Christ Church Cathedral (Montreal)

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Christ Church Cathedral
Christ Church Cathedral, with the Tour KPMG office tower in the background.
Coordinates: 45°30′13″N 73°34′12″W / 45.50361°N 73.57000°W / 45.50361; -73.57000
Location Montreal, Quebec
Country Canada
Denomination Anglican
Website www.montrealcathedral.ca
History
Founded 1814 (1814)
Consecrated 1867
Architecture
Status active
Architect(s)
Architectural type Neo-Gothic
Groundbreaking 1857
Completed 1860
Specifications
Length 62 metres (203 ft)
Width 33 metres (108 ft)
Nave width 34 metres (112 ft)
Height 70 metres (230 ft)
Number of spires 1
Spire height 38 metres (125 ft)
Administration
Diocese Montreal
Province Canada
Clergy
Bishop(s) Barry Bryan Clarke
Dean The Very Revd J Paul Kennington
Curate(s) The Revd Rhonda Waters
Laity
Director of music

Patrick Wedd

Official name: Christ Church Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada
Designated: 1999
Official name: Monument historique classé
Designated: 1988

Christ Church Cathedral is an Anglican Gothic Revival cathedral in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Montreal. It is located at 635 Saint Catherine Street West, between Union Avenue and University Street. It is situated on top of the Promenades Cathédrale underground shopping mall, and south of Tour KPMG. It was classified as historical monument by the government of Quebec on May 12, 1988. In 1999, it was designated a National Historic Site of Canada.[1][2]

History[edit]

The interior of the original Christ Church Cathedral in 1852.
The interior of the present Christ Church Cathedral.

The first Christ Church opened on Notre-Dame Street in Old Montreal in 1814. In 1850, it was designated as the cathedral for the new Anglican Diocese of Montreal upon its separation from the Anglican Diocese of Quebec. The cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1856.[3]

The present cathedral, an Neo-gothic structure, was designed by architect Frank Wills (1822–1856), who also designed Christ Church Cathedral in Fredericton, New Brunswick. Before construction began, Willis died, and Montreal architect, Thomas Seaton Scott (1826–1895) was commissioned to carry out his design.[4] The structure was completed in 1859 and consecrated in 1867.[4]

Andrew Taylor oversaw alterations and other restoration of the Cathedral from 1890 to 1891 and installed a memorial window for Mrs. A.C. Hooper in 1902-03.[5]

Modeled after the 14th century Gothic-style churches of the English countryside, the cathedral features a square crossing tower.[6]

Unfortunately, the design, though acclaimed for its architecture, suffered from important engineering flaws. The soft ground could not support the heavy central stone tower and steeple, which began to subside and lean. By 1920, the tower leaned 1.2 m (3.9 ft) to the south. This defect formed the basis of an important lawsuit (Wardle v. Bethune) often cited as precedent relating to Article 1688 of the Quebec Civil Code.

George Allan Ross designed alterations in 1923 and reconstructed the tower from 1939 to 1940.[7] In 1927, the stone steeple, weighing 1,600,000 kg (3,500,000 lb) was removed. New foundations were poured in 1939, and in 1940, an anonymous donation permitted the construction of a much lighter steeple made of aluminum, molded to simulate the former stone spire. It is 38 m (125 ft) high, attaining a height of 70 m (230 ft) from the ground.[4]

Recent additions to the church include a choir gallery, built in 1980, and the church's third organ, installed in 1981. Notable musicians to have served as the church's organist include Alfred Whitehead (1922–1947) and S. Drummond Wolff (1952–1956).

The organ is opus 77 of Karl Wilhelm, Inc. of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec. It is a mechanical key and stop instrument with four-manuals, 42 stops and 63 ranks. In 1992, the pedal division was expanded with a 32' Bombarde.

The organ replaced the earlier instrument that served the congregation from 1859. The earlier instrument was constructed by William Hill and Son in London to duplicate an organ given to the congregation by King George III and destroyed in the fire of 1856. The Hill instrument was remodeled and enlarged several on at least five occasions during the tenure of its service. In 1979, the congregation commissioned the mechanical organ and the earlier instrument was sold for parts.[8]

Promenades Cathédrale[edit]

Christ Church Cathedral at night.

In the 1980s, a vast real estate project was undertaken below the cathedral. The project consisted of a 34-floor skyscraper, Tour KPMG built north of the Cathedral, underground parking, and two levels of retail stores situated beneath the cathedral. For a period in 1987, the Cathedral was supported on stilts while footings for the underground mall, Promenades Cathédrale, were excavated. This project allowed for the linkage of the eastern and western branches of Montreal's underground city, connecting Eaton's (now Les Ailes de la Mode) and The Bay.

Canadian Grenadier Guards[edit]

Christ Church Cathedral is the regimental church of the Canadian Grenadier Guards. The guards maintain their traditional ties with the church, as the well as to McGill University, by marching from the Arts Building on campus, to the cathedral, annually in commemoration of Remembrance Day. The cathedral also houses the guards' retired regimental colours.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Christ Church Cathedral". Directory of Designations of National Historic Significance of Canada. Parks Canada. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  2. ^ Christ Church Cathedral. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  3. ^ "Christ Church buildings". Our History. Christ Church Cathedral (Montreal). 2009-02-07. Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c "FAQs and Urban Myths". Our History. Christ Church Cathedral. 2008-09-08. Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  5. ^ "Sir Andrew Thomas Taylor". Biographic Dictionary of Architects in Canada 1800-1950. Retrieved 2013-03-19. 
  6. ^ "Guided tour". Our History. Christ Church Cathedral. 2009-04-03. Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  7. ^ "George Allen Roaa". Biographic Dictionary of Architects in Canada 1800-1950. Retrieved 2013-03-19. 
  8. ^ "Christ Church Anglican Cathedral". uquebec.ca. Retrieved 2013-03-19. 

Further reading[edit]

  • (French) Commission des biens culturels, Les chemins de la mémoire, Monuments et sites historiques du Québec, Vol. II, Les Publications du Québec, Québec, 1991, pp. 81–83.

External links[edit]