. Her friends disapproved, claiming that it did not befit a Queen to be seen everywhere with a dog, so they paid a dressmaker to make a stuffed version of the animal for her.
The Chow Chow is a sturdily built dog, square in profile, with a broad skull and small, triangular, erect ears with rounded tips. The breed is known for a very dense double coat that is either smooth or rough. The fur is particularly thick in the neck area, giving it a distinctive ruff or mane appearance. The coat may be red, black, blue, cinnamon/fawn, or cream. Not all these color varieties are recognized as valid in all countries. Individuals with patchy or multicolored coats are considered to be outside the breed standard. Chow Chow eyes are typically deep set and almond shaped. The breed is distinguished by its unusual blue-black/purple tongue and very straight hind legs, resulting in a rather stilted gait. The bluish color extends to the Chow Chow's lips; this is the only dog breed with this distinctive bluish color in its lips and oral cavity (other dogs have black or a piebald pattern skin in their mouths). One other distinctive feature is the curly tail. It has thick hair and lies curled on its back. The nose should be black, but blue-coated Chow Chow can have a solid blue or slate-colored nose. According to the American Kennel Club breed standards, any other tone is not acceptable for contests. FCI countries, however, do allow a self-colored nose in the cream.
The blue-black/purple tongue gene appears to be dominant, as almost all mixed breed dogs that come from a Chow Chow retain that tongue color. This is not to say, however, that every mixed breed dog with spots of purple on the tongue is descended from Chow Chow, as purple spots on the tongue can be found on a multitude of pure breed dogs.
Most commonly kept as pets, Chow Chows tend to display discernment of strangers and can become fiercely protective of their owners and property. The American Kennel Club standards, however, consider an all-too aggressive or all-too timid Chow Chow to be unacceptable. For that reason, some owners have attributed a cat-like personality to the Chow Chow.
Chow Chow are not excessively active, meaning that they can be housed in an apartment. However, Chow Chow living in apartments will need daily exercise to prevent restlessness and boredom. Upon realizing that exercise is a daily occurrence, Chow Chow will tend to be more assertive with owners in anticipation of such activities.
This breed of dog has many strong loyal bonds with friends and family, however the Chow Chow dog is usually overly protective of one or two main family member(s). It is in the breed’s nature to be quiet and well behaved. However, it is also resistant to training. Chow Chows become very stubborn and attach to certain individuals, as they age. This is why training them when they are puppies is so crucial; they gain respect for those who care for them.
In order to avoid aggressive and over-protectiveness as an adult, continuous socialization as early as possible could allow the dog to adjust. When Chow Chows have reached adolescence they reject authority from any other owner who failed to earn its admiration. Aggression can be one distinctive behavioural characteristic in this breed, though while some are of an aggressive nature, many are known to be easy-going in nature - sometimes adopting an aloof disposition to individuals other than their owners. Aggression when it does appear is often towards other dogs of the same sex, especially Chows. Due to their strong hunting instincts, it is recommended that these dogs stay fenced, leashed, and away from cats and small dogs. This is why it is crucial that they are socialized early and consistently in order to act appropriately with strangers. At first, chow chows are very hesitant in interacting with strangers. However, this problem can be avoided if the owners train the chow chow at a young age. Owning a Chow Chow can raise the cost of homeowners insurance because some companies consider them high-risk dogs. In a study in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, out of 238 fatalities related to dog bites from 1979 to 1998, Chow Chow were responsible for eight.
The Chow Chow can suffer from entropion, glaucoma, juvenile cataracts, lymphoma, hip dysplasia, diabetes mellitus, canine pemphigus, and gastric cancer. Chow Chows are a high risk breed for autoimmune disease  and are at a predisposition for skin melanoma.
Due to the Chow Chow's thick coat, fleas can be a problem.
Famous Chow Chow owners
Konrad Lorenz an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist, winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize  who is often regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology, had a Chow Chow mix named Stasi. He wrote about his dogs in his book King Solomon's Ring.
Sigmund Freud had a Chow Chow named Jo-Fi who attended all of his therapy sessions because he felt that dogs had a special sense that allows them to judge a person's character accurately, and admitted he depended on Jo-Fi for an assessment of a patient's mental state.
Martha Stewart owns several chows, which are frequently seen on Martha's shows , one of then named Genghis Khan. The Chow Chow was a highly popular pet among the rich and famous during the Roaring Twenties. President Calvin Coolidge and his wife owned a black Chow named Timmy. Chow Chows were also popular in the 1930s and 1980s. Vanna Bonta has a cream Chow Chow named Sky in a line of her breed of choice, a blue Chow Chow she had named Seraph, and a red Chow Chow named Beowulf who was immortalized as a fictional dog in the book Flight. Janet Jackson had a Chow Chow named Buckwheat. A.C. Milan striker Mario Balotelli bought his girlfriend two Chow Chow puppies costing £850 each.
Evidently, any high quality type of food can require the right nutrients for any dog’s skin, hair, and overall health. However, the characteristics of a Chow Chow breed contain 95% of protein in their hair, heavy weight for its height. Therefore, ensuring that the food contains enough digestible proteins is crucial. The maturation of a Chow Chow occurs at a fast pace due to its size, by 18 months a Chow Chow is an adult dog. The adjustment of the diet is also necessary. How much this breed eats all depends on the physiological characteristics, such as: size, metabolism, age etc. Chow Chow dogs must eat twice a day. Due to the Chow Chow’s heavy build, it is important that this dog never be overweight or can lead to injuries of the hip. Most chows eat four cups of food a day, two in the morning and two at night. Chows cannot be fed a lot of meat, it is recommended that they are fed with different sources of protein such as eggs, and rice and in more portions.
Chow breed will heavily shed their fur in the seasons of spring and fall, which requires more grooming attention than other seasons. It is important that owners use the correct tool in order to avoid harming the skin and facilitate grooming. Three kinds of brushes that owners can use on their Chow Chow are a medium-coarse brush for the larger parts of the body, a slick brush for smaller areas, and a pin brush to maintain the longer strands of hair. Chow Chows are known to have either short and smooth coat, or a rougher and longer coat. Both create a thick woolly layer, as it gets closer to the skin. They should be brushed four times a week; however shedding seasons may require daily grooming. Also, a spray conditioner can help avoiding breakage and tearing to the thick coat of hair. Lastly, a monthly bath is required to avoid fleas and keep a clean coat of fur.
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- Chow Chow | American Kennel Club
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chow Chows.|
- Chow Chow breed standard at the official American Kennel Club website
- The Chow Chow Club, Inc.
- The Netherlands Chow Chow Club
- The Royal Belgian Chow Chow Club