Christiaan Lindemans

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Christiaan Lindemans
Lindemans.jpg
Born (1912-10-24)24 October 1912
Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Died 18 July 1946(1946-07-18) (aged 33)
Scheveningen, The Netherlands
Cause of death
Suicide
Nationality Dutch
Occupation Motor engineer, double agent
Spouse(s) Gilberte Yvonne Lindemans nee Letuppe (m. 1941)
Children 2

Christiaan Antonius Lindemans (Rotterdam, 24 October 1912 – Scheveningen, 18 July 1946), the fourth son of Joseph hendrik Lindemans and Christina Antonia Van Uden, was a Dutch double agent during the Second World War. He is better known under his nickname "King Kong" or in some circles as "le Tueur" (the Killer) as he undertook missions to kill[1] and ready to shoot at the slightest provocation.

He is blamed[2][3] for betraying the plans of Operation Market Garden to the enemy and as a result caused the Allies defeat at the battle of Arnhem in 1944, the loss of the battle prolonged the war by 6 months, allowing the Russian Red Army to enter Berlin first.[4]

Krist, as he was called by his comrades, had worked for the Allies with great bravery, being personally responsible for the death of at least of twenty-seven Germans during the guerrilla war in the outskirts of Antwerp. His love for women and gambling was limitless, he didn't know the meaning of fear; unfortunately neither did he know the meaning of loyalty.[5]

Biography[edit]

Before the outbreak of the Second World War, Lindemans worked alongside his brother Jan as a mechanic at his father's garage in Rotterdam. In the summer of 1936, he was injured in a motorcycle accident sustaining a cracked skull and injuries to his left arm and leg which left him walking with a lumbering, simian-like, gait[6](described by some as a slight limp and a deformed hand). Tall and heavily built (6 ft 3 and 260 lbs), he was nicknamed King Kong (name given to him by his rowing trainer), he spoke French and German well and some English. By his own account, Lindemans started to work as an informant for the British secrets service since the spring of 1940, relaying shipping movements to London. In August of the same year, he found a job as lorry driver on the Lille to Paris route carrying petrol for the German air forces. While living at Lille, and through his girlfriend (who later became his wife), he became involved with the resistance sometime in 1941. Lindemans was arrested in Abbeville in December 1942 after being denounced while working for the resistance and imprisoned by the Germans for five months. He was the only one of his organization (Lindemans's escape line) imprisoned .

By 1943, his popularity as one of the leaders of the Dutch resistance was its highest. He had begun collecting jewels and other valuables from rich women to provide fighting funds for the underground "escape route" through occupied Belgium and the Netherlands into Spain and Portugal.

Lindemans served as a contact with resistance movements, some with Communist tendencies such as the RVV (Raad van Verzet or Council of Resistance, the RVV was engaged in both communications sabotage and protection of onderduikers or people in hiding[7]), the CS VI group of Amsterdam (a clandestine sabotage and intelligence organisation, one of its members was Dutch officer Captain Kas de Graaf[8][n 1]), the Trouw (Fidelity), the Het Parool (The spoken Word), the Dutch-Paris escape line run by John Henry Weidner[9] and for evasion networks within the jurisdisdiction of MI9.[10] Lindemans was a member of one of the twelve recognised units of the Belgian underground army called Les Affranchis (The Liberated, ranked twelve,[11] founded by Camille Tromme), allowing him to remain in possession of a machine gun and a revolver.

In February 1944 his younger brother Henk was arrested in Rotterdam and held captive at The Hague, awaiting execution for helping English people to escape from the Netherlands. Followed on 24 February[12] by his wife who was then 3 months pregnant, expecting her second child, a French cabaret singer who worked for the French Resistance named Gilberte Letuppe (she had previously worked as an ambulance driver for the French Red Cross) nicknamed Gilou Lelup at Hotel Montholon (included in the arrests, Victor Vic Swane, Head of an escape network, Swane was deported to Buchenwald concentration camp where he died on 12 October 1944, Lindemans's wife, a member of Swane's organisation, operated under the aliases Anna Van Vredenburgh and Yvonne) in Paris, the arrest was made by two members of the Gestapo assisted by four German soldiers heavily armed. They searched her bag and her room and found three ID cards, some Kommandantur signatures, pass and some German employment permits, all stolen the previous day, in addition to the items discovered, three revolvers and a box of ammunitions, all to be hand over to a French resistance movement in Bordeaux (Lindemans was there at the time of his wife's arrest).

Letuppe was taken prisonner and interrogated for eleven hours that day, she was beating with such force in the face, she fell from her chair but she refused to speak. She was therefore taken to Fresnes Prison, south of Paris where she was jailed, manacled hand and foot with no food and water or a bed for four days. She was questionned violently a couple of times (twenty-four), beaten in the face at each occasions. Because of her mustism, she spend the next six months in Solitary confinement.

She is registered,[13] at the beginning of August, to be the last woman admitted to Fort de Romainville, a stop before deportation. Her file numbered 6 862 described her being born on 15 September 1922 and nine months pregnant (9 Monat schwanger). But, instead, being among the prisonners aboard the last convoy[n 2] (I.264, 15 August 1944) of deportees from Paris (quai des bestiaux, gare de Pantin) to Germany and alike some of her fellow inmates who were unable to travel, she was evacuated from the Fort of Romainville on 17 August to a local Hospice in Saint-Denis where she gave birth on 25 August to her second child, a daughter named Christianne.

Her testimony was later written down by the Allied Information Service (AIS)-SHAEF[n 3] and used as evidence in the Nuremberg trials.

By March 1944, he was able to initiate contact[n 4] with Abwehr[n 5] , operatives in Brussels, due to his inabily to pay 10,000 Florins asked by the first intermediary agent in exchange for their freedom, Lindemans agreed to meet Dr. Gerhard sometimes called Dr. German (pseudonym for Hermann Giskes who had run the successful Operation North Pole) in a villa outside Brussels and agrees to become a double agent[n 6] on condition that his wife and brother were released.[15]

From here on, Lindemans (Abwehr codenamed CC) was instructed to renew contact with resistance agents and transmit back to Major Hermann Giskes[n 7] information about the resistance movement in the occupied Netherlands, France and Belgium in return he received large sums of money, in the wake of D-Day's landings, lindemans said to have visited the British sector of the Normandy Beachhead,[16] he succeeded in getting himself recruiting by IS 9 (Intelligence School 9 aka Nine Eyes[17]) Western Europe Area, an Anglo-American[18] secret agency which worked under MI9,[19] by the end of September 1944[n 8], he was a member of Prince Bernhard's staff[n 9] and was appointed to the position of liaison officer (with temporary rank of Captain in the Netherlands Forces of the Interior) between Dutch resistance and a British Intelligence unit commanded by a Canadian officer.[n 10]

The true nature of Lindemans's mission could have been an assassination attempt against Prince Bernhard but according to Bernhard's biographer that was not his orders, Lindemans was to spy on Prince Bernhard's HQ and find out who was the primary source of intelligence (contacts in the Dutch resistance, radio operators and other suppliers of information).[25]

September 1944[edit]

On 3 September 1944, Giskes left Brussels (en route to his next assignment in Bonn, Giskes' FAK 307 was now attached to Army Group B) and instructed Lindemans to stay in Belgium and make contact with Anglo-Canadian intelligence, he was to offer himself as an agent, the mission was to find out what plans Canadian Intelligence[n 11] had made for the Netherlands and as soon as possible cross the lines with that information, in that case he was to use a secret code to get past German sentries.

On 4 September 1944, Captain Peter Baker of IS 9 of the D group (Western Europe Area) and assigned to SHAEF G-2 divison, arrived in Brussels (office at the Hotel Metropole) on his way to the newly liberated Antwerp in search of a Dutchman who would be able to go through the lines and to contact Allied airmen hiding in the southern part of the Netherlands (Allied pilots were to stay put as the Allied amies were preparing to move toward Eindhoven[26]).

An Armée secrète ‘s operative named Urbain Renniers[n 12] recommended Lindemans to the job, before sending him out, Baker made a few enquiries, he then went to the 21st Army Group's[n 13] headquarters which in turn contacted Prince Bernhard’s staff, on SHAEF Special Forces Captain de Graaf’s recommendation, Prince Bernhard notifiy Baker that Lindemans could be trusted, accordingly special priority clearance was granted and an IS 9 pass under the name of Christiaan Brand was issued.

Lindemans, operating under the alias of “De Vries” given to him by Baker, in order to protect his idendity had now joined The Buccaneers[n 14], Baker's private army, the Jolly Roger was the unit Battle standard.[28] It is noteworthy that the De Vries alias was also used by another Abwehr agent, Antonie Damen, Lindemans was required to perform the role of Baker's Chauffeur. The Baker mission begin on 12–3 September from the Belgium town of Diest.

On the night of 14 September[n 15], Captain Baker conducted Lindemans and a Belgian named Lucien de Ness to Hechtel-Eksel near Berigen (location of Capt Baker HQ, the British intended to drive on Eindhoven with 300 tanks from the bridgehead near Berigen). For the most part of his journey, Lindemans was escorted by a patrol of fourteen British soldiers under the authority of Major Ross (pseudonym for a British officer), in full British battle dress uniform he crossed the frontlines (Valkenswaard) through a hail of shells, the Belgian was seriously wounded and taken to a German field Hospital, he died shortly after and for Lindemans he had rendezvous with the German HQs in the Netherlands. Lindemans first met with German Luftwaffe general Kurt Student in Vught[31][n 16] and then escorted to Driebergen by Giskes's right-hand man, Abwehr agent Richard Christmann[38] (1905–1989) who had been detached from FAK 307 to FAT 365 in the upcoming meeting with Lindemans. The latter was driven back to the region of Eindhoven on 16 September by agent Christmann (codenamed Arnaud).[n 17]

Alongside his BBO assignement Lindemans had received a Dutch BI (bureau of information, The Dutch exile government's intelligence service and MI-6 counterpart[39]) order, once in Eindhoven he was to tell resistance fighters at The Philips Company also known as Eindhoven Philips[n 18], that they should hold back information on the development of V-2 rocket and a cyclotron[n 19] until the Allies reached them unless they considered it to be a strategic imperative. In that case they were to hand their intelligence to Lindemans on his way back through the lines[41] and to prevent the Germans of committing acts of sabotage against the Philips's factories.

Possibly part of the Melanie Mission[n 20], a joint operation between the Office of Strategic Services and the BI,[42] the Melanie Mission was to collect military, economic and industrial intelligence.[43]

Saturday 16 September, he went for the safe house of resistant police officer Inspector Kooy, his address had been given to Lindemans via Baker by Dutch intelligence liaison officers. Kooy started to suspect Lindemans, he had him searched and when a copy of the Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden and a pass signed by Major Ernest Kiesewetter, head of FAT[n 21] 365 in Driebergen (Giskes's subordinate and successor) were discovered in his pocket, Lindemans answered that he had picked up the paper on the road and the pass was forged, Kooy had him locked him up in a coal cellar near the police station .

Lindemans was released on Tuesday, 19 September, one day after the Allies entered Eindhoven[n 22] by Baker who was absolutely furious that one of his best agents was detained, Kooy produced the items discovered, Baker's reply that the newspaper meant nothing and the pass was a fake. On 23 September, Lindemans was debriefed and cleared of any suspicion by Captain de Graff.[45] (A coded telegram was sent to the BI HQ in London noting that Lindemans was all right[46])

Tactical advantage[edit]

Since the war various authors have speculated that Lindemans' information led Field Marshal Model (The Talefberg Hotel was Model's Tactical HQ in Oosterbeek in the neighbouring of Arnhem and the Hartenstein Hotel was used as the German Officers' Mess. Model moved to Oosterbeek on 11 September.) to reposition the II SS Panzer Corps (commanded by General Bittrich whose headquarters was in Doetinchem 15 miles east of Arnhem.) under the cover of darkness to positions overlooking likely Airborne targets, mainly bridgeheads, near Arnhem[47] and for the troops, they were camping in the nearby forests waiting for the Allied airdrop to begin.

According to Lindemans, the Allies wanted to attack Eindhoven.[48] More specifically, Lindemans' information stated that the Allied attack would be north of Eindhoven and would consist of Airborne troops eventually backstopped by Allied armor.[49]

Lindemans's intel (report dated 22 August) was incomplete but enough to let the German High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) to pinpoint some of the enemy targets, likely bridges at Grave, Nijmegen and Arnhem, the last-mentioned was brought forward in Lindeman's report. Early September, Model who had the task to defend a line running from the North Sea to the Swiss border (500 miles), had ordered the 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen and the 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg to the neighborhood of Arnhem for refitting and upgrading under the direction of Bittrich who would set up his command post in the area in preparation for the upcoming Allied invasion of Germany in reaction to the V-2 campaign. Lindemans' second report (dated 15 September) was made into two summaries (general information and prospective aerial landings), enabled the Germans to send further reinforcements made of auxiliary units in the Arnem and Nijmegen area.

The limited availability of German jet planes, most of the Me 262 were grounded due to the lack of adequate fuel, made impossible the full use of Lindemans's intelligence on the position of Eisenhower's HQ and the whereabouts of Allied battle tanks.

It should be noted that Allied aircraft reconnaissance were used on the 11 and on the 16 September but not on the 15th due to bad weather, nothing critical was detected.[50]

Capture and death[edit]

On 26 October 1944, Lindemans was denounced as a German spy by a fellow Abwehr agent named Cornelis Johannes Antonius Verloop[n 23] nicknamed Satan Face (Abwehr codenamed Nelis), a recipient of the German Cross in Gold. Verloop claimed[n 24] that Lindemans had betrayed Operation Market Garden to intelligence officer Kiesewetter on Friday, 15 September at the Abwehr station in Driebergen. "King Kong" was arrested on the afternoon of 28 October 1944 at Prince Bernhard's headquarters located at Château de La Fougeraie also known as Château Wittouck in Uccle outside Brussels and after five days in St-Gilles-Prison, Brussels, Lindemans was transferred to Camp 020 (A maximum-security prison), placed under the command of Lieutenant colonel R.W.G .Stephens nicknamed Tin Eye.

Following an intense two-week interrogation by MI5 agents, Lindemans had several epileptic fits and consequently, he made a full and detailed confession[n 25] and contrary to initial findings compelled by Camp 020 officers that they were unable to report what intel[n 26]Lindemans has transmitted to the enemy, Colonel Stevens recommended that Lindemans should receive the death sentence. Lindemans questioning at Camp 020 had revealed that he had general knowledge on some of Nazi Germany top-secret weapons including the V-2 program and the existence of an atomic bomb which burns and destroys everything within a radius of 500 yards, he also disclosed that Giskes was a personal friend[58] of Hitler. He was then returned to Dutch custody (7 Dec 1944) where he was jailed in Breda[n 27] Prison up to March 1945 and in Scheveningen until summer 1946.

Oreste Pinto[n 28] did visited Lindemans at least once, the very muscular and keen boxer nicknamed "King Kong" was now the shadow of his former self,[n 29] the two men looked at each other, Lindemans could only say those words, Is there no mercy ?,[62] Pinto didn’t reply only to disappear in the mist of Scheveningen Prison. He allegedly committed suicide by swallowing 80 aspirin[n 30] in a psychiatric ward[n 31]before his case could be heard.

Body exhumed[edit]

On Tuesday, 17 June 1986[n 32], Dutch pathologist Martin Voortman positively identified a skeleton exhumed as that of Christiaan Lindemans, according to Voortman, the skeleton had an irregularly healed break in its left ankle, corresponding to Lindemans' medical records. The body[n 33] was recovered[n 34]at dawn the same day from Rotterdam Crooswijk cemetery from a coffin sandwiched between those of Lindemans's parents.[68]

Hendrik (Henk) Lindemans witnessed the exhumation of his brother's body, states that he was convinced that the remains were those of his brother.

In 1997, Lindemans' suicide note surfaced and had provided satisfactory evidence that Lindemans took his own life.[69]

Prison, rumours and escape[edit]

According to British officer Capt Baker's own recollections of events, Lindemans was kept at the Tower of London, he was later executed for treason.[70]

In the summer of 1946, a Dutch newspaper published an article on a prison break which occurred at Scheveningen Prison, three men being held at the camp for political delinquents escaped, one of the escapees was the notorious Christiaan Lindemans, the mysterious Tower of London prisoner, a previous escape attempt by Lindemans from the same place had been thwarted.,[71] he may have been allowed to escape[72] to South America[73] after a body-swap.[74][75]

Prince Bernhard impersonation[edit]

On the eve of the liberation of Eindhoven, preceded by Sherman Tanks, Baker entered the town of Valkenswaard, accompanied by Charles Muller[n 35], a French officer, the two mens were driven through the town in an impressive black Cadillac limousine, quickly attracting devoted followers.With his horn rimmed spectacles and his London-tailored uniform, Baker bore an uncanny resemblance to Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and as expected, a large and enthusiastic crowd started to cheer at Baker who politely replied waving his hands in royal manner.At the end, Baker had to take refuge at the Irish Guards’s HQ at Aalst near Eindhoven where some British and American journalists were waiting to interview the Commander-in-Chief of the Dutch Forces.

Baker acknowledged in his memoirs that pictures were taken that day.[76] It is possible that the enduring myth that Lindemans and Prince Bernhard were acquainted before Operation Market-Garden started found its origin in the Baker-Lindemans connection.

Russian Syndicate[edit]

In April 1946, Lindemans's wife visited the Soviet Embassy [77] in Rotterdam, at least on three occasions. The British Intelligence Service took the matter seriously and intervene with help of one of their agent inside Scheveningen Prison to get through to Lindemans, in exchange for his wife’s safety, he agreed to share informations on a Russian organisation who have ties with senior members of France, Germany and the Netherlands Armed forces and civilian administrations. This organisation is said to be all over the Netherlands territory and actively try to absorb all Dutchmen who served in the SS during the war, had taken into custody German engineers who had worked on the German atomic project and exfiltrated them to the Soviet Union, the same group had now spread to Persia, possibly threatening British interests.

The same mysterious organisation might have been involved in Verloop breaking out of Scheveningen Prison (1946). Verloop was regarded by the British as one of the most dangerous German spy who worked in the Netherlands, he was last seen in 1949. Lindemans was believed to know where Verloop was hiding.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In the fall of 1943, Lindemans helped De Graaf escape from the Netherlands en route to London (Jan 1944). The De Graff-Lindemans connection went under scrutiny during Lindemans imprisonment at Camp 020.
  2. ^ Letuppe was to be deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp, branded with the following number 57584.
  3. ^ Incorrectly written Sindemans instead of Lindemans.
  4. ^ There are different versions of the same story, Lindemans and Verloop.
  5. ^ Abwehr III West section Northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands was renamed FAK 307 and headed by Giskes (March 1944), FAK (Front-Aufklärungs-Kommando or Front Intelligence Units) 307 was under the authority of Colonel Oscar Reile.
  6. ^ Lindemans was known to the German Intelligence Service by either Christiaan Brand[14] or by his real name. The Brand name was given to him in early of 1944 by a Dutch resistance group.
  7. ^ After the war, Giskes was recruited by the Gehlen Organization.
  8. ^ 23 September,[20] date of the first meeting between Lindemans and Prince Bernhard at Chateau Wittouck.Half of Chateau Wittouck was occupied By Prince Bernhard's staff and the other half by the 1st Canadian Army.[21]
  9. ^ 20 September, date of Lindemans's first visit to Prince Bernahrd's HQ.[22]
  10. ^ Lindemans was assigned to a junior Canadian officer by Lieutenant-Colonel Maurice Louis De Rome, OBE, ED, of the Royal 22nd Regiment and Special Forces Detachments (SFD) attached to the 1st Canadian Army. In 1945, De Rome was appointed special military adviser to the Netherlands Army and to his H.R.H. Prince Bernhard, in July 1948, he was promoted to chief of staff,[23] Quebec Army Command with HQ in Montreal. De Rome[24] alongside RN officer Philip Johns (Within Two Cloaks) who was then head of SOE's branch in the Low Countries accompanied Intelligence Corps officer Peter Baker to his first meeting with Lindemans.
  11. ^ Lindemans was to find out the status of the Belgian resistance in the forthcoming of an Allied attack and Allied plans for infiltrating agents behind German lines.
  12. ^ Renniers codenamed Reaumur,[27] was an Engineering officer of the Belgian Army and became one the leaders of the Belgian secret Army in Antwerp, he provided Lindemans with a written statement for his bravery exibited during the liberation of Antwerp. Renniers played a key role in insuring that the Port of Antwerp was intact upon arrival of the Allies.
  13. ^ IS 9 (WEA) was attached to the intelligence staff of Montgomery's 21 Army.
  14. ^ Inspired by The Pirates of Penzance.
  15. ^ There is some confusion about the exact date and area of Lindemans crossing into enemy lines, Langley mentioned the event in his wartime memoir he co-wrote with British historian M. R. D. Foot as taking place 4 days before Operation Market-Garden started, setting the occurrence a day earlier, on the 13 September before midnight and the crossing point being described as near Eindhoven[29] and not Berigen as it is officially recorded. Langley states it was Lindemans's call and other sources says the order came from 1st Canadian Army's HQ, Lindemans's assignment under Canadian arrangement was to gather the resistance to linkup in the imminent Operation market-Garden. Lanley claimed that before given green light, Pinto had warned[30] him that Lindemans was a possible German spy.
  16. ^ Student denied that he ever met Lindemans.[32] On 17 September, Luftwaffe's Flack (Fliegerabwehrkanone, stands for anti-aircraft guns) had reportedly shot down a glider (British[33] or American[34][35]) near the First Parachute Army's command post,[36] among its cargo, details of Operation Market-Garden were discovered by a Feldwebel and brought immediately to the attention of Student.[37]
  17. ^ Holder of the War Merit Cross, first class, Christmann was instrumental in the success of Operation North Pole, by October 1944, he was in charge of protecting the V-2 Bases. Christmann was like Major Giskes recruited into the Gehlen Organization
  18. ^ From 1934 to 1944 at least, the Philips laboratories had an extensive atomic research program.[40]
  19. ^ Commissioned by the Reich Postal Office for its laboratory in Miersdorf near Zeuthen. The RPM was headed by Wilhelm Ohnesorge.
  20. ^ The Melanie Mission reached Eindhoven on 21 September 1944. Baker had written in his memoirs that he was to meet in Eindhoven with some men (an unidentified party).
  21. ^ Front-Aufklärungs-Truppe
  22. ^ Baker expressed admiration for Lindeman's courageous and devoted conduct displayed after his release.[44]
  23. ^ Born in 1909 in The Hague.Verloop joined the French Foreign Legion in 1935, he deserted to join the Abweher as an active intelligence operative, he was involved in the mock arrest of British traitor Harold Cole (December 1941). He was the one who put Lindemans in touch with Giskes, Verloop crossed into the liberated section of North Brabant on Abwehr instructions[51] to discover the whereabouts of Abwher agent Damen who had not return from previous mission.
  24. ^ Verloop was questioned by Dutch counterintelligence officer Oreste Pinto, to prove that he could be trusted. Verloop named some members of Pinto's staff including British officer Captain Baker, the intelligence had been passed to him by Kiesewetter.[52]
  25. ^ Lindemans files and confession went missing prior to his death.[53] Lindemans's confession (24 pages) appears to have been made from four reports written down at different times (6 Dec 1944).
  26. ^ An ISOS (Intelligence Services Oliver Strachey) decrypt of a Abwehr signal dated from end of August[54] (22 August[55]) reveals that it contained Lindemans's report to Giskes on a meeting (21 August[56]) between British officers and Dutch resistance representatives. Informations about possible landings of airborne troops in the Meuse area were disclosed, it is unclear in what capacity did Lindemans intend this secret conference and if he used his real name or the Christiaan Brand alias. In Giskes's London Calling North Pole, the event is mentioned taking place on 25 August,[57] the message was transmitted to Abwehr Departement III West (Paris station) who had moved to Sainte-Menehould. However Giskes acknowledged that an attempt was made to check the correctness of Lindemans's report (22 August) proved unsuccesfful.
  27. ^ Pinto was ordered back to SHAEF's HQ to be congratulated on his catch by a Very Important Person with a soft American accent.[59]
  28. ^ Pinto's distrust of Lindemans began with their first encounter which occured in early September 1944 at an Allied detention camp near Antwerp where Pinto was the security officer. Lindemans had two female detainees[60] removed from the camp before they had been cleared for release.
  29. ^ Lindemans was reported suffering from the debilitating effects of partial paralysis, his medical condition featured briefly in a post-war article (statement made by Pinto) published in 1955, in Historia, a French periodical.[61]
  30. ^ Alternatively for meds and cause of death, Luminal,[63] an anti-epileptic drug, he killed himself by hitting his head with a club and next taking arsenic.[64]
  31. ^ Psychatric wing of the Scheveningen prison also known as the Orange Hotel.
  32. ^ Ordered by Rotterdam mayor Bram Peper on a request by resistance veteran, Haarlem city councillor Belinda Thone.[65]
  33. ^ According to Dutch General Practitioner Dr Hans.C Moolenburgh, Lindemans's autopsy revealed unexplained high levels of Arsenic.[66]
  34. ^ Lindemans surviving brother and two daughters witnessed the exhumation.[67]
  35. ^ Muller (maybe a pseudonym), a veteran of the Battle of France was made a Lieutenant in Baker's unit, possibly a member of the Jedburgh teams. Muller remained with Baker until they reached Eindhoven when he was ordered back to France.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Was Arnhem Betrayed ?, by Loe de Jong, article published in Encounter, june 1981
  2. ^ "Spy Catcher", by Oreste Pinto, published by Nelson, 1964, p. 129
  3. ^ "Liddell Hart: 15/15/50", [1947–1951],1957, King's College London, Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives
  4. ^ "Major Problems in American Foreign Relations, Volume II: Since 1914", by Dennis Merrill and Thomas G.Paterson, published by Cengage learning Inc, 7 edition, 2009, p.175
  5. ^ "My Testament", by Capt.Peter Baker,MC, published by John Calder, march 1955, pp. 112–3
  6. ^ "Uncertain Horizons:Canadians and their world in 1945", ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p. 53
  7. ^ Studies in Intelligence, issue 1, published by the U.S Central Intelligence Agency, 1998, p.109
  8. ^ Uncertain horizons:Canadians and their world in 1945, ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p.54
  9. ^ Flee the Captor, by Herbert Ford, published by Review & Herald Publishing 1994, p.243
  10. ^ The Lindemans Affair, by Anne Lambert under the pen name Anne Laurens, published by Allan Wingate, 1971, p.39
  11. ^ The Wiener Library Bulletin, published by Wiener Library 1956, Volume 10, p.9
  12. ^ "Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945-1 October 1946 Documents and other material in evidence, Numbers 257-F to 180-L", vol XXXVII, published at Nuremberg, Germany, 1949, p.298-9
  13. ^ "Les oubliés de Romainville", by Thomas Fontaine, published by Tallandier Editions, 2005, p.92
  14. ^ Camp 20 MI5 and the Nazi spies, introduction by Oliver Hoare, Public Record Office, 2000, p.327
  15. ^ "German Intelligence Agents and Suspected Agents, Christian LINDEMANS, alias Christian BRANT, German codename KING KONG", 1944 Nov 10-1944 Nov 19, Reference KV 2/233, National Archives
  16. ^ To Win the Winter Sky:The Air War Over the Ardennes,1944-1945, by Danny.S Parker, published by Combined Publishing 1999, p.120
  17. ^ Killer Elite, by Michael Smith, published by Weidenfeld and Nicolson 2006
  18. ^ "Saturday at M.I.9 The Classic Account of the WW2 Allied Escape Organisation", by Airey Neave, published by Pen and Sword Military 2010, p.260
  19. ^ Shot Down and on the Run, by Graham Pitchfork, published by Dundurn Group Ltd 2003 p.12
  20. ^ "The Guy Liddell Diaries Vol.II,1942-1945, MI5's Director of Counter-Espionage in World War II", edited by Nigel West, published by Routledge, p. 266
  21. ^ "H. R. H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An Authorized Biography", by Alden Hatch, published by Harrap, London 1962, p.124
  22. ^ "H. R. H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An Authorized Biography", by Alden Hatch, published by Harrap, London 1962, p.115
  23. ^ "The Changing Commonwealth Proceedings of the fourth unofficial Commonwealth Relations Conference held at Bigwin Inn, Ontario, Canada, September 8–18, 1949", by Frederic Hubert Soward, published by Oxford University Press, 1950, p.239
  24. ^ Uncertain horizons:Canadians and their world in 1945, ed by Greg Donaghy, published by Canadian Committee for the History of the Second World War 1997, p.57
  25. ^ "H. R. H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An Authorized Biography", by Alden Hatch, published by Harrap, London 1962, p.116
  26. ^ A Bridge Too Far, by Cornelius Ryan, published by Simon and Schuster, p.155
  27. ^ Battle for Antwerp the liberation of the city and the opening of the Scheldt 1944, by James Louis Moulton, Published by Ian Allan, London 1978, p.18
  28. ^ Confession of Faith, P.131, by Peter Baker published by Falcon Press 1946
  29. ^ MI 9 The British Secret Service that Fostered Escape and Evasion 1939-1945, and Its American Counterpart, by Langley J.M and Foot M.R.D, London 1979, p.222
  30. ^ Fight Another Day, by Langley J.M, published by Collins London 1974, p.222-3.
  31. ^ Les grandes décisions de la deuxiéme Guerre mondiale 1944-1945, by Jacques de Launay, published by Edito-service 1975,volume 3, p.181
  32. ^ A Bridge Too Far, by Cornelius Ryan, published by Simon and Schuster, p.156
  33. ^ Operation Market-Garden Then and Now, edited by Karel Margry, published by After The Battle 2002, Volume 1, p.173.
  34. ^ U.S.A. Airborne 50th Anniversary 1940–1990, by Bart Hagerman, Turner Publishing Company 1990, p.123
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  72. ^ Associated Press, Paul Verschuur, 4 January 1986, Dutch Council Rules On Wartime Spy Case Disclosure
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  75. ^ "Status of Dutch double agent remains mystery". Ottawa Citizen. 14 June 1986. p. 11. 
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