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Chowdhury/Chaudhry (Bengali: চৌধুরী; Hindi: चौधरी; Punjabi: ਚੈਧਰੀ; Urdu: چودهرى; Nepali: चौधरी) is a South Asian hereditary title and surname. It is common among families in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Nepal. The term literally stands for the "holder of four". It was historically bestowed on zamindars under imperial rule. It is also spelled as Chowdhury, Chaudhury, Choudhury, Choudhry, Chaudhuri, Chaudhary and Choudhary.
The term has Sanskrit origins. It was conferred by the Sultans of Delhi, Northwest India and Bengal on their military nobles. During the Mughal Empire and the British Raj, landowning families were often conferred the title due to their four-quarter share of land revenues. In northern India and eastern Pakistan, the Gujjars use this title.
Chaudhry, Chaudhari, Choudhry or Chaudhary (The Headman or the First Person) refers to the title of Kalar Panwar, Rajputs, Dhobi A Vice President of the caste committee, A Section of Ahirs, Maheshri Bania, Gadaria, Gujar, Halwa and Mali. 
- Humayun Rashid Choudhury, former President of the United Nations General Assembly
- Justice Abu Sayeed Chowdhury, 2nd President of Bangladesh
- Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury, 9th President of Bangladesh
- Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury, 5th Prime Minister of Bangladesh
- A. Q. M. Badruddoza Chowdhury, 13th President of Bangladesh
- Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury, Speaker of the Bangladesh National Parliament
- Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury, 19th century aristocrat
- Chaudhary Charan Singh, 6th Prime Minister of India
- Renuka Chowdhury, former Union Minister of State
- Chaudhary Devi Lal, former Deputy Prime Minister of India
- Shankar Roychowdhury, former Chief of Staff of the Indian Army
- Chaudhary Harmohan Singh Yadav, Politician, Shaurya Chakra awardee
- Chaudhary Brahm Prakash Yadav Former Chief Minister, Delhi
- Binod Chaudhary, Nepalese billionaire
- Mahendra Chaudhry, former Prime Minister of Fiji
- Chaudhary Rahmat Ali, Pakistani Movement activist
- Chaudhry Muhammad Ali, 4th Prime Minister of Pakistan
- Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry, 5th President of Pakistan
- Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, 14th Prime Minister of Pakistan
- Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, former Chief Justice of Pakistan
- Satveer Chaudhary, former Minnesota state senator
- R. V. Russell (1997). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India (Volumes I and II). Library of Alexandria. ISBN 9781465582942.
- M. L. Ahuja (2000). Handbook of General Elections and Electoral Reforms in India, 1952-1999. Mittal Publications. pp. 302,340. ISBN 9788170997665.