The First Church of Christ, Scientist
|Founder||Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910)|
|Mother Church||The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Back Bay, Boston|
|Key texts||Mary Baker Eddy, Science and Health With Key to the Scriptures and Manual of the Mother Church|
|Membership||100,000 in the United States; 400,000 worldwide, according to the church|
|Key beliefs||Scientific statement of being;
"Basic teachings", Church of Christ, Scientist
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements. It was developed in 19th-century New England by Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910), who argued in her book Science and Health (1875) that sickness is an illusion that can be corrected by prayer alone. The book became Christian Science's central text, along with the Bible, and by 2001 had sold ten million copies in 16 languages.
Eddy and 25 followers were granted a charter in 1879 to found the Church of Christ (Scientist), and in 1894 the religion's Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, was built in Boston, Massachusetts. Christian Science became the fastest growing American religion in the early 20th century, with 270,000 members in that country by 1936, a figure that had declined by the 1990s to just over 100,000. The church is known for its newspaper, the Christian Science Monitor, which won seven Pulitzer Prizes between 1950 and 2002, and for its Reading Rooms, which are open to the public in around 1,200 cities.
Christian Scientists see their religion as consistent with mainstream Christian theology, despite key differences. In particular they subscribe to a radical form of philosophical idealism, believing that reality is purely spiritual and the material world an illusion. This includes the view that disease is a mental error rather than physical disorder, and that the sick should be treated, not by medicine, but by a form of prayer that seeks to correct the beliefs responsible for the illusion of ill health.
The church does not require that Christian Scientists avoid all medicine – adherents use dentists, optometrists, obstetricians, physicians for broken bones, and vaccination when required by law – but maintains that Christian Science prayer is most effective when not combined with medical care. Between the 1880s and 1990s the avoidance of medical treatment was blamed for the deaths of several adherents and their children; parents and others were prosecuted for manslaughter or neglect and in a few cases convicted.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History and development
- 2.1 Birth of the religion
- 2.2 Writing and teaching
- 2.3 Growth
- 2.4 Decline
- 3 Practices and governance
- 4 See also
- 5 Sources
- 6 Further reading
|Part of a series of articles on|
|Part of a series of articles on|
The period of Protestant Christian revival known as the Second Great Awakening (c. 1800–1830) nurtured a proliferation of new religious movements in the United States. These included what came to be known as the metaphysical family: groups such as Christian Science, Divine Science, the Unity School of Christianity and the United Church of Religious Science. From the 1890s the liberal section of the movement was known as New Thought, in part to distinguish it from the more authoritarian Christian Science.
The term metaphysical referred to the movement's philosophical idealism, a belief in the primacy of the mental world (this use of the term is only distantly related to the branch of philosophy known as metaphysics). The movement saw all matter as emanating from an underlying cause or principle of the universe, variously referred to as Divine Mind, Truth, God, Love, Life, Spirit, Principle, reflecting elements of Plato, Hinduism, Berkeley, Swedenborg and transcendentalism. "The universe is mental," according to religious scholar Dell deChant, "or, as most New Thoughters would put it, God is Mind."
Also known as the mind-cure, mental-healing, metaphysical-healing or mental-science movement, the metaphysical groups had a strong focus on healing. William James (1842–1910) called mind cure the "religion of healthy-mindedness." Medical practice, or allopathic medicine as it was known, was in its infancy, often crude and frightening, and patients regularly fared better if left alone. This provided fertile soil for the mind-cure groups, who argued that sickness was simply a failure to connect to Divine Mind, an absence of "right thinking." The movement traced its roots to the father of mental healing, New England clockmaker Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802–1866), whose motto was "the truth is the cure." Mary Baker Eddy was a patient of his and was accused of having founded Christian Science on the basis of one of his unpublished manuscripts.
New Thought and Christian Science adherents saw themselves as representatives of progress and modernity. They differed in that, where New Thought was inclusive, Eddy's philosophy was dogmatic and sectarian; Eddy saw her views as a final revelation. She also differed with her idea of malicious animal magnetism (that people can be harmed by the bad thoughts of others), introducing an element of fear that was absent from the New Thought literature. Most significantly, unlike New Thought, Eddy dismissed the material world as an illusion, rather than as merely subordinate to Mind, leading her to reject the use of medicine, or materia medica, and making Christian Science the most controversial of the metaphysical groups. Reality for Eddy was purely spiritual.
Christian Science theology
Christian Science leaders see their religion as Christian, and reject any identification with the New Thought movement. Eddy was strongly influenced by her Congregationalist upbringing; she regarded Science and Health as an inspired text and second coming, and Christian Science as a return to early Christianity's "lost element of healing." According to the religion's tenets, adherents accept "the inspired Word of the Bible as [their] sufficient guide to eternal Life," and acknowledge one God, "His Son, one Christ," and the Holy Ghost. There are nevertheless key differences between Christian Science theology and that of traditional Christianity. Eddy redefined the Christian vocabulary, leading to very different views of several Christian concepts, including the Trinity, divinity of Jesus, atonement and resurrection.
Eddy saw God not as a person, but as a principle or cause, which she called "Mind, Spirit, Soul, Principle, Life, Truth, Love." At the core of her theology is the view that the spiritual world is entirely good, that the material world (including evil, sickness and death) is an illusion, and that humankind is a perfect idea of Divine Mind. The flaws of what Eddy called "mortal man" are humankind's mistaken view of itself. Despite her view that evil did not exist, an important element of Christian Science theology is that evil thought, which Eddy called malicious animal magnetism, can cause harm, even if the harm is only apparent.
There is no appeal to a personal god in Christian Science prayer. The process involves the Scientist engaging in a silent argument with herself to affirm the unreality of matter, something Christian Science practitioners will do for a fee to address ill health or other problems. In the view of adherents this connects the patient to Divine Mind.
Bryan Wilson writes that Christian Science healing is not curative on its own premises, but is, rather, "preventative of ill health, accident and misfortune, since it claims to lead to a state of consciousness where these things do not exist. What heals is the realization that there is nothing really to heal." It is a closed system of thought, viewed as infallible if performed correctly; healing confirms the power of Truth, but its absence derives from the failure, specifically the bad thoughts, of individuals.
Eddy's theology is nontrinitarian. She distinguished between Jesus the man and the concept of Christ; the latter is a quality rather than an identity, a synonym for Truth, while Jesus was the first person fully to manifest it. Eddy called Jesus a Christian Scientist, a "Way-shower" between humanity and God. His death she regarded as an illusion like any other; a person who seems to die simply moves to another level of consciousness. The crucifixion was not a divine sacrifice for the sins of humanity, the atonement (the forgiveness of sin through Jesus's suffering) "not the bribing of God by offerings," writes Wilson, but an "at-one-ment" with God. The Holy Ghost is Christian Science, and heaven and hell are states of mind.
To the more conservative of the Protestant clergy, Eddy's view of Science and Health as divinely inspired represented a heretical challenge to the Bible's authority. "Eddyism" was regularly referred to as a cult; one of the first uses of the modern sense of the word was in A. H. Barrington's Anti-Christian Cults (1898), a book about Spiritualism, Theosophy and Christian Science. In a few cases Christian Scientists saw themselves expelled from Christian congregations, but ministers also worried that their parishioners were choosing to leave. In May 1885 a Boston correspondent for the London Times described the "Boston mind-cure craze": "Scores of the most valued Church members are joining the Christian Scientist branch of the metaphysical organization, and it has thus far been impossible to check the defection." In 1907 Mark Twain (1835–1910) described the appeal of the new religion:
She has delivered to them a religion which has revolutionized their lives, banished the glooms that shadowed them, and filled them and flooded them with sunshine and gladness and peace; a religion which has no hell; a religion whose heaven is not put off to another time, with a break and a gulf between, but begins here and now, and melts into eternity as fancies of the waking day melt into the dreams of sleep.
They believe it is a Christianity that is in the New Testament; that it has always been there, that in the drift of ages it was lost through disuse and neglect, and that this benefactor has found it and given it back to men, turning the night of life into day, its terrors into myths, its lamentations into songs of emancipation and rejoicing.
History and development
Birth of the religion
Mary Baker Eddy
Mary Baker Eddy in the 1850s, the earliest known photograph of her
|Born||Mary Morse Baker
July 16, 1821
Bow, New Hampshire
December 3, 1910
Mary Baker Eddy was born Mary Morse Baker on a farm in Bow, New Hampshire, the youngest of six children. The family were Protestant Congregationalists, and her father, Mark Baker, was a deeply religious man, though according to one account "Christianity to him was warfare against sin, not a religion of human brotherhood." In common with most women at the time Eddy was given little formal education, but said she read widely at home.
From early childhood she experienced protracted ill health, with conditions she described as chronic indigestion and spinal inflammation, and established a pattern of appearing to be seriously ill, even losing consciousness, then quickly recovering. The literary critic Harold Bloom described her as "a kind of anthology of nineteenth-century nervous ailments." For Christian Scientists this criticism exemplifies what one writer called the "biological rhetoric" that was deployed against women in the 19th century. Eddy was a target, they argue, because she challenged the hegemony of the clergy and medical establishment, two powerful male groups.
Eddy's first husband died shortly before her 23rd birthday, six months after they married and three months before the birth of their son, leaving her penniless; as a result of her poor health she lost custody of the boy when he was four, although sources differ as to whether she could have prevented this. Her second husband, who left her after 13 years of marriage, promised to become the child's legal guardian (per the legal doctrine of coverture, women at that time in the United States could not be their own children's guardians), but it is unclear whether he did, and Eddy lost contact with her son until he was in his thirties. Her third husband, Asa Gilbert Eddy, died five years after they married; she believed he was killed by malicious animal magnetism. Six years later, when she was 67 and apparently in need of loyalty and affection, she legally adopted a 41-year-old homeopath as her second son.
Eddy was by all accounts charismatic: charming and flattering when she needed to be, and able to inspire great loyalty, although Gillian Gill writes that she could also be irrational, capricious and unkind. According to Bryan Wilson, Eddy exemplified the female charismatic leader, and was viewed as the head of the Christian Science church even after her death; he wrote in 1961 that her name – Christian Scientists refer to her respectfully as Mrs. Eddy or "our beloved Leader" – was still included in all articles published in the Christian Science journals.
It was in part because of her unusual personality that Christian Science flourished, despite the numerous disputes she initiated, particularly among her closest followers. "She was like a patch of colour in those gray communities," McClure's wrote, "She never laid aside her regal air; never entered a room or left it like other people." Mark Twain, a prominent critic of hers, described her in 1907 as "vain, untruthful [and] jealous," but "[i]n several ways ... the most interesting woman that ever lived, and the most extraordinary."
Phineas Parkhurst Quimby
Eddy tried every remedy for her ailments, including a three-month stay at the Vail's Hydropathic Institute in Hill, New Hampshire. She told the Boston Post in 1883 that, from 1855 to 1862 (most of her second marriage), she had been effectively confined to her bed or room. In 1862 she heard of "Quimbyism," a healing method developed by Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802–1866), a former clockmaker in Portland, Maine. Styled Dr. P. P. Quimby, "a teacher of the science of health and happiness," his philosophy was "the truth is the cure"; this might consist of shouting at a patient who could not walk, "You can walk!"
Treating people whether or not they could pay, Quimby started practicing his method, at first mesmerism, after attending a lecture in 1837 by French mesmerist Charles Poyen in Belfast, Maine. By 1856 Quimby had 500 patients a year; one estimate has him treating over 12,000 people. Mesmerism was named after Franz Mesmer (1734–1815), a German physician who argued that the universe is filled with a fluid through which bodies exercise influence over other, and that this fluid can be used to heal; he called it animal magnetism. Quimby saw himself as a medium who could change this fluid; he would wet his hands and rub his patients' stomachs or heads.
Quimby abandoned mesmerism around 1847 when he realized that it was suggestion that was effecting the apparent cures. He came to the view was disease was simply a belief, and that Jesus had understood this; when Jesus healed a paralysed arm, he knew, Quimby wrote, "that the arm was not the cause, but the effect; and he addressed himself to the intelligence, and applied his wisdom to the cause." Spiritual or "scientific man" – as the perfect embodiment of Spirit, Wisdom, Principle, Truth, Mind and Science – cannot be sick, he argued, but becomes overwhelmed by the "natural man" of matter and false beliefs. He wrote:
The basis of Dr. Quimby's theory is that there is no intelligence, no power or action in matter of itself, that the spiritual world to which our eyes are closed by ignorance or unbelief is the real world, that in it lie all the causes for every effect visible in the natural world, and that if this spiritual life can be revealed to us, in other words if we can understand ourselves, we shall then have our happiness or misery in our own hands ...
He does not deny that cures ... have taken place under the old belief, but that they were brought about by the inherent efficacy of the medicine itself he does deny.
Stewart W. Holmes writes that this passage was probably the source of Eddy's "scientific statement of being," which she called the "first plank in the platform of Christian Science," in the "Recapitulation" chapter of Science and Health: "There is no life, truth, intelligence, nor substance in matter." Holmes argues that Eddy's omission of two words – "of itself" – from Quimby's "there is no intelligence ... in matter" changed its meaning, leading her to deny that illness existed at all. Quimby maintained that illness did exist, but that it could be healed by the mind.
When Eddy first met Quimby in October 1862 she had to be carried up the stairs to his consulting rooms. She felt better immediately and spoke highly of him the following month in a letter to the Portland Evening Courier: "The truth which he establishes in the patient cures him ... and the body, which is full of light, is no longer in disease." From then until his death in 1866, she returned to see him many times, daily at one point. He began writing his thoughts down around 1859, published posthumously as The Quimby Manuscripts (1921), and was generous in allowing his patients to copy his essays. This became an issue, from the 1880s onwards, when Eddy was accused of having based Christian Science on one of his unpublished manuscripts.
"Fall in Lynn"
Quimby died on January 16, 1866, three months after the death of Eddy's father. She wrote a poem on January 22, "Lines on the Death of Dr. P. P. Quimby, Who Healed with the Truth that Christ Taught, in Contradistinction to All Isms," which was published in a local newspaper. Two weeks later, on February 1, she slipped on ice in Lynn, Massachusetts, injuring her head and neck. She recovered after a few days' bed rest, but five years later attributed her recovery to having read a Bible passage about one of Jesus's healings. Christian Scientists call this the "fall in Lynn" and see it as the birth of their religion. The first time Eddy published a link between the fall and Christian Science was in 1871 in a letter to a prospective student:
I have demonstrated on myself in an injury occasioned by a fall, that it [her healing method] did for me what surgeons could not do. Dr. Cushing of this city pronounced my injury incurable and that I could not survive three days because of it, when on the third day I rose from my bed and to the utter confusion of all I commenced my usual avocations and notwithstanding displacements, etc., I regained the natural position and functions of the body.
The physician who treated her, Alvin M. Cushing, swore in an affidavit in 1907 that the injury had not been a serious one, that he had not told Eddy otherwise, and that she had responded to morphine and a homeopathic remedy (arnica); she had not said anything to him about a miraculous healing.
The degree to which she considered herself healed at the time is disputed. Two weeks after the accident she wrote to Julius Dresser (1838–1893), another patient of Quimby's. She asked him to "step forward into the place [Quimby had] vacated," explaining that she had awoken after the fall to find herself "the helpless cripple I was before I saw Dr. Quimby," and hoping he would treat her. Dresser replied that it would be more beneficial to teach Quimby's method than to practice it.
In June 1866 she again suggested that she had not recovered; the Mayor of Lynn told the city Eddy had sent them a letter "in which she states that owing to the unsafe condition of [the streets] ... she slipped and fell, causing serious personal injuries, from which she has little prospect of recovering, and asking for pecuniary recompense for the injuries received." In February 1867 Eddy and her husband, Daniel Patterson, a dentist, filed a lawsuit against the city to recover damages.
In her autobiography, Retrospection and Introspection (1891), Eddy was clear about attributing the discovery of Christian Science to the fall in Lynn in 1866. But in the first edition of Science and Health (1875), she wrote that she had discovered it in 1864, and in 1883 told the Boston Post that it was in 1853. Elsewhere in the first edition she attributed it to her struggle with indigestion as a child. Eddy offered more than one version of this. In the first edition she wrote that she had spent years of her youth following the Graham diet: a once-a-day helping of vegetables and bread. She continued: "After years of suffering ... our eyes were suddenly opened, and we learned suffering is self-imposed, a belief, and not truth." In later editions, when the fall in Lynn took precedence, she attributed the indigestion to a woman she had known and offered its disappearance as the result of Christian Science prayer. In the final edition she wrote that it had happened to a man she had known.
Writing and teaching
Teaching Sally Wentworth
Eddy and her husband, then married for 13 years, experienced a period of poverty in early 1866, and in March moved into an unfurnished room in Lynn, for $1.50 a week, in a house owned by the Reverend Philemon R. Russell. At some point her husband left and Eddy was evicted, unable to pay the rent. He appears to have returned briefly – they moved to a boarding house in July, and in August he paid Dr. Cushing's bill from the fall – but the marriage was over. He sent her $200 a year for a time, and they divorced in 1873.
Eddy moved between friends' homes and boarding houses, teaching Quimby's healing method in lieu of rent, parting company with her hosts over money and what several said was an imperious attitude. In June and July 1868 she advertised for students, as Mary B. Glover (her first husband's surname) in a Spiritualist magazine, the Banner of Light, promising a "principle of science" that would heal with "[n]o medicine, electricity, physiology or hygiene required for unparalleled success in the most difficult cases."
That year Sally Wentworth, a Spiritualist in Stoughton, offered Eddy bed, board and $300 if Eddy would treat her daughter's lung condition and teach Wentworth Quimby's healing method. Eddy stayed there for two years, teaching Wentworth with a manuscript called Questions and Answers that Eddy acknowledged was Quimby's. It was Eddy's use of this manuscript that led to allegations years later that Christian Science was based on Quimby's work.
At this time Eddy was calling the healing method Moral Science. Her later names for it included Divine Science, Metaphysical Science, Metaphysical Healing, the Christ-cure, the Truth-cure and Christian Science. Quimby had referred to the idea of "Christian science" in his essay Aristocracy and Democracy (1863).  She may also have found the phrase in The Elements of Christian Science (1850) by William Adams, and in The Early Years of Christianity (1870) by Edmond de Pressensé. Copies of both were in her library, and she had underlined a passage in de Pressensé's book about primitive Christianity and Christian science.
Moral Science practice in Lynn
Eddy was asked to leave the Wentworths' in early 1870; they fell out over her request that they pay a printer $600 to publish a book she was writing, possibly called The Bible in its Spiritual Meaning. She went to stay with another friend in Amesbury and resumed contact with Richard Kennedy, a fellow lodger she had met there two years earlier, when he was a teenager working in a box factory. He had been one of her earliest students and she now asked him to join her in opening a Moral Science practice in Lynn. The idea was that he would see patients and she would teach (she would later accuse him of using mesmerism against her).
Kennedy leased rooms in Lynn in June 1870 and placed a sign in the yard, "Dr. Kennedy"; he was 21 and Eddy was 49. He agreed to pay her $1,000 for the previous two years' tuition. The practice became popular; McClure's wrote that people would say: "Go to Dr. Kennedy. He can't hurt you, even if he doesn't help you."
Lynn was a center of the shoe industry and most of Eddy's students were factory workers. She charged $100, raised a few weeks later to $300, for a three-week, 12-lesson course. Eddy based the lessons on a revised version of the Questions and Answers manuscript that she had used with Sally Wentworth, which she now called The Science of Man, by which the sick are healed, Embracing Questions and Answers in Moral Science. It began with, "What is God?" The answer was "Principle, wisdom, love, and truth." She also used three shorter manuscripts, The Soul's Inquiry of Man, Spiritualism and Individuality. Two books that may have influenced her at the time were The Mental Cure (1869) and Mental Medicine (1872), both by Warren Felt Evans (1817–1889), a Swedenborgian minister who had been a patient of Quimby's.
The students were allowed to make copies of the manuscripts, but were forbidden, under a $3,000 bond, from showing them to anyone. They agreed to pay Eddy 10 percent annually of any income derived from her work, and $1,000 if they failed to practice or teach it.
Eddy taught the students to rub their patients' heads, to "lay [their] hands where the belief is to rub it out forever." Before each class Kennedy would manipulate the students' heads and solar plexus in preparation. The head rubbing with wet hands was abandoned when the women complained about having to take their hair down; the stomach rubbing held no appeal for them either. Eventually Eddy told the students to ignore that part of the manuscript, and from then on Christian Science healing did not involve touching patients.
In 1879 Eddy sued two of the students (unsuccessfully) for royalties from their practices. They testified that she had claimed she no longer needed to eat and had seen the dead raised; Eddy told the judge she meant she had "seen the dead in understanding raised."
Mary B. Glover's Christian Scientists' Home
Kennedy decided toward the end of 1871 to end his business partnership with Eddy. She had accused him in front of others of cheating at cards; it was one of several scenes she had caused between them and he walked out on her, ignoring one of her fainting spells.  There was a temporary reconciliation, but he was unhappy about the abandonment of head rubbing, and after a dispute between Eddy and a student over a refund was played out in the local press, he decided to go his own way.
Once Kennedy and Eddy had settled their financial affairs in May 1872, she was left with $6,000. Peel writes that at this point she had already completed 60 pages of Science and Health. She again moved between boarding houses and the homes of friends, and was renting rooms in Lynn at 9 Broad Street, when 8 Broad Street came on the market. She purchased it in March 1875 for $5,650, taking in students to pay the mortgage. It was in the attic room of this house that she completed Science and Health.
Shortly after moving in, Eddy became close to another student, Daniel Spofford. He was 33 years old and married when he joined her class (his wife had taken it years earlier); he ended up leaving his wife in the hope that he might marry Eddy, but his feelings were not reciprocated. Spofford and seven other students agreed to form an association that would pay Eddy a certain amount a week for one year if she would preach to them every Sunday. They called themselves the Christian Scientists Association. Spofford would later find himself the object of Eddy's fury: expelled from the association, sued for engaging in mental malpractice, and allegedly targeted for murder by Eddy's third husband (a claim that remained unproven).
Eddy placed a sign on 8 Broad Street, Mary B. Glover's Christian Scientists' Home. According to Willa Cather and Georgine Milmine, there was a regular turnover of tenants and domestic staff, whom Eddy accused of stealing from the house; she blamed Richard Kennedy for using mesmerism to turn people against her. According to Peel, there was gossip about the attractive woman, the men who came and went, and whether she was engaged in witchcraft. She was hurt, he wrote, but made light of it: "Of course I believe in free love; I love everyone."
Science and Health
Eddy copyrighted her book, then called The Science of Life, in July 1874. Three of her students, George Barry, Elizabeth Newhall and Daniel Spofford, paid a printer $2,000, and it was published by the Christian Science Publishing Company on October 30, 1875, as Science and Health, with eight chapters and 456 pages. (Barry ended up suing Eddy for, among other things, payment for his work on the manuscript.)
The book was positively received by Amos Bronson Alcott (1799–1888), who wrote to Eddy that she had "reaffirm[ed] in modern phrase the Christian revelations," and that he was pleased it had been written by a woman. In 1999 Martin Gardner (1914–2010) called it a "chaotic patchwork of repetitious, poorly paragraphed topics," full of spelling, punctuation and grammatical mistakes.
Eddy added Key to the Scriptures to the sixth edition in 1884, and for the 16th edition in 1886 hired an editor, James Henry Wiggin (1836–1900), a Unitarian clergyman. Gottschalk writes that one of Christian Science's most controversial questions is how much Wiggin contributed. Eddy's personal assistant, Calvin Frye (1845–1917), first contacted Wiggin in August 1885; Wiggin told his literary executor (who made this public after Wiggin's death) that he had been surprised by the mistakes, contradictions and untidy structure in Science and Health, so he rewrote it. He removed some contradictions, reduced the 47-page demonology chapter, added some Greek, Latin and Sanskrit, and wrote a new chapter, though it did not survive to the final edition. Robert Peel (1909–1992) wrote that Wiggin "toned up" Eddy's style, but did not affect her thinking. Twenty-two editions were published between 1886 and 1888.
Eddy revised the book until her death in 1910; the final, 432nd, edition ran to 18 chapters and 600 pages. She encouraged members to buy each major revision, which brought in significant earnings. Other income derived from the sale of rings and brooches, pictures of Eddy, and in 1889 the Mary Baker Eddy souvenir spoon; Eddy asked every Christian Scientist to buy at least one, or a dozen if they could afford to.
When the copyright on Science and Health expired in 1971, the church persuaded Congress to pass a law extending it to 2046; the bill was supported by two of President Nixon's aides, Christian Scientists H.R. Haldeman (1926–1993) and John Ehrlichman (1925–1999). The law was overturned as unconstitutional in 1987, after a challenge by United Christian Scientists, an independent group. By 2001 the book had sold ten million copies and was available in 16 languages and English Braille.
Sickness as error
Science and Health expanded on Eddy's view that sickness was simply a mistaken belief. She wrote that she had personally healed tuberculosis, diphtheria and "at one visit a cancer that had eaten the flesh of the neck and exposed the jugular vein so that it stood out like a cord. I have physically restored sight to the blind, hearing to the deaf, speech to the dumb, and have made the lame walk."
Eddy's views derived in part from having witnessed what was arguably the placebo effect in patients she had treated with homœopathic remedies so diluted they were drinking plain water. She concluded that Divine Mind was the healer. In Science and Health she argued that even naming and reading about disease could turn thoughts into physical symptoms, and that the recording of ages might reduce the human lifespan. To explain how individuals can be harmed by poison without holding any beliefs about it, she referred to the power of majority opinion.
She allowed exceptions from Christian Science prayer, including for dentistry, optometry and broken limbs; she said she had healed broken bones using "mental surgery," but that this skill would be the last to be learned. She herself wore glasses, used morphine, had her third husband treated by a physician, and arranged for an autopsy when he died. But for the most part (then and now), Christian Scientists believe that medicine and Christian Science prayer are incompatible. Medicine asserts that something is broken and needs to be fixed, while Christian Science asserts that spiritual reality is perfect and beliefs to the contrary need to be corrected.
People said that simply reading Science and Health had healed them; cures were claimed for everything from cancer to blindness. Medical lecturer William Purrington argued in his book Christian Science (1900) that the beneficiaries were "hysterical patients, the morbidly introspective, the worriers, the malades imaginaires, the victims of obscure nervous ailments." Richard Cabot (1868–1939) of Harvard Medical School investigated the healing testimonies published by the Christian Science Journal, which Eddy founded in 1883. He wrote in McClure's in 1908 that the claims were based on self-diagnosis or secondhand reports from doctors, and attributed them to the placebo effect.
Rodney Stark argues that a key to Christian Science's appeal in the late-19th and early-20th centuries was that its success rate compared favorably with that of physicians, particularly when it came to women's health issues. Most doctors had not been to medical school, there were no antibiotics and surgical practices were poor. By comparison, the placebo effect (being treated at all, no matter what the treatment was) worked well. Stark writes that the "very elaborate and intensely psychological Christian Science 'treatments' maximize such effects, while having the advantage of not causing further harm."
Malicious animal magnetism
In January 1877 Eddy spurned an approach from Daniel Spofford, and to everyone's surprise married another of her students, Asa Gilbert Eddy (1826–1882). Eddy already believed that her former student Richard Kennedy was plotting against her; weeks after the wedding Spofford was suspected too. She had hinted in October 1876 that he might be a successor; instead he was expelled from the Christian Scientists' Association for "immorality" after quarrelling with her over money. She filed lawsuits against him and others for royalties or unpaid tuition fees. McClure's wrote that Eddy required "absolute and unquestioning conformity" from her students.
The conviction that she was at the center of plots and counter-plots became a feature of Eddy's life. She believed that several students were using what she called "malicious animal magnetism" against her (she also called it malicious mesmerism or mental malpractice). Eddy wrote in earlier editions of Science and Health, for example in 1889, that this was "literally demonology," and that it had gained strength from Christian Science "as if to forestall the power of good." She spoke openly about this, including to the press, despite the ridicule it attracted. "Those of her students who believed in mesmerism were always on their guard with each other, filled with suspicion and distrust," Cather and Milmine wrote. "Those who did not believe in it dared not admit their disbelief."
Witchcraft trial, conspiracy charge
In May 1878 Eddy brought a case against Daniel Spofford, in Salem, Massachusetts, for practicing mesmerism; it came to be known as the second Salem witchcraft trial. The case was filed in the name of a patient of his, Lucretia Brown, who said that Spofford had bewitched her. Eddy appeared in court on Brown's behalf. She arrived with 20 supporters, including Amos Bronson Alcott (a "cloud of witnesses," according to the Boston Globe), but Judge Horace Gray (1828–1902) dismissed the case.
In preparation for the hearing, Eddy organized a 24-hour "watch" at 8 Broad Street, during which she asked 12 students, for two hours each, to think about Spofford and block malicious mesmerism from him. She organized these watches for the rest of her life, calling them "the P. M." (private meeting). Her most trusted students, known as mental or metaphysical workers, were asked to give "adverse treatment" to one of her enemies, often Richard Kennedy, calling him, for example, bilious, consumptive or poisoned by arsenic. According to Adam H. Dickey, her private secretary for the last three years of her life, hour-long meetings were held at least twice a day to address manifestations of mesmerism.
The attempt to have Spofford tried was not the end of the dispute. In October 1878 Eddy's husband and another student, Edward Arens (whom Eddy accused four years later of having killed her husband with mesmerism), were charged with conspiring to murder Spofford. A barman said they had offered him $500 to do it; after a complex series of claims and counter-claims, the charges were dropped when a witness retracted his statement. Eddy attributed the allegation to a plot by former students to undermine sales of the second edition of Science and Health, just published. Her lawyer had to apply for an attachment order against her house to collect his fee.
Establishing the church, move to Boston
On August 23, 1879, 26 members of the Christian Scientists' Association were granted a charter to form the Church of Christ (Scientist). Services were held in people's homes in Lynn, and later in Hawthorne Hall, Boston. On January 31, 1881, Eddy was granted a charter to form the Massachusetts Metaphysical College to teach "pathology, ontology, therapeutics, moral science, metaphysics, and their application to the treatment of disease." The college lived wherever Eddy did; a new sign appeared on 8 Broad Street.
In October 1881 there was a revolt. Eight church members resigned, signing a document complaining of Eddy's "frequent ebullitions of temper, love of money, and the appearance of hypocrisy." Only a few students remained, including Calvin Frye (1845–1917), who became Eddy's most loyal personal assistant. They appointed Eddy pastor of the church in November 1881, and drew up a resolution in February 1882 that she was "the chosen messenger of God to the nations."
Despite the support, the resignations ended Eddy's time in Lynn. The church was struggling and her reputation had been damaged by the disputes. By now 61 years old, she decided to move to Boston, and in early 1882 rented a house at 569 Columbus Avenue, a silver plaque announcing the arrival of the Massachusetts Metaphysical College. Its prospectus, published in 1884, offered three diplomas: Christian Scientist (C.S.) for members of the Christian Scientists' Association; Christian Metaphysician (C.M.), awarded after Eddy's 12-lesson course and three years of practice; and Doctor of Christian Science (D.C.S.), awarded to C.M.s whose "life and character conform to Divine science." Students could study metaphysics, science of the scriptures, mental healing and obstetrics, using two textbooks, Science and Health and the Bible.
Between 1881 and October 1889, when Eddy closed the college, 4,000 students took the 12-lesson course, at $300 per person or married couple, making her a rich woman. Mark Twain wrote that she had turned a sawdust mine (possibly Quimby's) into a Klondike.
Death of Asa Gilbert Eddy, first church building
Eddy's husband, Asa Gilbert Eddy, died of heart disease on June 4, 1882, shortly after the move to Boston. She invited a Boston Globe reporter to her home on the day of his death to allege that her husband had been killed by malicious animal magnetism, courtesy of "certain parties here in Boston, who had sworn to injure them." The Globe wrote:
She had formerly had the same symptoms of arsenical poison herself, and it was some time before she discovered it to be the mesmeric work of an enemy. Soon after her marriage her husband began to manifest the same symptoms and had since shown them from time to time; but was, with her help, always able to overcome them. A few weeks ago she observed that he did not look well, and when questioned he said that he was unable to get the idea of this arsenical poison out of his mind. He had been steadily growing worse ever since, but still had hoped to overcome the trouble until the last. After the death the body had turned black.
A doctor performed an autopsy and showed Eddy her husband's diseased heart, but she responded by giving more interviews about mesmerism. Fraser wrote that the articles made Eddy a household name, a real-life version of the charismatic and beautiful Verena Tarrant in Henry James's The Bostonians (1885–1886), with her interest in spiritualism, women's rights and the mind cure. Shortly after the death, Eddy moved next door to 571 Columbus Avenue with several students. The following year, 1883, she founded the Christian Science Journal (at first called the Journal of Christian Science), which spread news of her ideas across the United States.
In 1885 Eddy was accused of promoting Spiritualism and pantheism by the Reverend Adoniram J. Gordon (1836–1895), in a letter read out by the Reverend Joseph Cook at Tremont Temple in Boston. She demanded a right of reply and was offered ten minutes on March 16. Before a congregation of 3,000, Eddy denied that she was a Spiritualist and said she believed in God as the Supreme Being, Love, divine Principle, Mind. She described Christian Science healing "not [as] one mind acting upon another mind," but as "Christ come to destroy the power of the flesh."
Stephen Gottschalk wrote that the Tremont Temple meeting marked the "emergence of Christian Science into American religious life." The first church building was erected in 1886 in Oconto, Wisconsin, by local women who believed that Christian Science had helped them. The National Christian Scientists' Association was formed the same year. For a down payment of $2,000 and a mortgage of $8,763, the church purchased land in Falmouth Street, Boston, for the erection of a building. Eddy asked Augusta Stetson (1842–1928), a prominent Scientist, to go to New York to establish a church there too. By the end of 1886 Christian Science teaching institutes had sprung up around the United States.
In December 1887 Eddy moved to a $40,000, 20-room house at 385 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston. She had been teaching four to six classes a year, and by 1889 had probably made at least $100,000 (equivalent to $2,625,000 in 2014). By 1890 the Church of Christ (Scientist) had 8,724 members in the United States, having started 11 years earlier with just 26.
Eddy's debt to Quimby
Ernest Sutherland Bates and John V. Dittemore, Bryan Wilson, Charles S. Braden and Martin Gardner list several writers whose words Eddy used without attribution. For example, a section in her Miscellaneous Writings 1883–1896 is almost identical to "The Man of Integrity," an essay by Scottish minister Hugh Blair in Lindley Murray's The English Reader (1799).
Gillian Gill writes that Eddy's debt to Quimby became the single most controversial issue of her life. In her early years she did acknowledge it. When a prospective student asked in 1871 whether her methods had been used before, she replied: "Never advertised, and practiced by only one individual who healed me, Dr. Quimby ... I discovered the art in a moment's time, and he acknowledged it to me; he died shortly after and since then, eight years, I have been founding and demonstrating the science." Later she drew a distinction between their methods, arguing that Quimby's involved one mind healing another, while hers depended on a connection with Divine Mind. She described his influence in 1883 as: "We caught some of his thoughts, and he caught some of ours; and both of us were pleased to say this to each other."
In 1883 one of Quimby's patients, Julius Dresser, accused Eddy in the Boston Post of teaching Quimby's methods as her own. Eddy's replies disparaged Quimby as a mesmerist, and said she had experimented with mental healing in 1853, nine years before she met him. The issue ended up in court in September 1883, when Eddy complained that a pamphlet published by her student Edward J. Arens had copied parts of Science and Health, and Arens counter-claimed that Eddy had copied it from Quimby in the first place. Quimby's son was so unwilling to produce his father's manuscripts that he sent them out of the country (perhaps fearing litigation with Eddy or that someone would tamper with them), and Eddy won the case. Things were stirred up further by the publication of Julius Dresser's The True History of Mental Healing (1887).
The charge of plagiarism stemmed from Eddy's use of Quimby's manuscript (see left) when teaching Sally Wentworth in 1868–1870 and the class in Lynn from 1870. In later revisions, a preface Eddy wrote was incorporated into Quimby's text so that, it seems, the work of the two authors was merged. Eddy said she had discussed Quimby's ideas with him, and helped to fix his unpublished notes (she called them "scribblings"), and now stood accused of having copied her own words. Against this, Lyman P. Powell, one of Eddy's biographers, wrote that Quimby's son held an almost identical copy of the manuscript Eddy had used to teach Sally Wentworth. It was in Quimby's wife's handwriting, Powell wrote, and was dated February 1862, eight months before Eddy met Quimby.
The New York Times obtained the Wentworth manuscript in July 1904 and juxtaposed passages from that and Science and Health to highlight the similarities. Quimby's manuscripts were published in 1921, and in 1923 a student of Eddy's published the manuscripts she had used in Lynn in 1870. They was no evidence of plagiarism, but Eddy's biographers continued to disagree about Quimby's influence. Bates and Dittemore, the latter a former director of the Christian Science church, argued in 1932 that "as far as the thought is concerned, Science and Health is practically all Quimby," except for malicious animal mesmerism. Robert Peel, who also worked for the church, wrote in 1966 that Eddy may have influenced Quimby as much as he influenced her. Gardner argued in 1993 that Eddy had taken "huge chunks" from Quimby, and Gill in 1998 that there were only general similarities.
In 1887 Eddy started teaching a "metaphysical obstetrics" course, two one-week classes. She had started calling herself "Professor of Obstetrics" in 1882; McClure's wrote: "Hundreds of Mrs. Eddy's students were then practising who knew no more about obstetrics than the babes they helped into this world." The first prosecutions took place that year, when practitioners were charged with practicing medicine without a licence. All were acquitted during the trial or on appeal.
The first manslaughter charge was in March 1888, when Abby H. Corner, a practitioner in Medford, Massachusetts, attended to her daughter during childbirth; the daughter bled to death and the baby did not survive. The defense argued that they might have died even with medical attention, and Corner was acquitted. To the dismay of the Christian Scientists' Association (the secretary resigned), Eddy distanced herself from Corner, telling the Boston Globe that Corner had never entered the obstetrics class.
From then until the 1990s around 50 parents and practitioners were prosecuted, and often acquitted, after adults and children died without medical care; charges ranged from neglect to second-degree murder. The American Medical Association (AMA) declared war on Christian Scientists; in 1895 its journal called Christian Science and similar ideas: "Molochs to infants, and pestilential perils to communities in spreading contagious diseases." Juries were nevertheless reluctant to convict when defendants believed they were helping the patient. There was also opposition to the AMA's effort to strengthen medical licencing laws. Historian Shawn Peters writes that, in the courts and public debate, Christian Scientists and Jehovah's Witnesses linked their healing claims to early Christianity to gain support from other Christians.
Vaccination became another battleground. A Christian Scientist in Wisconsin won a case in 1897 that allowed his son, who was not vaccinated against smallpox, to attend public school, and others were arrested in 1899 for avoiding vaccination during a smallpox epidemic in Georgia. In 1900 Eddy advised adherents to obey the law, and from 1902 she required that they report contagious diseases to health boards. When her son told her he was keeping his youngest boy out of school rather than have him vaccinated, Eddy replied: "But if it were my child I should let them vaccinate him and then with Christian Science I would prevent its harming the health of my child."
Building the Mother Church
In 1888 Eddy became close to another of her students, Ebenezer Johnson Foster, a homeopath and graduate of the Hahnemann Medical College. He was 41 and she was 67, but apparently needing affection and someone to be loyal to her she adopted him legally in November that year, and he changed his name to Ebenezer Johnson Foster Eddy.
A year later, in October 1889, she closed the Massachusetts Metaphysical College; Bates and Dittemore wrote that the state attorney was investigating colleges that were fraudulently graduating medical students. She also foreclosed the mortgage on the land in Boston the church had purchased, then purchased it herself for $5,000 through a middle man, though it was worth considerably more. She told the church they could have the land for their building on condition they formally dissolve the church; this was apparently intended to quash internal rebellions that had been bothering her. The following year she dissolved the National Christian Science Association. Wilson writes that the dissolutions allowed her to create a central church controlled by a five-person board of directors that answered only to her, which gave the church a stability that helped it survive her death.
The cornerstone of the Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, containing the Bible, Eddy's writings and a list of directors and financial contributors, was laid in May 1894 in the Back Bay area of Boston. Church members raised funds for the construction, and the building was finished in December 1894 at a cost of $250,000. It contained a "Mother's Room" in the tower for Eddy's personal use, furnished with rare books, silks, tapestries, rugs, a dressing gown and slippers, though she spent only one night there and it was later turned into a storage room. The archway into the room was made of Italian marble, and the word Mother was engraved on the floor.
Within two years the Boston membership had exceeded the church's capacity and plans began for an extension. By 1903 the block around the church had been purchased by Christian Scientists, and in 1906 an extension accommodating 5,000 people was completed at a cost of $2 million. This attracted the criticism that, whereas Christian Scientists spent money on a magnificent church, they maintained no hospitals, orphanages or missions in the slums.
Christian Science went on to become the fastest growing American religion in the early decades of the 20th century. The US federal religious census recorded 85,717 Christian Scientists in 1906; 30 years later it was 268,915. There were seven Christian Science churches in the US in 1890 and 1,077 by 1910. Churches began to appear in other countries: 58 in England, 38 in Canada and 28 elsewhere by 1910.
View of Mark Twain
Mark Twain was a prominent contemporaneous critic of Eddy's. His first article about Christian Science was published in Cosmopolitan in October 1899. Another three appeared in 1902–1903 in North American Review, then a book, Christian Science (1907). He also wrote "The Secret History of Eddypus, the World Empire" (1901–1902), in which Christian Science replaces Christianity and Eddy becomes the Pope.
Twain described Eddy as "[g]rasping, sordid, penurious, famishing for everything she sees – money, power, glory – vain, untruthful, jealous, despotic, arrogant, insolent, pitiless where thinkers and hypnotists are concerned, illiterate, shallow, incapable of reasoning outside of commercial lines, immeasurably selfish." He believed she was using Christian Science to accrue wealth: "From end to end of the Christian Science literature not a single (material) thing in the world is conceded to be real, except the Dollar."
Science and Health he called "strange and frantic and incomprehensible and uninterpretable," and argued that Eddy had not written it herself. "There is nothing in Christian Science that is not explicable," he wrote, "for God is one, Time is one, Individuality is one, and may be one of a series, one of many, as an individual man, individual horse; whereas God is one, not one of a series, but one alone and without an equal." Eddy apart, Twain felt ambivalent toward mind-cure, arguing that "the thing back of it is wholly gracious and beautiful." His daughter Clara Clemens (1874–1962) became a Christian Scientist and wrote a book about it, Awake to a Perfect Day (1956).
The first history of Christian Science appeared in McClure's magazine (1893–1929) in 14 installments in 1907–1908, preceded by an editorial in December 1906. The essence of the articles, which included court documents and affidavits from Eddy's associates, was that Eddy's chief concern was money, and that she had derived Christian Science from Quimby. The material was also published as a book, The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science (1909). It became the key source for most non-church histories of the religion.
The editor-in-chief assigned five writers to work on the series, including the novelist Willa Cather (1873–1947) as the principal author. The book was kept out of print from early in its life by the Christian Science church, which bought the original manuscript. It was republished in 1971 by Baker Book House when its copyright expired, and again in 1993 by the University of Nebraska Press.
Next Friends suit, Eddy's death
In March 1907 several of Eddy's relatives filed an unsuccessful lawsuit, the "Next Friends suit," against members of Eddy's household, alleging that she was unable to manage her own affairs. Calvin Frye, her long-time personal assistant, was a particular target of the allegations. The New York World (1860–1931) published a front-page story in October 1906, with the headline "Mrs. Mary Baker G. Eddy Dying; Footman and Dummy Control Her." The article said that Eddy, by then 85 years old, was housebound and dying of cancer, that her staff had taken control of her fortune, and that another woman was impersonating her in public.
The newspaper proceeded to persuade Eddy's family (or "next friends") to file a lawsuit. Several of them joined the action: Eddy's biological son, George Glover, and adoptive son, Ebenezer J. Foster Eddy; her granddaughter, Mary Baker Glover; and two nephews, George W. Baker and Fred W. Baker. Eddy was interviewed in her home in August 1907 by the judge, Robert N. Chamberlain (1856–1917), and two psychiatrists, accompanied by William E. Chandler (1835–1917) for the plaintiffs, and Eddy's lawyer, General Frank S. Streeter. They concluded that she was mentally competent.
In response to the McClure's and New York World stories, Eddy asked the church in July 1908 to found the Christian Science Monitor as a platform for responsible journalism. It appeared in November that year, with the motto "To injure no man, but to bless all mankind," and went on to win seven Pulitzer Prizes between 1950 and 2002.
Eddy died two years later, on the evening of Saturday, December 3, 1910, aged 89. The Mother Church announced at the end of the Sunday morning service that Eddy had "passed from our sight." It issued a statement that "the time will come when there will be no more death," but that Christian Scientists "do not look for [Mrs. Eddy's] return in this world." Her estate was valued at $1.5 million, most of which she left to the church.
|Christian Science practitioners (US)
A census at the height of the religion's popularity in 1936 counted nearly 270,000 Christian Scientists in the United States. The movement has been in decline ever since; Rodney Stark estimated that there were 106,000 Scientists in that country in 1990.
There were 1,271 Christian Science practitioners worldwide in 2014, against 11,200 in the United States in 1941; according to Stark, clusters of practitioners listed in the Christian Science Journal in 1998 were living in the same retirement communities. In 2009 the church announced that for the first time more new members had been admitted from Africa than from the United States. The church has sold church buildings to free up funds.
Stark attributed the rise of the movement in the late-19th and early-20th centuries to several factors. It retained cultural continuity with Christianity by stressing that it was Christian and adopting its terms, despite the new content Eddy introduced. It was not puritanical; members were expected not to drink or smoke but could otherwise do as they pleased, and several exceptions to the avoidance of medicine were permitted. It offered professional opportunities to women who might otherwise have had none. They could become practitioners after just 12 lessons; 12 of the 14 practitioners listed in the first edition of Christian Science Journal were women. In 1906 72 percent of Christian Scientists in the United States were female, against 49 percent of the population.
The major factor in the rise of the movement was that medical practice was in its infancy and patients often fared better if left alone; within that context Christian Science prayer compared favorably. The increased efficacy of medicine around World War II heralded the religion's decline. Stark charts the use of sulfonamide to kill bacteria, the availability of penicillin in the 1940s and breakthroughs in immunology.
Other factors in the decline included increased opportunities for women to work outside the home, and that much of the membership was elderly; in 1998 30 percent were over 65. Eddy was over 60 by the time the movement began to spread; Stark writes that the "characteristics of the earliest members of a movement will tend to be reproduced in subsequent converts."
A significant percentage of Scientists remained single (Eddy placed little emphasis on marriage and family), or became Scientists when their children were adults and unlikely to be converted. Christian Science did not have missionaries, so it relied on internal growth, but the conversion rate within families was not high; in a study cited by Stark, just 26 of 80 people (33 percent) raised with Christian Science became Scientists themselves.
Practices and governance
Christian Science prayer
Christian Scientists avoid almost all medical treatment, relying instead on Christian Science prayer. The prayer remains the same as in Eddy's day. There is no appeal to a personal god, and no set words or practices.
Caroline Fraser described it in 1999 as the practitioner silently arguing about the nature of reality. The practitioner might tell herself, "the allness of God using Eddy's seven synonyms – Life, Truth, Love, Spirit, Soul, Principle and Mind," then that "Spirit, Substance, is the only Mind, and man is its image and likeness; that Mind is intelligence; that Spirit is substance; that Love is wholeness; that Life, Truth, and Love are the only reality." She might continue by denying other religions, the existence of evil, mesmerism, astrology, numerology and the symptoms of whatever the illness is. She concludes, according to Fraser, by asserting that disease is a lie, that this is the word of God and that it has the power to heal.
The Christian Science Journal and Christian Science Sentinel publish anecdotal healing testimonies. These must be accompanied by statements from three verifiers, who are "people who know [the testifier] well and have either witnessed the healing or can vouch for [the testifier's] integrity in sharing it." Philosopher Margaret P. Battin wrote in 1999 that the seriousness with which these are treated by Christian Scientists ignores factors such as false positives caused by self-limiting conditions. Because no negative accounts are published, the testimonies feed into people's tendency to rely on anecdotes when making decisions.
|Part of a series on|
The church published 53,900 such testimonies between 1900 and April 1989. A church study examined 10,000 of these, 2,337 of which the church said involved conditions that had been medically diagnosed, and 623 of which were "medically confirmed by follow-up examinations." The report offered no evidence of the medical follow-up. The Massachusetts Committee for Children and Youth listed among the report's flaws that it had failed to compare the rates of successful and unsuccessful Christian Science treatment.
Christian Science practitioners are certified by the church to charge a fee for Christian Science prayer. There were 1,271 listed practitioners worldwide in 2014; in the United States in 2010 they charged $25–$50 for an e-mail, telephone or face-to-face consultation. Their training is a two-week, 12-lesson course called primary class, based on the Recapitulation chapter of Science and Health. Practitioners wanting to teach primary class take a six-day "normal class," held in Boston once every three years. Christian Science nursing homes offer no medical services; the nurses are Christian Scientists who have completed a course of religious study and training in basic skills, such as feeding and bathing.
The main criticism Christian Scientists face is that their children are denied equal protection under the law. Sick and disabled children have been told the only thing wrong with them is "incorrect" thinking. Caroline Fraser argues that this can undermine children's self-confidence, and can paradoxically cause hypochondria by making them obsessed with controlling their thoughts about their bodies. Parents have been told by practitioners that parents can harm their children with their thoughts. The church maintains that members are free to choose medical care, but several have said they fear being ostracized if they do.
The Christian Science church has used the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment, which guarantees the protection of religious practice, to persuade states to maintain religious-exemption statutes. After the conviction for manslaughter in 1967 of the Christian Scientist mother of five-year-old Lisa Sheridan, who died without medical care in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the church lobbied the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) to add a religious exemption, in 1974, to the Code of Federal Regulations (see right).
States were thereafter obliged to include religious exemptions in child-neglect legislation or lose funding. The wording of the exemptions made clear that they referred to Christian Science. Largely as a result of lobbying by Children's Healthcare is a Legal Duty, the government eliminated the HEW regulation in 1983, but 37 states, Guam and the District of Columbia still had religious exemptions in their civil codes on child abuse and neglect as of 2014. Many of the exemptions say that in life-threatening situations children must have access to medical care, but without early access the seriousness of an illness may not be recognized, in part because Christian Scientists are encouraged not to educate themselves about physical ailments. The American Academy of Pediatrics regards failure to seek medical care for children as "child neglect, regardless of the motivation."
Forty-eight US states allowed religious exemptions for compulsory vaccination as of 2014. There were three outbreaks, one of polio and two of measles, at Christian Science institutions between 1972 and 1994, and one diphtheria death.
Child deaths, prosecutions
In over 50 cases between 1887 and the early 1990s, prosecutors charged Christian Scientists after adults and children died of treatable illnesses without medical care. A 1998 study in Pediatrics examined 172 child deaths between 1975 and 1995 where parents had withheld medical care for religious reasons; 28 involved Christian Science, the second highest number from a single group.
The death in 1967 of five-year-old Lisa Sheridan of pneumonia in Cape Code, Massachusetts, was the first of several in the 20th century known within the church as the "child cases," according to Fraser. Her mother was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to five years' probation. It was after this prosecution that the church began lobbying for religious exemptions.
In 1977 16-month-old Matthew Swan died of bacterial meningitis in Detroit, Michigan, after his parents were persuaded by Christian Science practitioners not to take him to a physician. The parents responded by founding Children's Healthcare is a Legal Duty (CHILD). Between 1980 and 1990 another seven Christian Scientist parents in the United States were prosecuted; there were four convictions, two overturned.
In 1988 12-year-old Ashley King died in Phoenix, Arizona, after living for months with a tumor on her leg the size of a watermelon; her parents pleaded guilty to reckless endangerment. A prominent case in Massachusetts was Commonwealth v. Twitchell, which saw the parents of two-year-old Robyn Twitchell convicted in 1990 of involuntary manslaughter after he died of peritonitis. The conviction was overturned on appeal; the court ruled that the couple had "reasonably believed" they could rely on Christian Science prayer without being prosecuted.
The first time the church was held liable (overturned on appeal) was in 1993 after 11-year-old Ian Lundman died of hyperglycaemia in Minnesota in 1989. The church sent a Christian Science nurse to sit with him; doctors testified that he could have been saved by an insulin injection up to two hours before his death. The mother and stepfather were charged with manslaughter, but the charges were dismissed. The boy's father sued the mother, stepfather, practitioner, nurse, nursing home and church. He was awarded $5.2 million compensatory damages, later reduced to $1.5 million, and $9 million in punitive damages against the church. The Minnesota State Court of Appeals overturned the award against the church and nursing home, finding that a judgment that forced the church to "abandon teaching its central tenet" was unconstitutional, and that, while the individuals had a duty of care toward the boy, the church and nursing home did not.
Christian Science church
Eddy was granted a charter in 1879 to found the Church of Christ (Scientist), and in 1894 The First Church of Christ, Scientist was built in Boston. The church administration is headquartered in a 28-story building on the same 14-acre site, which includes a plaza with a 670-foot reflecting pool. It is led by a president and five-person board of directors, and by the Committee on Publication (with representatives around the world), an institution Eddy set up in 1898 to protect her own and the church's reputation. The first Christian Science church in any city is called First Church of Christ, Scientist; the next, Second Church of Christ, Scientist, and so on (for example, Third Church of Christ, Scientist, London). When a church closes the others are not renamed. Only the Mother Church in Boston uses the definite article in the title.
Eddy's Manual of The Mother Church (1895) lists 83 requirements and prohibitions for members. Requirements include daily study of the Bible and Science and Health and daily prayer. They must subscribe to church periodicals if they can afford to, and pay an annual tax to the church of not less than one dollar. Prohibitions include joining other churches, publishing articles that are uncharitable toward religion, medicine and the law, engaging in public debate about Christian Science without board approval, engaging in mental malpractice, or visiting a store that sells "obnoxious" books. It also includes "The Golden Rule": "A member of The Mother Church shall not haunt Mrs. Eddy's drive when she goes out, continually stroll by her house, or make a summer resort near her for such a purpose."
Christian Science churches have no clergy, sermons or rituals, and perform no baptisms, marriages or burials. Readers select hymns and read aloud from Science and Health and the Bible. There are Sunday services, Sunday schools, and Wednesday meetings during which members offer testimonies. The organization has been accused at times of silencing internal criticism by firing staff, delisting practitioners and excommunicating members.
Notable Scientists have included two former Directors of Central Intelligence, William H. Webster and Admiral Stansfield M. Turner, as well as Richard Nixon's chief of staff H. R. Haldeman and Nixon's White House Counsel John Ehrlichman. Others include NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, and in England the viscountess Nancy Astor and naval officer Charles Lightoller, who survived the 1912 sinking of the Titanic. There used to be a concentration of Scientists in the film industry (see above), including Cecil B. DeMille, Joan Crawford, Mickey Rooney, Ginger Rogers and Doris Day.
Those raised within Christian Science include comedian Robin Williams, television host Ellen DeGeneres, jurist Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, military analyst Daniel Ellsberg, and actors Elizabeth Taylor, Henry Fonda, Audrey Hepburn and Anne Archer. Archer left Christian Science when her son, Tommy Davis, was a child; both became prominent in the Church of Scientology.
The Christian Science Publishing Society publishes several periodicals, including the Christian Science Monitor, winner of seven Pulitzer Prizes between 1950 and 2002. This had a daily circulation in 1970 of 220,000, which by 2008 had contracted to 52,000, and in 2009 it moved to a largely online presence with a weekly print run. In the 1980s the church produced its own television programs, and in 1991 founded a 24-hour news channel, which closed with heavy losses after 13 months.
The church also publishes the weekly Christian Science Sentinel, the monthly Christian Science Journal, and the Herald of Christian Science, a non-English publication. In April 2012 JSH-Online made back issues of the Journal, Sentinel and Herald available online to subscribers.
The church faced internal dissent in 1991 when the Publishing Society published The Destiny of The Mother Church (1947) by Bliss Knapp (1877–1958), a former president of the Mother Church. The book suggested that the Old and New Testaments had predicted Eddy's coming and that she was the Woman of the Apocalypse. A senior employee was fired for failing to support the church's decision, and 18 of the 21 editorial staff of the religious journals resigned. Knapp and his family bequeathed $98-million to the church on condition that it publish and authorize the book by 1993; otherwise the money would go to Stanford University and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The church published it and made it available in Christian Science reading rooms; the other parties disputed that this constituted authorization and the bequest was split three ways.
Works by Mary Baker Eddy
- Science and Health (1875)
- The Science of Man, By Which the Sick are Healed (1876)
- Christian Healing (1880)
- The People's God (1883)
- Historical Sketches of Metaphysical Healing (1885)
- Defence of Christian Science (1885)
- No and Yes (1887)
- Rudiments and Rules of Divine Science (1887)
- Unity of Good and Unreality of Evil (1888)
- Retrospection and Introspection (1891)
- Rudimental Divine Science (1894)
- Manual of the Mother Church (1895)
- Pulpit and Press (1895)
- Miscellaneous Writings, 1883–1896 (1897)
- Christ and Christmas (1897)
- Christian Science versus Pantheism (1898)
- The Christian Science Hymnal (1898)
- Christian Healing and the People's Idea of God (1908)
- Poems (1910)
- The First Church of Christ Scientist and Miscellany (1913)
- Prose Works (1925)
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Efficacy of prayer
- Jacobson v. Massachusetts (1905)
- Prince v. Massachusetts (1944)
- Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)
- Stark 1998, p. 191, estimated that there were 106,000 Christian Scientists in the United States in 1990; Judy Valente, "Christian Science Healing", PBS, August 1, 2008: "The church estimates it has about 400,000 members worldwide, but independent studies put membership at around 100,000."
- Eddy's "scientific statement of being" summed up her radical idealism. See Eddy, Science and Health, chapter XIV, Recapitulation, p. 468:
"Question. — What is the scientific statement of being?
"Answer. — There is no life, truth, intelligence, nor substance in matter. All is infinite Mind and its infinite manifestation, for God is All-in-all. Spirit is immortal Truth; matter is mortal error. Spirit is the real and eternal; matter is the unreal and temporal. Spirit is God, and man is His image and likeness. Therefore man is not material; he is spiritual."
- McGuire 1988, p. 79; Saliba 2003, p. 26; Lewis 2003, p. 94; Melton 2009, p. 741; Harley 2010, p. 671.
Simmons 1995, p. 61: "While members, past and present, of the Christian Science movement understandably claim Mrs. Eddy's truths to be part of a unique and final religious revelation, most outside observers place Christian Science in the metaphysical family of religious organizations ... The broad descriptive term 'metaphysical' is not used in a manner common to the trained philosopher. Instead, it denotes the primacy of Mind as the controlling factor in human experience."
Braden 1963, pp. 4–5: "[I]t was in America that [mesmerism] was invested with religious significance and gave rise to a complex of religious faiths varying from one another in significant ways, but all agreeing upon the central fact that healing and for that matter every good thing is possible through a right relationship with the ultimate power in the Universe, Creative Mind – called God, Principle, Life, Wisdom, and a dozen other names by one group or another – since man in his real nature is essentially divine.
"This broad complex of religions is sometimes described by the rather general term 'metaphysical,' because its major reliance is not on the physical, but on that which is beyond the physical. ... The general movement has proliferated in many directions. Two main streams seem most vigorous: one is called Christian Science; the other, which no single name adequately describes, has come rather generally to be known as New Thought."
- "The Christian Science Pastor: The Bible & Science And Health With Key To The Scriptures", christianscience.org.
- For the charter and members, Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, p. 458.
- Stark 1998, p. 190 for Christian Science being "the fastest growing American religious movement during the first few decades of the 20th century"; p. 191 for the 1936 figure of 268,915, and for 106,000 members in 1990.
- Fuller 2011, p. 175; "Reading rooms", Christian Science.
- Wilson 1961, p. 124; Melton 1992, p. 36.
- Wilson 1961, p. 127; Battin 1999, p. 11; also see Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
- "New York Times Response from the Christian Science Board of Directors", christianscience.com, 24 March 2010; Schoepflin 2003, pp. 192–193; Gottschalk 1973, p. 122.
- Schoepflin 2003, pp. 151, 212–215; Peters 2007, pp. 89ff, 109ff.
- McLoughlin 1980, pp. 10–11; Anker 1999, p. 176ff.
- For early uses of the expression New Thought, Haller 2012, pp. 10–11; Dresser 1919, p. 153; Dresser 1917, p. 215. William Henry Holcombe may have been the first to use New Thought in this context in his Condensed Thoughts about Christian Science (1887).
- Simmons 1995, p. 61: "The broad descriptive term 'metaphysical' is not used in a manner common to the trained philosopher. Instead, it denotes the primacy of Mind as the controlling factor in human experience. At the heart of the metaphysical perspective is the theological/ontological affirmation that God is perfect Mind and human beings, in reality, exist in a state of eternal manifestation of that Divine Mind."
- For Plato, Berkeley, etc, see James 1902, pp. 75–76; deChant 2007, pp. 81–82 (p. 82 for the quote).
- McGuire 1988, p. 79: "Drawing eclectically from several strands of thought, including Eastern religions, mesmerism, and transcendentalism, the metaphysical movement first emerged in the middle of the nineteenth century. The teaching of Phineas P. Quimby served to articulate the movement's philosophy and give it its distinctive emphasis upon healing. The main strand of this movement was loosely organized into an association called "New Thought," which spawned such groups as the Church of Divine Science, the Church of Religious Science, and the Unity School of Christianity. ... The most familiar offshoot of the metaphysical movement, however, is Christian Science, which was based upon a more extreme interpretation of metaphysical healing than that of the New Thought groups. ... Christian Science is unlike New Thought and other metaphysical movements of that era in that Mary Baker Eddy successfully arrogated to herself all teaching authority, centralized decision-making and organizational power, and developed the movement's sectarian character."
- Harrington 2009, p. 111; James 1902, lectures IV and V (Gifford Lecture): "The Religion of Healthy-Mindedness," p. 64 ff (also at archive.org, p. 78ff).
James 1902, pp. 75ff: "To my mind a current far more important and interesting religiously ... I will give the title of the Mind-Cure movement." There are various sects of this "New Thought" ... but their agreements are so profound that their differences may be neglected for my present purposes ..."
For Christian Science being part of the mind-cure movement, James 1902, p. 84: "Christian Science so-called, the sect of Mrs. Eddy, is the most radical branch of mind-cure in its dealings with evil."
DeChant 2007, p. 73: "Until ...[Hopkins' ordination of ministers in 1889], Mind Cure (Christian Science and independent mental healing groups) was a lay movement."
Harrington 2009, p. 112: "Of the women who rose to leadership in the mind-cure movement in this period, none became more visible than Mary Baker Eddy ..."
- Stark 1998, pp. 197–198, 211–212; De Chant 2007, p. 67.
Melton 2009, p. 867: "The roots of Christian Science and New Thought are more complex than their being simply a new expansion of esoteric thinking; the primary heritage of these movements lies in the emphasis on alternative methods of healing that blossomed in Spiritualism and the new method of biblical interpretation advocated by Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772).
"The nineteenth century proved a transition period for the medical community. In the United States, what would later become the dominant allopathic medical system (yet to be wedded to the separate practice of surgery) competed with homeopathy and what was termed the eclectic system of medicine but awaited the discovery of bacteria as a causative agent of disease before it would assume its present pervasive role. In the meantime, many found the practices of physicians to be more horrific than the diseases they were trying to cure. The state of nineteenth-century medicine, and the yet-to-appear discipline of psychology, provided a context in which the new practice of healing advocated by Franz Anton Mesmer (1734–1815) could flourish."
- McGuire 1988, p. 79; Taves 1999, p. 212; Anker 1999, p. 181.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 244–245; Gardner 1993, pp. 31–49; Gill 1998, p. 119; Fraser 1999, pp. 50–51.
- Jenkins 2000, p. 60.
- Wilson 1961, pp. 126–127; Braden 1963, pp. 14–19; Moore 1986, pp. 112–113; Whorton 2004, pp. 128–129.
- Jenkins 2000, p. 55; Prentiss 2001, p. 322; Stark 1998, p. 195: "Mary Baker Eddy pushed the postulates of positive thinking to their absolute limit. She did not merely teach that wishes will come true, but that wishes are true. She proposed not merely that the spiritual overshadows the material, but that the material world does not exist. The world of our senses is but an illusion of our minds. If the material world causes us pain, grief, danger and even death, that can be changed by changing our thoughts."
Anker 1999, p. 8: " ... the most famous offspring of the New Thought, Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science (denominationally known as The Church of Christ, Scientist), the most prominent, successful, controversial, and distinctive of all modern religious self-help groups."
- Melton 1992, p. 36: "Almost as much as the medical controversy, charges of heresy from orthodox Christian churches have hounded the Church. Leaders of Christian Science insist that they are within the mainstream of Christian teachings, a concern which leads to their strong resentment of any identification with the New Thought movement, which they see as having drifted far from their central Christian affirmations. At the same time, strong differences with traditional Christian teachings concerning the Trinity, the unique divinity of Jesus Christ, atonement for sin, and the creation are undeniable. While using Christian language, Science and Health with Key to Scriptures and Eddy's other writings radically redefine basic theological terms, usually by the process commonly called allegorization. Such redefinitions are most clearly evident in the glossary to Science and Health (pages 579–599)."
Stark 1998, p. 195: "But, of course, Christian Science was not just another Protestant sect. Like Joseph Smith, Mary Baker Eddy added too much new religious culture for her movement to qualify fully as a member of the Christian family – as all the leading clerics of the time repeatedly and vociferously pointed out. However, unlike Madame Blavatsky's Theosophical Society, and like the Mormons, Christian Science retained an immense amount of Christian culture. These continuities allowed converts from a Christian background to preserve a great deal of cultural capital."
- For influence of upbringing, Albanese 2006, p. 284. For inspired text, second coming, Wilson 1961, p. 125; Weddle 1991, p. 281: "Eddy regarded her book, written as a magnificent obsession during nine years of difficult and nomadic existence (1866–75), as the dawning of the messianic age: the second advent of Jesus."
For "lost element of healing," Eddy, Historical Sketch, p. 17; Eddy, Retrospection and Introspection, pp. 95–96: "The second appearing of Jesus is, unquestionably, the spiritual advent of the advancing idea of God, as in Christian Science."
Eddy, Miscellany, p. 115: "I should blush to write of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures as I have, were it of human origin, and I, apart from God, its author; but as I was only a scribe echoing the harmonies of heaven in divine metaphysics, I cannot be super-modest in my estimate of the Christian Science textbook."
- Wilson 1961, p. 121; "Basic teachings", christianscience.com.
- Eddy, Science and Health, chapter XIV, "Recapitulation", p. 465; Gottschalk 1973, p. 54.
In referring to God as "all-in-all," the clergy argued that Eddy had embraced pantheism, a charge she rejected. See Eddy, "Christian Science versus Pantheism", 1901, p. 4; Cunningham 1967, pp. 896–897: "Indeed, no criticism was more frequently voiced by clerical observers than this one [pantheism], for it was deemed the root error of her theology."
- Wilson 1961, p. 122.
- Wilson 1961, p. 127; Albanese 2007, pp. 290–291.
- Frank Prinz-Wondollek, "How does Christian Science heal?", Boston, Massachusetts, April 28, 2011, from 00:02 mins.
- Wilson 1961, p. 129; Stark 1998, pp. 196–197; Fraser 1999, pp. 94–96; Paul Vitello, "Christian Science Church Seeks Truce With Modern Medicine," The New York Times, March 23, 2010, p. 2.
- Porterfield 2005, pp. 178–180; Porterfield describes it in terms of an "invisible spiritual force that stimulates healing" (p. 180).
- Wilson 1961, pp. 125–126.
- Wilson 1961, pp. 123, 128–129.
- Wilson 1961, p. 127; Eddy, Science and Health, p. 256: "The theory of three persons in one God (that is, a personal Trinity or Tri-unity) suggests polytheism, rather than the one ever-present I AM." Eddy's view of Christ was gnostic; see Wilson 1961, p. 127. For background on gnosticism, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, The Western Esoteric Traditions, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 27ff.
- Wilson 1961, p. 121; Stark 1998, p. 199; Eddy, "The Great Discovery", Retrospection and Introspection.
- For the latter, Gottschalk 1973, pp. 94–95.
For the death of Jesus, see Prentiss 2001, p. 322: "Jesus, whom Scientists take to be only human, demonstrated the illusory nature of matter and therefore the illusory nature of the death of the body, with his own crucifixion and apparent resurrection. Yet 'resurrection' was a misnomer from the Christian Science perspective, because he never suffered death. However, as mortals needed evidence to be convinced of the power that spirit and mind had over death, the demonstration of surviving crucifixion was necessary."
Jenkins 2000, p. 60: "Jesus' death was as much an illusion as any other form of sickness or misfortune."
Eddy, Science and Health, Chapter II, Atonement and Eucharist: "His disciples believed Jesus to be dead while he was hidden in the sepulchre, whereas he was alive, demonstrating within the narrow tomb the power of Spirit to overrule mortal, material sense. ...
"They who earliest saw Jesus after the resurrection and beheld the final proof of all that he had taught, misconstrued that event. ... The reappearing of Jesus was not the return of a spirit. He presented the same body that he had before his crucifixion, and so glorified the supremacy of Mind over matter."
- Wilson 1961, p. 124; Simmons 2007, p. 93.
- Wilson 1961, pp. 121, 125; for hell, see Eddy, Science and Health, Chapter XVII, Glossary.
- Melton 1992, p. 36: "Almost as much as the medical controversy, charges of heresy from orthodox Christian churches have hounded the Church"; Melton 2005, p. 146: "The very fact that Science and Health was a new revelation challenged the authority that Protestants ascribed to the Bible alone."
- Melton 2003, p. 17; for Harrington, see Jenkins 2000, p. 49.
- Cunningham 1967, p. 892; "Faith Healing in America," The Times, May 26, 1885 (dateline Boston, May 11, 1885).
- Twain 1907, p. 180; see the same quote in "Mark Twain & Mary Baker Eddy a film by Val Kilmer", trailer, YouTube, from 04:30 mins, retrieved March 17, 2014.
- Gottschalk 2006, p. 64.
- Gill 1998, pp. 244, 288.
- Gill 1998, p. xxix.
- Gill 1998, pp. 84–85.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 5; Eddy, Retrospection and Introspection], p. 12: "My father's relentless theology emphasized belief in a final judgment-day, in the danger of endless punishment, and in a Jehovah merciless towards unbelievers ..."
- Eddy, Retrospection and Introspection, p. 10: "My father was taught to believe that my brain was too large for my body and so kept me much out of school, but I gained book-knowledge with far less labor than is usually requisite. At ten years of age I was as familiar with Lindley Murray's Grammar as with the Westminster Catechism; and the latter I had to repeat every Sunday. My favorite studies were natural philosophy, logic, and moral science. From my brother Albert I received lessons in the ancient tongues, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. My brother studied Hebrew during his college vacations. After my discovery of Christian Science, most of the knowledge I had gleaned from schoolbooks vanished like a dream."
Bates and Dittemore 1932: They write that Eddy was not able to attend Sanbornton (Tilton) Academy when the family moved there in 1836, but was required instead to start at the district school on the lower floor of the same building. She started at the beginning with the youngest girls, but withdrew after a month because of poor health. Thereafter she received private tuition from the Reverend Enoch Corser (pp. 16–17). She entered Sanbornton Academy in 1842 (p. 25).
Peel 1966, p. 54: "Evidence indicates that Mary may have attended Holmes Academy at Plymouth in 1838 and certainly attended Sanbornton Academy in 1842." She may have attended during other terms, and may also have attended another school called Woodman Sanbornton Academy. Also see Gill 1998, p. 50: "In November 1842, at age twenty-one, she completed her formal schooling, having done three full semesters at the Sanbornton Academy under Dyer Sanborn."
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), January 1907, p. 236; Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 22: "Nothing had the power of exciting Mark Baker like one of Mary's 'fits,' as they were called. His neighbors in Tilton remember him as he went to fetch Dr. Ladd, how he lashed his horses down the hill, standing upright in his wagon and shouting in his tremendous voice: 'Mary is dying!'"
Peel 1966, p. 45 (Robert Peel worked for the Christian Science church and was a sympathetic biographer of Eddy's): "This was when life took on the look of a nightmare, overburdened nerves gave way, and she would end in a state of unconsciousness that would sometimes last for hours and send the family into a panic. On such an occasion Lyman Durgin, the Baker's teen-age chore boy, who adored Mary, would be packed off on a horse for the village doctor ..." For a different view, Gill 1998, pp. 39–48.
- Bloom 1992, p. 133. Bloom wrote that she was "an extraordinary wreck, a monumental hysteric of classical dimensions, indeed a kind of anthology of nineteenth-century nervous ailments."
- McDonald 1986, p. 97ff (that McDonald is a Christian Scientist, see Gill 1998, p. xviii); deChant 2003, p. 206; Gottschalk (The New York Review of Books), 2001.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 36–37.
- For Eddy's second marriage and her husband failing to adopt the boy, Gill 1998, p. 102; for the second husband's adultery, p. 170. But see Fraser 1999, p. 40, where Fraser indicates that Eddy's husband did sign the guardianship papers.
For Eddy's third husband's death, Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 219; Gill 1999, pp. 287–289.
For women having no right of guardianship, see "Women and the Law", Women, Enterprise & Society, Harvard Business School, 2010: "A married woman or feme covert was a dependent, like an underage child or a slave, and could not own property in her own name or control her own earnings, except under very specific circumstances. When a husband died, his wife could not be the guardian to their under-age children." Also see M. Victor Westberg, "Christian Science: An Exchange", The New York Review of Books, November 14, 1996.
Eddy, Retrospection and Introspection, pp. 20–23: "After returning to the paternal roof I lost all my husband's property, except what money I had brought with me; and remained with my parents until after my mother's decease.
"A few months before my father's second marriage, to Mrs. Elizabeth Patterson Duncan, sister of Lieutenant-Governor George W. Patterson of New York, my little son, about four years of age, was sent away from me, and put under the care of our family nurse, who had married, and resided in the northern part of New Hampshire. I had no training for self-support, and my home I regarded as very precious. The night before my child was taken from me, I knelt by his side throughout the dark hours, hoping for a vision of relief from this trial. ...
"My second marriage was very unfortunate, and from it I was compelled to ask for a bill of divorce, which was granted me in the city of Salem, Massachusetts.
"My dominant thought in marrying again was to get back my child, but after our marriage his stepfather was not willing he should have a home with me. A plot was consummated for keeping us apart. The family to whose care he was committed very soon removed to what was then regarded as the Far West.
"After his removal a letter was read to my little son, informing him that his mother was dead and buried. Without my knowledge a guardian was appointed him, and I was then informed that my son was lost. Every means within my power was employed to find him, but without success. We never met again until he had reached the age of thirty-four, had a wife and two children, and by a strange providence had learned that his mother still lived, and came to see me in Massachusetts."
- Cather and Milmine, March 1908; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 290; Peel 1971, pp. 222, 250.
- Powell 1930, pp. 148–149. Blackman continued: "She turned to the student at the end of the first row of seats and took direct mental cognizance of this one, plainly knocked at the door of this individual consciousness. It was as if a question had been asked and answered and a benediction given. Then her eyes rested on the next in order and the same recognition was made. This continued until each member of the class had received the same mental cognizance. No audible word voiced the purely mental contact."
- Gill 1998, p. 172: "Any account of the rise of Christian Science falls short of the mark if it fails to see and acknowledge that Mary Baker Eddy had charisma"; p. 405: "She could be bad-tempered, irrational, capricious, inconsiderate, domineering, sanctimonious, unkind."
- Wilson 1961, pp. 142, 144.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, pp. 122–123.
- Twain 1907, chapters I and XV. Twain wrote (chapter I): "In several ways she is the most interesting woman that ever lived, and the most extraordinary. The same may be said of her career, and the same may be said of its chief result. She started from nothing. Her enemies charge that she surreptitiously took from Quimby a peculiar system of healing which was mind-cure with a Biblical basis. She and her friends deny that she took anything from him. This is a matter which we can discuss by-and-by. Whether she took it or invented it, it was—materially—a sawdust mine when she got it, and she has turned it into a Klondike; its spiritual dock had next to no custom, if any at all: from it she has launched a world-religion which has now six hundred and sixty-three churches, and she charters a new one every four days. When we do not know a person—and also when we do—we have to judge his size by the size and nature of his achievements, as compared with the achievements of others in his special line of business—there is no other way. Measured by this standard, it is thirteen hundred years since the world has produced any one who could reach up to Mrs. Eddy's waistbelt."
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 87. Vail's is referred to in a letter from Julius Dresser about Eddy's visit to Quimby: "The most peculiar person I have seen of late is Mrs. Patterson, the authoress, who came last Friday, a week ago today, from Vail's Water Cure ..."
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), April 1907, p. 610; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 115.
- For "a teacher of the science of health and happiness, Quimby 2009, pp. 81, 264, 286, 472. For "the truth is the cure," p. 507; for "you can walk!", Peel 1966, p. 158, and Gottschalk 1973, p. 105.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 79–82; Hazen 2000, pp. 118–119 (for 12,000, p. 119).
Also see Charles Poyen, Progress of Animal Magnetism in New England, Weeks, Jordan & Co, 1837.
- Gauld 1992, p. 193ff; Hazen 2000, p. 118.
- Quimby 2009, p. 78; Peel 1966, p. 164; Gardner 1993, p. 32; Taves 1999, pp. 213–215.
- Quimby 2009, p. 20; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 81–82; Hazen 2000, pp. 118–119; Porterfield 2005, pp. 178–179.
- Quimby 2009, p. 457; Porterfield 2005, p. 179.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), February 1907, pp. 345–346; Taves 1999 p. 214; Porterfield 2005, p. 179.
Quimby, p. 507, described his methods in a "circular to the sick": "Dr. P. P. Quimby would respectfully announce to the citizens of _______ and vicinity, that he will be at the _______, where he will attend to those wishing to consult him in regard to their health. And as his practice is unlike all other medical practice, it is necessary to say that he gives no medicines and makes no outward applications, but simply sits down by the patients, tells them their feelings and what they think is their disease. If the patients admit that he tells them their feelings, etc., then his explanation is the cure; and if he succeeds in correcting their error, he changes the fluids of the system and establishes the truth or health."
- Quimby 2009, p. 319; Holmes 1944, p. 364; Fuller 1982, p. 134.
- Holmes 1944, p. 364.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), February 1907, p. 347; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 87.
- Eddy also wrote a sonnet for Quimby, "Mid light of science sits the sage profound." For the letter and sonnet, see Cather and Milmine (McClure's), February 1907, pp. 348–349; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 90.
Eddy (as Mary M. Patterson), "What I do not Know and what I do Know", Portland Evening Courier, November 7, 1862: "But now I see, dimly at first, and only as trees walking, the great principle which underlies Dr. Quimby 's faith and works; and just in proportion to my right perception of truth, is my recovery. This truth which he opposes to the error of giving intelligence to matter, and placing pain where it never placed itself, if received understandingly changes the currents of the system to their normal action, and the mechanism of the body goes on undisturbed. ... The truth which he establishes in the patient cures him ... and the body, which is full of light, is no longer in disease."
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 89–91.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), February 1907, pp. 344–345; Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 156, 244–245; Gill 1998, pp. 119–120.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 70.
- Peel 1966, p. 195ff.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 108, say this was her first published statement about the fall and her recovery.
- Gill 1998, p. 161.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 83.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, pp. 84–86. Cushing said (this affidavit was first published in the Union, Springfield, MA, January 2, 1907, according to Gardner 1993, p. 41): "On February 1, 1866, I was called to the residence of Samuel M. Bubier, who was a shoe manufacturer and later was mayor of Lynn, to attend said Mrs. Patterson, who had fallen upon the icy sidewalk in front of Mr. Bubier's factory and had injured her head by the fall. I found her very nervous, partially unconscious, semi-hysterical, complaining by word and action of severe pain in the back of her head and neck. ...
"There was, to my knowledge, no other physician in attendance upon Mrs. Patterson during this illness from the day of the accident, February 1, 1866, to my final visit on February 13th, and when I left her on the 13th day of February, she seemed to have recovered from the disturbance caused by the accident and to be, practically, in her normal condition. I did not at any time declare, or believe, that there was no hope for Mrs. Patterson's recovery, or that she was in a critical condition, and did not at any time say, or believe, that she had but three or any other limited number of days to live. Mrs. Patterson did not suggest, or say, or pretend, or in any way whatever intimate, that on the third, or any other day, of her said illness, she had miraculously recovered or been healed, or that, discovering or perceiving the truth of the power employed by Christ to heal the sick, she had, by it, been restored to health. As I have stated, on the third and subsequent days of her said illness, resulting from her said fall on the ice, I attended Mrs. Patterson and gave her medicine ..."
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), February 1907, p. 344; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 109.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), February 1908, p. 390; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 109.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 110. Dresser wrote: "The true way to establish it is, as I look at it, to lecture and by a paper and make that the means, rather more than the curing, to introduce the truth."
- Powell 1930, p. 116.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 116: According to the Essex County Clerk on February 13, 1932, the suit was settled in March 1868 with the entry "Neither Party." The documents refer to David [sic] Patterson and Mary M. Patterson.
- Eddy, Retrospection and Introspection, p. 24: "It was in Massachusetts, in February, 1866, and after the death of the magnetic doctor, Mr. P.P. Quimby, whom spiritualists would associate therewith, but who was in no wise connected with this event, that I discovered the Science of divine metaphysical healing which I afterwards named Christian Science. The discovery came to pass in this way. During twenty years prior to my discovery I had been trying to trace all physical effects to a mental cause; and in the latter part of 1866 I gained the scientific certainty that all causation was Mind, and every effect a mental phenomenon.
"My immediate recovery from the effects of an injury caused by an accident, an injury that neither medicine nor surgery could reach, was the falling apple that led me to the discovery how to be well myself, and how to make others so."
- Gardner 1993, pp. 51–52; Eddy Science and Health (1875), 1st edition, p. 4: "We made our first discovery that science mentally applied would heal the sick, in 1864, and since then have tested it on ourselves and hundreds of others, and never found it fail to prove the statement herein made of it."
Eddy, Boston Post, March 7, 1883: "We had laid the foundations of mental healing before we ever saw Dr. Quimby; were an homeopathist without a diploma. We made our first experiments in mental healing about 1853, when we were convinced that mind had a science, which, if understood, would heal all disease." See Dresser 1919, p. 58.
- Gill 1998, pp. 47–48; Eddy, Science and Health (1875), 1st edition, pp. 189–190.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 81.
Eddy, Science and Health (1875), 1st edition, pp. 189–190: "When quite a child we adopted the Graham system for dyspepsia, ate only bread and vegetables, and drank water, following this diet for years; we became more dyspeptic, however, and, of course, thought we must diet more rigidly; so we partook of but one meal in twenty-four hours, and this consisted of a thin slice of bread, about three inches square, without water ..."
Eddy, Science and Health (1889), 40th edition, pp. 96–98: "I knew a woman who, when quite a child, adopted the Graham diet to cure dyspepsia. She ate bread and vegetables only, and drank nothing but water for many years. Her dyspepsia increasing, she decided that her diet should be more rigid, and thereafter she partook of but one meal in twenty-four hours, this meal consisting of only a thin slice of bread without water. ..."
Eddy, Science and Health (1910), Chapter VIII, Footsteps of Truth, p. 221: "I knew a person who when quite a child adopted the Graham system to cure dyspepsia. For many years, he ate only bread and vegetables, and drank nothing but water. His dyspepsia increasing, he decided that his diet should be more rigid, and thereafter he partook of but one meal in twenty-four hours, this meal consisting of only a thin slice of bread without water. ..."
- Bates and Dittemore 1932 pp. 114–117; Gill 1998, pp. 169–170.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932 pp. 118–120.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 118; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 124; Schoepflin 2003, p. 15.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, pp. 125–127, 130.
- For metaphysical healing (later capitalized), see Eddy, Science and Health, 40th edition, 1889, p. 11, Metaphysical Science, p. 13, Divine Science, p. 22, Christ-cure, p. 117, Moral Science, p. 204; for Truth-cure, final edition, Chapter VIII, Footsteps of Truth, p. 237.
Eddy, Science and Health, first edition, Mary Baker Eddy Science Institute; for her use of Christian Science in the first edition (with science in both lower and upper case), Peel 1966, p. 283.
- Quimby 2009, p. 69: "The "religion of Christ is shown in the progress of Christian science"; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 157.
- For Adams, see Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 157 (see The Elements of Christian Science in archive.org); for de Pressensé, Peel 1966, p. 243.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, pp. 124–125; Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 126, 131.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, pp. 134, 139; Peel 1966, pp. 222, 239.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), May 1907, pp. 97–98; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 138; Peel 1966, pp. 222, 239.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), May 1907, p. 101 for $100, and for $300, p. 104; Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 138–139; Peel 1966, p. 252.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 145, citing a student, S. P. Bancroft, in his Mrs. Eddy as I Knew Her in 1870, Geo. H. Ellis, 1923. Bancroft's book contains copies of the manuscripts.
- Peel 1966, p. 249.
- Peel 1966, pp. 268–269.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), May 1907, pp. 100–101, 104; for the $1,000, Peel 1966, p. 247.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 144, 146.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 147; Peel 1966, p. 266.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 141–142, 144; Schoepflin 2003, pp. 15–16.
- Peel 1961, p. 290.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), May 1907, p. 107.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 147.
- Peel 1966, p. 272.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), May 1907, p. 108; Peel 1966, p. 285.
- Peel 1996, pp. 286–287.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, pp. 450ff, 455; Gill 1998, p. 257.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), July 1907, p. 333.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 230.
- Peel 1971, p. 14.
- Peel 1996, p. 283.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), June 1908, pp. 179–180, 186; Peel 1996, pp. 22–23, 358, footnote 108.
Eddy, Science and Health, first edition, Mary Baker Eddy Science Institute.
- Peel 1966, p. 292.
- Gardner (Los Angeles Times) 1999.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 208; Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 266–273.
- Gottschalk 1973, p. 42.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 266–273; Peel 1971, pp. 186–189; Gottschalk 1973, p. 125. Also see "Mark Twain indorses exposure of Mrs. Eddy", The New York Times, November 5, 1906.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 270.
- Weddle 1991, pp. 281, 288; Fraser 1999, p. 26.
- Gill 1998, pp. 330–331.
- Fraser 1999, p. 112.
- Gardner 1993, pp. 125–12; "United Christian Scientists v. Christian Science Board of Directors", United States District Court, District of Columbia, August 15, 1985.
"Christian Science Text's Copyright Is Ruled Illegal by Appeals Court", The New York Times, September 23, 1987.
- Eddy, "Healing the sick", chapter 8, Science and Health, first edition, p. 439: "Physical effects proceed from mental causes; the belief we can move our hand moves it, and the belief we cannot do this renders it impossible during this state of mind. Palsy is a belief that attacks mind, and holds a limb inactive independent of the mind's consent, but the fact that a limb is moved only with mind proves the opposite, namely, that mind renders it also immovable"; p. 454: "Agree not with sickness, meet the physical condition with a mental protest, that destroys it as one property destroys another in chemistry."
- Eddy, First Church of Christ Scientist and Miscellany, Part 2 (Miscellany), Chapter I, "To the Christian World".
- Eddy, Science and Health, final edition, Chapter VI, "Science, Theology, Medicine", pp. 152–153; also see Eddy, Science and Health, chapter I, "Physiology, 40th edition", 1889, p. 47; Schoepflin 2003, p. 113ff.
For background on the placebo effect, see Anne Harrington, The Placebo Effect: An Interdisciplinary Exploration, Harvard University Press, 1999; Walter A. Brown, The Placebo Effect in Clinical Practice, Oxford University Press, 2013.
- Eddy, Science and Health, Chapter VII, "Physiology", pp. 196–197. "Timetables of birth and death are so many conspiracies against manhood and womanhood." Also Chapter VIII, "Footsteps of Truth", p. 246: "Except for the error of measuring and limiting all that is good and beautiful, man would enjoy more than threescore years and ten and still maintain his vigor, freshness, and promise."
- Eddy, Science and Health, Chapter VII, "Physiology", pp. 177–178; Gardner 1993, p. 64.
- Eddy, Science and Health, Chapter XII, "Christian Science Practice", pp. 401–402: "Until the advancing age admits the efficacy and supremacy of Mind, it is better for Christian Scientists to leave surgery and the adjustment of broken bones and dislocations to the fingers of a surgeon, while the mental healer confines himself chiefly to mental reconstruction and to the prevention of inflammation. Christian Science is always the most skilful surgeon, but surgery is the branch of its healing which will be last acknowledged. However, it is but just to say that the author has already in her possession well-authenticated records of the cure, by herself and her students through mental surgery alone, of broken bones, dislocated joints, and spinal vertebræ."
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, p. 459; September 1907, p. 568; Gill 1999, p. 546.
- William A. Purrington, Christian Science, E. B. Treat & Co., 1900, p. 4. Also see E. B. S., Jr., "Book review: Christian Science by William A. Purrington", The American Law Register, 48(6), June 1900, pp. 380–381; and William Purrington, "Manslaughter, Christian Science and the Law," American Lawyer, 7, 1899, pp. 5–9.
- Roberts 2009.
- Cabot (McClure's), August 1908; Whorton 2004, pp. 124–125.
- Stark 1998, p. 197.
- Peel 1971, pp. 18–19.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), July 1907, pp. 342–343; Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 247.
- Wilson 1961, pp. 126–127; Moore 1986, pp. 112–113.
- Eddy, Science and Health, 1889, 40th edition, p. 214: "The mild forms of animal magnetism are disappearing, and its aggressive features are coming to the front. The looms of crime, hidden in the dark recesses of mortal thought, are every hour weaving webs more complicated and subtile. ... Animal magnetism is literally demonology. ... Christian Science stands preeminent for promoting affection and virtue, in families and the community. Opposed to this healthful and elevating principle of Mind, as if to forestall the power of good, a baneful and secret mental influence has arisen ..." The current edition has some of the same text.
- Moore 1986, pp. 112–113; for the quote, Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 301. Also see "Lay Eddyite Suicide to 'Death Thought'", The New York Times, April 26, 1910: Christian Scientist Marion Stephens killed herself in April 1910, apparently in fear of malicious animal magnetism.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), July 1907, p. 344ff; for the complaint, p. 347; Peel 1971, pp. 40–45; Gill 1998, p. 253ff.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), July 1907, pp. 347–348; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 193; for Alcott, see Peel 1971, p. 44.
- Gill 1998, p. 397; Cather and Milmine (McClure's), July 1907, p. 346: "Mr Henry F. Dunnels of Ipswich was one of the chosen twelve. He says in his affidavit: 'When the Spofford lawsuit came along, she took twelve of us from the Association and made us take two hours apiece, one after the other. She made a statement that this man Spofford was adverse to her and that he used his mesmeric or hypnotic power over her students and her students' patients and hindered the students from performing healing on their patients, and we were held together to keep our minds over this Spofford to prevent him from exercising this mesmeric power over her students and patients. This twenty-four hours' work was done in her house.'"
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 304; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 254.
- Wilson 1961, p. 126, footnote 7, citing G. C. Carpenter, Watches, Prayers, Arguments Given to Students by Mary Baker Eddy, Carpenter Foundation; Moore 1986, pp. 113–114, citing Adam H. Dickey, Memoirs of Mary Baker Eddy, Robert G. Carter, 1927.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, pp. 450ff, 455; Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 194–201; Peel 1971, pp. 50–58; Gill 1998, p. 257.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, p. 454.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 201.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, p. 458.
- Stark 1998, p. 189.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), September 1907, p. 567; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 210.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, pp. 460–461; Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 213–215; Stark 1998, p. 189.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, p. 462; September 1907, p. 568.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 258.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, p. 462; September 1907, p. 567; Stark 1998 Stark 1998], p. 189. That Eddy charged $300 for a husband and wife, see Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 274. That the college closed on October 29, 1889, see Peel 1971, p. 252.
- Twain 1907, chapter one; Whorton 2004, p. 123.
- "Mesmerism or Arsenic", Boston Daily Globe, June 4, 1882; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 219; Gill 1999, pp. 287–289.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 220; Gill 1998, p. 289.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 84–85; also see Peters 2007, p. 89.
- Cather and Milmine (McClure's), September 1907, pp. 567–568, 575.
- "The Massachusetts Metaphysical College", Longyear Museum. According to Cather and Milmine: "Copies found their way to remote villages in Missouri and Arkansas, to lonely places in Nebraska and Colorado, where people had much time for reflection, little excitement, and a great need to believe in miracles." See Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 313.
- "Faith Healing in America," The Times, May 26, 1885.
- Peel 1971, p. 155; Gill 1998, p. 321.
- Gill 1998, pp. 322–323; Eddy, "Christian Science in Tremont Temple", Miscellaneous Writings 1883-1896, Chapter IV, "Addresses": "It is not one mind acting upon another mind; it is not the transference of human images of thought to other minds; it is not supported by the evidence before the personal senses, — Science contradicts this evidence; it is not of the flesh, but of the Spirit. It is Christ come to destroy the power of the flesh; it is Truth over error; that understood, gives man ability to rise above the evidence of the senses, take hold of the eternal energies of Truth, and destroy mortal discord with immortal harmony, — the grand verities of being. It is not one mortal thought transmitted to another's thought from the human mind that holds within itself all evil."
- Gottschalk 1973, p. xv.
- Ivey 1999, p. 31; "First Church of Christ, Scientist", Oconto County Historical Society.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 275.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 275; Peel 1971, p. 240.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 276–277.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 279.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 274–275.
- Cunningham 1967, p. 890; for 26 members in 1879, see Cather and Milmine (McClure's), August 1907, p. 458.
- These include John Ruskin, Thomas Carlyle, Charles Kingsley and Henri-Frédéric Amiel. See Wilson 1961, pp. 135–136, footnote 3; Braden 1967, p. 296; Gardner 1993, pp. 145–154. Also see Bryan Wilson, The Origins of Christian Science: A Survey, 1959.
Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 248–249, wrote that another essay, "Taking Offense," was printed as one of Eddy's when it had first been published anonymously by an obscure newspaper.
Eddy was also accused, by Walter M. Haushalter in his Mrs. Eddy Purloins from Hegel (1936), of having copied material from "The Metaphysical Religion of Hegel" (1866), an essay by Francis Lieber (1798–1872). See Haushalter 2010 , foreword and p. 33ff; Gardner 1993, pp. 145–154. For rebuttal, see Thomas C. Johnsen, "Historical Consensus and Christian Science: The Career of a Manuscript Controversy", The New England Quarterly, 53(1), March 1980, pp. 3–22.
- Braden 1967, p. 296.
For example, Blair wrote, p. 151: " ... the man of integrity ... is one, who makes it his constant rule to follow the road of duty, according as the word of God, and the voice of his conscience, point it out to him. He is not guided merely by affections, which may sometimes give the colour of virtue to a loose and unstable character. The upright man is guided by a fixed principle of mind, which determines him to esteem nothing but what is honourable; and to abhor whatever is base and unworthy, in moral conduct. Hence we find him ever the same; at all times, the trusty friend, the affectionate relation, the conscientious man of business, the pious worshipper, the public spirited citizen."
Eddy wrote, p. 147 (also see here): "The man of integrity is one who makes it his constant rule to follow the road of duty, according as Truth and the voice of his conscience point it out to him. He is not guided merely by affections which may some time give the color of virtue to a loose and unstable character.
"The upright man is guided by a fixed Principle, which destines him to do nothing but what is honorable, and to abhor whatever is base or unworthy; hence we find him ever the same, — at all times the trusty friend, the affectionate relative, the conscientious man of business, the pious worker, the public-spirited citizen."
- Gill 1998, p. 119: "... the extent and nature of her debt to Quimby ... became the single most controversial issue in her controversy-plagued life "; p. 138: "The ghost of Quimby stalked Mrs. Eddy unrelentingly, and it stalks her biographer to this day." Also see pp. 230–233, 312–317, 617, footnote 19.
"Congress library gets Eddy letters", The New York Times, April 6, 1930.
- Peel 1966, p. 259; Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 142–143: "Never advertised, and practiced by only one individual who healed me, Dr. Quimby of Portland, ME., an old gentleman who had made it a research for twenty-five years, starting from the standpoint of magnetism thence going forward and leaving that behind. I discovered the art in a moment's time, and he acknowledged it to me; he died shortly after and since then, eight years, I have been founding and demonstrating the science ... please preserve this and if you become my student call me to account for the truth of what I have written."
- Eddy, Miscellaneous Writings, pp. 62–63: "A 'mind-cure' is a matter-cure. ... The theology of Christian Science is based on the action of the divine Mind over the human mind and body; whereas, 'mind-cure' rests on the notion that the human mind can cure its own disease, or that which it causes ..."
- Peel 1971, pp. 135–136, citing Eddy, Journal of Christian Science, December 1883.
- A. O., "The Founder of the Mental Method of Treating Disease," Boston Post, February 8, 1883; Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 233–234; Peel 1971, p. 130; Gottschalk 1973, p. 108; Gill 1998, pp. 119–120, 314–316; Julius A. Dresser, The True History of Mental Science, February 6, 1887.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 235–238; Peel 1971, p. 130.
For another letter, see Eddy, Boston Post, March 7, 1883, in Dresser 1919, p. 58: "We had laid the foundations of mental healing before we ever saw Dr. Quimby; were a homeopathist without a diploma. We made our first experiments in mental healing about 1853, when we were convinced that mind had a science, which, if understood, would heal all disease."
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 211–212, 240–242. The pamphlet was Theology, or the Understanding of God as Applied to Healing the Sick (1881). Arens credited Quimby, the Gottesfreunde, Jesus, and "some thoughts contained in a work by Eddy."
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 240–242; Peel 1971, pp. 133–134 (pp. 134 and 344, footnote 44, for Quimby's son sending the manuscript overseas); Gill 1998, p. 316.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 243–244; Julius A. Dresser, The True History of Mental Science, February 6, 1887.
There were also articles in 1888 by George Quimby about his father in New England Magazine, and by A. J. Swartz, a former Christian Scientist, in Mental Science Magazine. See George Quimby, "Phineas Parkhurst Quimby", New England Magazine, 6(33), March 1888.
- The title page stated "Extracts from Dr. P. P. Quimby's writings." On the next page there was a title, "The Science of Man or the principle which controls all phenomena." The preface was signed Mary M. Glover. A note in the margin said, "P. P. Q's mss," then Quimby's manuscript followed. See Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 129–130.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, pp. 128; 162–163: "We have seen that while she was in Stoughton, Mrs. Glover wrote a preface, signed "Mary M. Glover," to her copy of Quimby's manuscript, Questions and Answers, and that she made slight changes in, and additions to, the text. In examining the copies of this manuscript which were given out to her students in Lynn, 1870-1872, we find that this signed preface has been incorporated in the text, so that the manuscript reads like the composition of one person, and that instead of being issued with a title-page, reading Extracts from P. P. Quimby's Writings, as was the Stoughton manuscript, the copies given out in Lynn were unsigned. This manuscript Mrs. Glover called The Science of Man, or the Principle which Controls Matter."
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 241.
Eddy, Footprints Fadeless, 1901–1902: "While under Mr. Quimby's treatment he frequently asked me to look over his scribblings and put them in grammatical form. This I did. Also I wrote manuscript copies of my own, and left them with him. I had no occasion, or incentive, to steal his thunder."
Eddy, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, and Miscellany, Chapter XVII: "Quotations have been published, purporting to be Dr. Quimby's own words, which were written while I was his patient in Portland and holding long conversations with him on my views of mental therapeutics. Some words in these quotations certainly read like words that I said to him, and which I, at his request, had added to his copy when I corrected it. In his conversations with me and in his scribblings, the word science was not used at all, till one day I declared to him that back of his magnetic treatment and manipulation of patients, there was a science, and it was the science of mind, which had nothing to do with matter, electricity, or physics."
Eddy, Science and Health (1889), 40th edition, pp. 6–7: "Mr. Quimby's ... method of treating disease was obviously physical, rather than mental. ... I healed some of his patients, and also corrected some of the desultory paragraphs which he had committed to paper, besides leaving with him some of my own writings, which are now claimed as his.
"Mr. Quimby's son has stated ... that he has in his possession all his father's written utterances; and I have offered to pay for their publication, but he declines to publish them; for their publication would silence the insinuation that Mr. Quimby originated the system of healing which I claim to be mine."
Eddy, Retrospection and Introspection (1891), pp. 240–241 (also here): "In 1870 I copyrighted the first publication on spiritual, scientific Mind-healing, entitled The Science of Man. This little book is converted into the chapter on Recapitulation in Science and Health. It was so new – the basis it laid down for physical and moral health was so hopelessly original – that I did not venture upon its publication until later ... Five years after taking out my first copyright, I taught the Science of Mind-healing, alias Christian Science, by writing out my manuscripts for students and distributing them unsparingly. This will account for certain published and unpublished manuscripts extant, which the evil-minded would insinuate did not originate with me."
- Powell 1917 , p. 71.
- "True Origin of Christian Science", The New York Times, July 10, 1904.
In 1907 McClure's compared the Wentworth manuscript with Quimby's Question and Answers, which they obtained from Quimby's son, and wrote that 20 pages of the texts were identical. See Cather and Milmine 1909, pp. 128–129: "For twenty closely written pages, Quimby's manuscript, "Questions and Answers," is word for word the same as Mrs. Glover's manuscript, "The Science of Man." For the whole discussion, pp. 125–133.
Quimby, "Questions and Answers", The Quimby Manuscripts, chapter 13, archive.org.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 145, citing S. P. Bancroft, Mrs. Eddy as I Knew Her in 1870 (1923); for the history of the Science and Man manuscript, see Peel 1966, pp. 231–236; Fraser 1999, p. 468, footnote 99.
Several versions of Science and Man can be found in "Essays and other footprints left by Mary Baker Eddy", Rare Book Company, Freehold, New Jersey, p. 178ff.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 156, 244–245.
- Peel 1966, pp. 179–183, particularly 182; Peel 1971, p. 345, footnote 44.
- Gardner 1993, p. 47 (full discussion pp. 31–49); Gill 1998, p. 316; Caroline Fraser 1999, pp. 50–51, wrote that the plagiarism claims were exaggerated but that Quimby was clearly Eddy's inspiration.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 355; for Eddy calling herself "Professor of Obstetrics," Gill 1998, p. 347; for two one-week classes, Peel 1971, p. 237.
- Schoepflin 2003, p. 212.
- "The Christian Scientists' Celebration", The Christian Science Journal, 3(5), August 1885.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, pp. 354–355; Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 282; Peel 1971, p. 237; Schoepflin 2003, pp. 82–85.
"Christian Science Killed Her", The New York Times, May 18, 1888; "Mrs. Corner on Trial", May 22, 1888; "The Christian Scientist Held", May 26, 1888; "The Christian Scientist Not Indicted", June 10, 1888.
- Cather and Milmine 1909, p. 356; for the secretary resigning, Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 283.
- Schoepflin 2003, pp. 212–217.
- Cunningham 1967, p. 902; Peters 2007, p. 98.
- Schoepflin 2003, p. 189; Peters 2007, pp. 100, 107.
- Willrich 2011, pp. 260–261.
- Gill 1998, p. 684.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 299–303.
- Wilson 1961, p. 159.
- "An Invitation to Pleasant View, June 29, 1903", Mary Baker Eddy Library, October 1, 2012.
- Gill 1998, p. 360.
- Ivey 1999, pp. 50, 52.
- Armstrong 1913, pp. 73–81; Gill 1998, pp. xiv, 363.
- Ivey 1999, pp. 70–75; Gill 1998, p. xii.
- Cunningham 1967, pp. 901–902.
- Stark 1998, pp. 190–191; "The Truth about Mrs Eddy", The New York Times, November 4, 1906.
- For seven church buildings in 1890, see Cunningham 1967, p. 890 (he writes that there were 1,104 in 1910). For the other figures, see "Christian Science", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1922.
- Twain, "Christian Science and the Book of Mrs. Eddy", Cosmopolitan, October 1899.
- Gragg Camfield, The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 716, 717.
- Twain, "The Secret History of Eddypus, the World Empire"], Tales of Wonder, University of Nebraska Press, 2003, p. 176ff.
- Twain 1907, chapter 15.
- Stahl 2012, p. 202; Twain 1907, chapter 7.
- Twain 1907, chapter 3.
- Twain 1907: "For the thing back of it is wholly gracious and beautiful: the power, through loving mercifulness and compassion, to heal fleshly ills and pains and grief—all—with a word, with a touch of the hand! This power was given by the Saviour to the Disciples, and to all the converted. All—every one. It was exercised for generations afterwards. Any Christian who was in earnest and not a make-believe, not a policy-Christian, not a Christian for revenue only, had that healing power, and could cure with it any disease or any hurt or damage possible to human flesh and bone. These things are true, or they are not. If they were true seventeen and eighteen and nineteen centuries ago it would be difficult to satisfactorily explain why or how or by what argument that power should be nonexistent in Christians now."
Also see Cynthia D. Schrager, "Mark Twain and Mary Baker Eddy: Gendering the Transpersonal Subject", American Literature, 70(1), 1998.
- Mizruchi 2005, pp. 528–529.
- "Novel", Pulitzer Prizes; Stouck 1993, p. xvff, introduction to the University of Nebraska Press edition.
- McClure's, December 1906; Cather and Milmine (McClure's), January 1907 – June 1908], 14 articles.
Eddy, "Reply to McClure's Magazine", Christian Science Endtime Center.
- Cather and Milmine 1909.
- Bercovitch 2005, p. 530ff; Fraser 1999, pp. 137–141; Gill 1998, p. 567; Gardner 1993, p. 41.
- Cather was assisted by Burton J. Hendrick (1870–1949); Will Irwin (1873–1948); political columnist Mark Sullivan (1874–1952); researcher Georgine Milmine (1874–1950); and briefly Ida Tarbell (1857–1944). See Bercovitch 2005, p. 530ff; Mizruchi 2005, pp. 529–530; Stouck 1993, p. xvff; Bohlke 1982.
- Fraser 1999, p. 139; Gardner 1993, p. 41.
- Bercovitch 2005, p. 530ff; Stouck 1993, p. xvff. In his introduction to the 1993 edition, David Stouck wrote that Cather's portrayal of Eddy contains "some of the finest portrait sketches and reflections on human nature" that she would ever write. See Stouck 1993, p. xviii. Gillian Gill wrote that McClure's was in touch with the litigants in the so-called "Next Friends" suit in 1907, in which Eddy's relatives sought to have her declared unable to manage her affairs, and that each side was feeding information to the other, to the detriment of accuracy. See Gill 1998, pp. 37–39.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 396.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 403–408.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, pp. 411, 413, 417; "Dr. Alan McLane Hamilton Tells About His Visit to Mrs. Eddy", The New York Times, August 25, 1907.
- For July 18, 1908, see Gill 1998, p. 532; for the rest, Fuller 2011, pp. 3, 175.
- Bates and Dittemore 1932, p. 451; "New York Eddyites Take Death Calmly", The New York Times, December 5, 1910; "The Strange Life of Mary Baker Eddy", The New York Times, December 5, 1910. The church placed an armed guard outside her tomb at Mount Auburn cemetery, triggering complaints from a minority of Christian Scientists who believed she might be resurrected and find her exit barred. See "Look for Mrs. Eddy to rise from tomb", The New York Times, December 29, 1910.
- "Church gets most of her estate", The New York Times, December 15, 1910; "Nothing left to relatives", The New York Times, December 8, 1910.
- Stark 1998, p. 192, citing the Christian Science Journal.
- Stark 1998, pp. 190–191.
- Stark 1998, p. 192; "Teachers and practitioners", The Christian Science Journal Directory.
- Bryant (Christian Science Monitor) 2009.
- Stark 1998, p.194.
- Stark 1998, p. 195.
- Stark 1998, pp. 198–199.
- Stark 1998, pp. 206, 212.
- Stark 1998, pp. 203–204.
- Stark 1998, pp. 197–198, 211–212.
- Stark 1998, p. 212.
- Stark 1998, p. 203.
- Stark 1998, p. 205.
- Stark 1998, p. 204.
- Stark 1998, pp. 202, 208.
- Battin 1999, p. 7.
- Stark 1998, pp. 196–197; Gottschalk 2006, p. 86.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 94–96.
- "Testimony Guidelines", JSH-Online, Christian Science church.
- Battin 1999, p. 15.
- Battin 1999, p. 15; "An Empirical Analysis of Medical Evidence in Christian Science Testimonies of Healing, 1969–1988", Christian Science church, April 1989, pp. 2, 7, courtesy of the Johnson Fund.
- Peters 2007, p. 22; "An Analysis of a Christian Science Study of the Healings of 640 Childhood Illnesses", Death by Religious Exemption, Coalition to Repeal Exemptions to Child Abuse Laws, Massachusetts Committee for Children and Youth, January 1992, Section IX, p. 34.
- Vitello (New York Times) 2010, p. 2.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 91–93; Eddy, Chapter XIV, "Recapitulation", Science and Health.
- Fraser 1999, p. 91; Eddy, "Board of Education, ARTICLE XXIX, Applicants and Graduates", Manual of The Mother Church, 89th edition, 1895, pp. 88–90.
- Several of the homes are Medicare or Medicaid providers. See Fraser 1999, p. 329; "Christian Science nursing facilities", Commission for Accreditation of Christian Science Nursing Organizations/Facilities; "Christian Science Nursing is spiritually based healthcare", Commission for Accreditation of Christian Science Nursing Organizations/Facilities.
- Peters 2007, p. 15; Dwyer 2000, p. 159.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 323–325; Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 287–289; Eddy, Science and Health, final edition, pp. 412–413: "If the case is that of a young child or an infant, it needs to be met mainly through the parent’s thought, silently or audibly on the aforesaid basis of Christian Science. The Scientist knows that there can be no hereditary disease, since matter is not intelligent and cannot transmit good or evil intelligence to man, and God, the only Mind, does not produce pain in matter. The act of yielding one's thoughts to the undue contemplation of physical wants or conditions induces those very conditions. A single requirement, beyond what is necessary to meet the simplest needs of the babe is harmful. Mind regulates the condition of the stomach, bowels, and food, the temperature of children and of men, and matter does not. The wise or unwise views of parents and other persons on these subjects produce good or bad effects on the health of children."
- Vitello (New York Times) 2010, p. 1; Talbot 1983, p. 1642.
- Young 2001, p. 270; Peters 2007, p. 116.
- Hughes 2004; Young 2001; Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
- Offit 2011, p. 194; Peters 2007, pp. 113–114; Fraser 2003, p. 268.
- Peters 2007, p. 116; Young 2001, p. 270.
- Peters 2007, 116; "Exemptions from providing medical care for sick children", Children's Healthcare is a Legal Duty. For 37 states, Guam and the District of Columbia, see "Religious Exemptions to Child Neglect", National District Attorneys Association, June 2013.
The state of Washington religious exemption said as of March 2014: "It is the intent of the legislature that a person who, in good faith, is furnished Christian Science treatment by a duly accredited Christian Science practitioner in lieu of medical care is not considered deprived of medically necessary health care or abandoned." See "RCW 9A.42.005, Findings and intent — Christian Science treatment — Rules of evidence", Washington State legislature; "Religious Exemptions to Child Neglect", National District Attorneys Association, June 2013.
West Virginia has a religious exemption that protects parents when their children die: "Child neglect resulting in death; criminal penalties. ... No child who in lieu of medical treatment was under treatment solely by spiritual means through prayer in accordance with a recognized method of religious healing with a reasonable proven record of success shall, for that reason alone, be considered to have been neglected within the provisions of this section."
A "recognized method of healing" is one where "fees and expenses incurred in connection with such treatment are permitted to be deducted from taxable income as 'medical expenses' ..." This definition applies to Christian Science prayer. See "West Virginia Code, §61-8D-4a. Child neglect resulting in death; criminal penalties", West Virginia Legislature.
Rita Swan, "Religion, Culture and Criminal Law", Child-Friendly Faith Project Conference, November 8, 2013 (video, from 11:20 mins); Shawn Francis Peters, "Guest: Shawn Francis Peters, author, When Prayer Fails", FreeThought Radio (audio, from 18:25 mins).
- Fraser (Atlantic) 1995. Also see Arnold S. Relman, "Christian Science and the care of children", New England Journal of Medicine, 309(26), December 29, 1983, p. 1639; Rita Swan, "Faith healing, Christian Science, and the medical care of children", New England Journal of Medicine, 309(26), December 29, 1983, pp. 1639–1641; Nathan Talbot, "The position of the Christian Science church", New England Journal of Medicine, 309(26), December 29, 1983, pp. 1641–1644.
- "Religious Objections to Medical Care", American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Bioethics, Pediatrics, 99(2), February 1, 1997, pp. 279–281 (reaffirmed, May 2009).
- "Vaccination Exemptions", The College of Physicians of Philadelphia, undated, accessed February 8, 2013; "Exemptions from providing medical care for sick children", Children's Healthcare is a Legal Duty.
- Novotny 1988; Fraser 2003, p. 268.
In 1972 128 students at a Christian Science school in Greenwich, Connecticut, contracted polio and four were left partially paralyzed. In 1982 a nine-year-old girl died of diphtheria after attending a Christian Science camp in Colorado. See Fraser 1999, p. 303; Swan 1983. In 1985 128 people were infected with measles, and three died, at Principia College, a Christian Science school in Elsah, Illinois. See Fraser 1999, pp. 301–302; "Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Multiple Measles Outbreaks on College Campuses – Ohio, Massachusetts, Illinois", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, March 15, 1985. In 1994 190 people in six states were infected with measles traced to a child from a Christian Science family in Elsah. See Fraser 1999, p. 303; "Outbreak of Measles Among Christian Science Students – Missouri and Illinois, 1994", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 1, 1994.
- Fraser 1999, p. 262; Schoepflin 2003, pp. 151, 212–215; Peters 2007, pp. 89ff, 109ff; Vitello (New York Times) 2010, p. 2.
- Asser and Swan 1998; Peters 2007, pp. 12, 14. Also see David van Biema, "Faith Or Healing?", Time, 152(9), August 31, 1998.
- Peters 2007, pp. 194–195; Fraser 1999, pp. 287–292, 295.
- Peters 2007, pp. 118–121; Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
Four-year-old Shauntay Walker, who was suffering from bacterial meningitis, died in Sacramento, California, in 1984; her mother pleaded guilty to manslaughter, and was fined and placed on probation. Seth Glazer and Natalie Middleton-Rippberger, also suffering from bacterial meningitis, died in Los Angeles after their parents withheld treatment; the Glazers were acquitted of all charges, while Natalie's parents were acquitted of manslaughter but convicted of neglect. Twelve-year-old Andrew Wantland died of complications from diabetes in December 1992 in La Habra, California.
David Margolick, "In Child Deaths, a Test for Christian Science", The New York Times, August 6, 1990; Tamara Jones, "Prayers, Parental Duty : Child Deaths Put Faith on Trial", Los Angeles Times, June 17, 1989.
- Peters 2007, p. 13; Fraser 1999, pp. 305–309; Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
- Peters 2007, p. 122ff; Fraser 1999, pp. 303–305; Commonwealth vs. David R. Twitchell, 1993; Margolick (New York Times) 1990; Doris Sue Wong, "Neighbor calls Twitchell son's cries 'unbearable'", Boston Globe, May 24, 1990.
- North East Rep Second Ser, August 11, 1993; "Court Overturns Conviction of Christian Science Couple", Associated Press, August 12, 1993.
- Roberts (British Medical Journal) 1996; Peters 2007, p. 127; "Christian Scientists Found Liable in Death", The New York Times, August 19, 1993.
For the case, see State v. McKown, Court of Appeals of Minnesota, October 16, 1990; State v. McKown, Supreme Court of Minnesota, September 20, 1991; Lundman v. McKown, Court of Appeals of Minnesota, April 1995; Lundman v. McKown, Hennepin County District Court, October 28, 1997.
- The nurse sat with him for five hours; sixteen minutes before her diary said that he had stopped breathing she had written "passing possible." See Fraser 1999, pp. 310–313; Lundman v. McKown, Court of Appeals of Minnesota, April 1995, footnote 5.
- Fraser 1999, p. 314; Peters 2007, pp. 127–128.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 313–315; Peters 2007, p. 129; Lundman v. McKown, Court of Appeals of Minnesota, April 1995, [530 N.W.2d 816].
Linda Greenhouse, "Supreme Court Roundup; Christian Scientists Rebuffed in Ruling By Supreme Court", The New York Times, January 23, 1996; Linda Greenhouse, "A Court's Loud Silence", The New York Times, January 28, 1996.
Also see Stephen L. Carter, "The Power of Prayer, Denied", The New York Times, January 31, 1996; Caroline Fraser, "No, Prayer Doesn't Always Cure. But Neither Does Medicine. Legal Duty to Inform", The New York Times, February 10, 1996; William K. Foster, "No, Prayer Doesn't Always Cure. But Neither Does Medicine", The New York Times, February 10, 1996.
- Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
- Eddy, "List of Church Officers", Manual of the Mother Church; Gottschalk 1973, p. 190.
- Stark 1998, p. 193, for the sequences.
- Members are expected to pray each day: "Thy kingdom come; let the reign of divine Truth, Life, and Love be established in me, and rule out of me all sin; and may Thy Word enrich the affections of all mankind, and govern them!" See Eddy, Manual of the Mother Church, Article VIII, Section 4; Gottschalk 1973, p. 240.
- Eddy, Manual of the Mother Church, Article VIII, Sections 13, 14.
- Eddy, Manual of the Mother Church, discipline.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 17, 18; "Sunday church services and Wednesday testimony meetings", and "Online Wednesday meetings", Christian Science church.
- Steve Stecklow, "Church's Media Moves At Issue A Burgeoning Network Sparks Dissent", Philadelphia Inquirer, October 14, 1991. Stephen Gottschalk – author of The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life (1973) and Rolling Away the Stone: Mary Baker Eddy's Challenge to Materialism (2005) – who worked for the church's Committee on Publication in Boston for 13 years, was forced out in 1990 after advising the board to be more accepting of internal criticism; by the end of the year, five of his associates had resigned or been fired, according to Caroline Fraser. See Fraser 1999, pp. 373–374.
- Fraser 1999, p. 215.
- Gardner (Los Angeles Times) 1999.
- Margolick (New York Times) 1990, p. 2; Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
- Fraser 1999, pp. 186–190, 239, 427, for Shepard, Astor, Lightoller; also see Charles Lightoller, "It is difficult to tell of the experience ...", Christian Science Journal, October 1912.
- Margolick (New York Times) 1990, p. 2, for Jean Stapleton and Carol Channing; Fraser 1999, p. 215, for Val Kilmer and Horton Foote; Gardner (Los Angeles Times) 1999 for Cecil B. DeMille, Joan Crawford, Mary Pickford, Mickey Rooney, Ginger Rogers, Doris Day, Robert Duvall, George Hamilton.
- Fraser 1999, p. 215: Robin Williams and Elizabeth Taylor; Fuller 2011, p. 48: Ellen DeGeneres, Henry Fonda and Audrey Hepburn; Biesinger 2006, p. 576: Helmuth von Moltke; Wright 2013, p. 335: Anne Archer; Wells 2001, p. 49: Daniel Ellsberg.
- Stephanie Clifford, "Christian Science Paper to End Daily Print Edition", The New York Times, October 28, 2008; Jon Fine, "The Christian Science Monitor to Become a Weekly", Business Week, October 28, 2008; David Cook, "Monitor shifts from print to Web-based strategy", The Christian Science Monitor, October 29, 2008.
- Seth Faison, "The Media Business; New Deadline for Monitor Channel", The New York Times, April 6, 1992.
- "Learn more about JSH-Online".
- Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
- Gardner 1993, pp. 210–214; Fraser 1999, p. 369ff.
- Fraser (Atlantic) 1995; Peter Steinfels, "Fiscal and Spiritual Rifts Shake Christian Scientists", The New York Times, February 29, 1992; John Marcus, "Christian Science Dissent Testing the Faith", Associated Press, May 15, 1992.
- News sources and websites are listed in the Notes section only.
- Anker, Roy M. "Revivalism, Religious Experience and the Birth of Mental Healing," Self-help and Popular Religion in Early American Culture: An Interpretive Guide, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, pp. 11–100.
- Albanese, Catherine. A Republic of Mind and Spirit: A Cultural History of American Metaphysical Religion, Yale University Press, 2006.
- Armstrong, Joseph. The Mother Church, The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1913.
- Asser, Seth M. and Swan, Rita. "Child fatalities from religion-motivated medical neglect", Pediatrics, 101(4 Pt 1), April 1998, pp. 625–629.
- Bates, Ernest Sutherland and Dittemore, John V. Mary Baker Eddy: The Truth and the Tradition, A. A. Knopf, 1932.
- Battin, Margaret P. "High-Risk Religion: Christian Science and the Violation of Informed Consent," in Peggy DesAutels, Margaret P. Battin and Larry May (eds.), Praying for a Cure: When Medical and Religious Practices Conflict, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999.
- Biesinger, Joseph. Germany: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present, Infobase Publishing, 2006.
- Bercovitch, Sacvan. "Cosmopolitan variations," in Sacvan Bercovitch and Cyrus R. K. Patell (eds.), The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume 3, Prose Writing, 1860-1920, University of Cambridge Press, 2005.
- Bloom, Harold. The American Religion, Simon & Schuster, 1992.
- Bohlke, L. Brent. "Willa Cather and The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy", American Literature, 54(2), May 1982, pp. 288–294.
- Braden, Charles S. Spirits in Rebellion: The Rise and Development of New Thought, Southern Methodist University Press, 1963.
- Braden, Charles S. "Review of Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Discovery by Robert Peel", Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 6(2), Autumn 1967.
- British Medical Journal. "The Bishop Of London On Christian Science", 2(2342), November 12, 1905.
- Bryant, Christa Case. "Africa contributes biggest share of new members to Christian Science church", Christian Science Monitor, June 9, 2009.
- Cabot, Richard. "One Hundred Christian Science Cures", McClure's, August 1908.
- Cather, Willa and Milmine, Georgine. "Mary Baker G. Eddy", McClure's magazine, January 1907 – June 1908, 14 articles.
- Cather, Willa and Milmine, Georgine. The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science, Doubleday 1909.
- Court of Appeals of Minnesota. "Lundman v. McKown", April 4, 1995.
- Cunningham, Raymond J. "The Impact of Christian Science on the American Churches, 1880–1910", The American Historical Review, 72(3), April 1967, pp. 885–905.
- deChant, Dell. "World Religions Made in the U.S.A.: Metaphysical Communities—Christian Science and Theosophy," in Jacob Neusner (ed.), World Religions in America, Westminster John Knox Press, 2003, p. 203ff.
- deChant, Dell. "The American New Thought Movement," in Eugene Gallagher and Michael Ashcraft (eds.), Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, Greenwood Publishing Company, 2007.
- Dresser, Horatio W. The Spirit of the New Thought, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1917.
- Dresser, Horatio W. A History of the New Thought Movement, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1919.
- Dresser, Julius. The True Story of Mental Science, Alfred Mudge & Son, 1887.
- Dwyer, James G. "Spiritual Treatment Exemptions to Child Medical Neglect Laws: What We Outsiders Should Think", College of William & Mary Law School, 2000.
- Eddy, Mary Baker. Science and Health, The Christian Science Board of Directors, first published 1875.
- Eddy, Mary Baker. Rudimental Divine Science, The Christian Science Board of Directors, first published 1883.
- Eddy, Mary Baker. Historical Sketch of Christian Science Mind-healing, 1888.
- Eddy, Mary Baker. Manual of the Mother Church, 89th edition, The Christian Science Board of Directors, first published 1895.
- Eddy, Mary Baker. "The People's Idea of God", delivered as a sermon, 1908.
- Eddy, Mary Baker. Miscellaneous Writings, 1897.
- Fraser, Caroline. "Suffering Children and the Christian Science Church", The Atlantic, April 1995.
- Fraser, Caroline. God's Perfect Child: Living and Dying in the Christian Science Church, Henry Holt and Company, 1999.
- Fraser, Caroline. "Christian Science", in Gary Laderman and Luis D. León (eds.), Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions, ABC-CLIO, 2003.
- Fuller, Linda K. The Christian Science Monitor: An Evolving Experiment in Journalism, ABC-CLIO, 2011.
- Fuller, Robert. Mesmerism and the American Cure of Souls, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.
- Gardner, Martin. The Healing Revelations of Mary Baker Eddy, Prometheus Books, 1993.
- Gardner, Martin. "Mind over Matter", Los Angeles Times, August 22, 1999.
- Guald, Alan. A History of Hypnotism, University of Cambridge Press, 1992.
- Gill, Gillian. Mary Baker Eddy, Da Capo Press, 1998.
- Gottschalk, Stephen. The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life, University of California Press, 1973.
- Gottschalk, Stephen. "The Real Mrs. Eddy", The New York Review of Books, January 11, 2001, letter to the editor.
- Gottschalk, Stephen. Rolling away the stone: Mary Baker Eddy's challenge to materialism, Indiana University Press, 2006.
- Hanna, Septimus J. Christian Science History, The Christian Science Publishing Company, 1899.
- Holcombe, William H. Condensed Thoughts about Christian Science, Purdy Publishing Company, 1887.
- Haller, John S. The History of New Thought: From Mental Healing to Positive Thinking and the Prosperity Gospel, Swedenborg Foundation Press, 2012.
- Harley, Gail M. "Church of Christ, Scientist," in J. Gordon Melton and Martin Baumann (eds.), Religions of the World, ABC-CLIO, 2010.
- Harrington, Ann. The Cure Within: A History of Mind-Body Medicine, W. W. Norton & Company, 2009, p. 110ff.
- Holmes, Stewart W. "Phineas Parkhurst Quimby: Scientist of Transcendentalism", The New England Quarterly, 17(3), September 1994, pp. 356–380.
- Horn, Jason Gary. Mark Twain and William James: Crafting a Free Self, University of Missouri Press, 1996.
- Hughes, Richard A. "The Death of Children by Faith-Based Medical Neglect", Journal of Law and Religion, 20(1), 2004.
- Ivey, Paul Eli. Prayers in Stone: Christian Science Architecture in the United States, 1894–1930, University of Illinois Press, 1999.
- James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience, 1902 (Gifford Lecture).
- Jenkins, Philip. Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History, Oxford University Press, 2000.
- Jones, Gary. "The Real Mrs. Eddy", The New York Review of Books, January 11, 2001, letter to the editor.
- Lewis, James R. Legitimating New Religions, Rutgers University Press, 2003.
- Lundman case: State v. McKown, Court of Appeals of Minnesota, October 16, 1990; State v. McKown, Supreme Court of Minnesota, September 20, 1991; Lundman v. McKown, Court of Appeals of Minnesota, April 1995.
- McClure's (see Cather and Milmine).
- McDonald, Jean A. "Mary Baker Eddy and the Nineteenth-Century 'Public' Woman: A Feminist Reappraisal," Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 2(1), 1986, p. 97ff.
- McGuire, Meredith B. "Traditional Metaphysical Movements," Ritual Healing in Suburban America, Rutgers University Press, 1988.
- McLoughlin, William G. Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform, University of Chicago Press, 1980.
- Melton, J. Gordon. "Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science)," Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America, Routledge, 1992.
- Melton, J. Gordon. "An Introduction to New Religions," in James R. Lewis (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements, Oxford University Press, 2003.
- Melton, J. Gordon. "Christian Science," Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Infobase Publishing, 2005.
- Melton, J. Gordon. The Encyclopedia of American Religions, Gale Research International, 2009 (8th edition).
- Mizruchi, Susan L. "Becoming Multicultural: Culture, Economy, and the Novel: 1860–1920," in Sacvan Bercovitch and Cyrus R. K. Patell (eds.), The Cambridge History of American Literature: Volume Three, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
- Moore, R. Laurence. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans, Oxford University Press, 1986.
- National District Attorneys Association, "Religious Exemptions to Child Neglect", June 2013.
- North East Rep Second Ser. "Commonwealth v. Twitchell", 11(617), August 11, 1993, pp. 609–621.
- Novotny, T. et al. "Measles outbreaks in religious groups exempt from immunization laws", Public Health Reports, 103(1), Jan–Feb 1988, pp. 49–54.
- Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966, later published by the Christian Science Publishing Society.
- Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Trial, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.
- Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Authority, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977.
- Peters, Shawn Francis. When Prayer Fails: Faith Healing, Children, and the Law, Oxford University Press, 2007.
- Porterfield, Amanda. Healing in the History of Christianity, Oxford University Press, 2005.
- Powell, Lyman P. Christian Science: The Faith and Its Founder, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1907 (this edition 1917).
- Powell, Lyman P. Mary Baker Eddy: A Life Size Portrait, The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1930.
- Prentiss, Craig R. "Sickness, Death and Illusion in Christian Science", in Colleen McDannell (ed.), Religions of the United States in Practice, Vol. 1, Princeton University Press, 2001.
- Pritchard, Linda K. "Religious Change in Nineteenth-Century America," in Charles Y. Glock and Robert Neelly Bellah (eds.), The New Religious Consciousness, University of California Press, 1976.
- Quimby, Phineas Parkhurst. The Completed Collected Works of Dr. Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, Seed of Life Publishing, 2008, edited by Ronald A. Hughes. All Quimby's works were published posthumously, first in The Quimby Manuscripts, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1921, edited by Horatio Dresser; and in Phineas Parkhurst Quimby: The Complete Writings, Volumes 1, 2 and 3, Devorss & Co, 1988, edited by Ervin Seale.
- Purrington, William A. Christian Science, E. B. Treat and Company, 1900.
- Richardson, James T. "Major controversies involving new religious movements"], The Cambridge Companion to New Religious Movements, Cambridge University Press, 2012.
- Roberts, Charles Stewart. "The Case of Richard Cabot", Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, 22(3), July 2009, pp. 246–263.
- Roberts, John. "Religion should not put a child's health at risk", British Medical Journal, February 3, 1996.
- Saliba, John A. Understanding New Religious Movements, Rowman Altamira, 2003.
- Schoepflin, Rennie B. Christian Science on Trial: Religious Healing in America, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
- Simmons, John K. "Christian Science," in Eugene Gallagher and Michael Ashcraft (eds.), Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, Greenwood Publishing Company, 2007.
- Simmons, John K. "Christian Science and American Culture", in Timothy Miller (ed.), America's Alternative Religions, SUNY Press, 1995.
- Stahl, J. D. Mark Twain, Culture and Gender: Envisioning America Through Europe, University of Georgia Press, 2012.
- Stark, Rodney. "The Rise and Fall of Christian Science", Journal of Contemporary Religion, 13(2), 1998, pp. 189–214.
- Stark, Rodney and Bainbridge, William Sims. Religion, Deviance, and Social Control, Routledge, 2012 (first published 1996).
- Sugerman, D. E. et al. "Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population, San Diego, 2008: Role of the Intentionally Undervaccinated", Pediatrics, 125(4), April 1, 2010, pp. 747–755.
- Swan, Rita. "Faith healing, Christian Science, and the medical care of children",New England Journal of Medicine, 309(26), December 29, 1983, pp. 1639–1641.
- Talbot, Nathan. "The position of the Christian Science church", New England Journal of Medicine, 309(26), December 29, 1983, pp. 1641–1644.
- Taves, Ann. Fits, Trances, and Visions, Princeton University Press, 1999.
- Twain, Mark. Christian Science, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1907.
- Weddle, David L. "The Christian Science Textbook: An Analysis of the Religious Authority of Science and Health by Mary Baker Eddy", The Harvard Theological Review, 84(3), 1991.
- Wells, Tom. Wild Man: The Life and Times of Daniel Ellsberg, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.
- Westberg, M. Victor. "Christian Science: An Exchange", The New York Review of Books, November 14, 1996.
- Whorton, James C. Nature Cures: The History of Alternative Medicine in America, Oxford University Press, 2004.
- Willrich, Michael. Pox: An American History, Penguin Press, 2011.
- Wilson, Bryan R. "Christian Science," in Sects and Society: A Sociological Study of the Elim Tabernacle, Christian Science, and Christadelphians, University of California Press, 1961, pp. 121–215.
- Wright, Lawrence. Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood & the Prison of Belief, Knopf, 2013.
- Young, Beth Rapp. "Defending Child Medical Neglect: Christian Science Persuasive Rhetoric", Rhetoric Review, 20(3/4), 2001, pp. 268–292.
- Christian Science church; JSH-Online (Journal, Sentinel, Herald)
- Mary Baker Eddy, Science and Health (1875), 1st edition.
- Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, final edition.
- Books, articles
- Ahlstrom, Sydney. A Religious History of the American People, Yale University Press, 2004 (first published 1972), p. 1019ff.
- Braden, Charles S. These Also Believe: A Study of Modern American Cults and Minority Religious Movements, The Macmillan Company, 1949.
- Braden, Charles S. Christian Science Today: Power, Policy, Practice, Southern Methodist University Press, 1958.
- Curtis, Heather D. Faith in the Great Physician: Suffering and Divine Healing in American Culture, 1860–1900, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.
- Dawson, Lorne L. Cults and New Religious Movements: A Reader, Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.
- Dawson, Lorne L. "Church–Sect–Cult: Constructing Typologies of Religious Groups" in Peter Clarke (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Sociology of Religion, Oxford University Press, 2009.
- Gallagher, Eugene V. "Christian Science," The New Religious Movements Experience In America, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, pp. 51–55.
- Hagerty, Barbara Bradley. "Future of the Christian Science Church", NPR, July 23, 2003.
- Haller, John S. Shadow Medicine: The Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies, Columbia University Press, 2014.
- Klassen, Pamela. Spirits of Protestantism: Medicine, Healing, and Liberal Christianity, University of California Press, 2011.
- Lewis, James R. "Christian Science (Church of Christ, Scientist)", Cults in America: A Reference Handbook, ABC-CLIO, 1998.
- Parker, Gail Thaine. Mind Cure in New England From the Civil War to World War One, University Press of New England, 1973.
- Podmore, Frank. From Mesmer to Christian Science: A Short History of Mental Healing, Cambridge University Press, 2011, first published 1909 (archive.org).
- Seale, Erwin. Mingling Minds: Some commentary on the philosophy and practice of Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, Tide Press, 1986.
- Zweig, Stefan. Mental Healers: Mesmer, Eddy and Freud, Pushkin Press, 2012 (first published as Die Heilung durch den Geist. Mesmer, Mary Baker-Eddy, Freud, 1932).
- Church histories and biographies of Mary Baker Eddy (chronological)
- Cather, Willa and Milmine, Georgine. "Mary Baker G. Eddy", McClure's magazine, December 1906 – June 1908.
- Wilbur, Sybil. The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1907 (first serialized in Human Life).
- Powell, Lyman P. Christian Science: The Faith and Its Founder, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1907 (this edition 1917).
- Peabody, Frederick William. Complete Exposure of Eddyism or Christian Science, 1907.
- Meehan, Michael. Mrs. Eddy and the Late Suit in Equity, 1908; there is another version with the title Mrs. Eddy and Next Friends.
- Cather, Willa and Milmine, Georgine. The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science, Doubleday 1909 (archive.org).
- Bancroft, Samuel P. Mrs. Eddy as I Knew Her in 1870, Geo H. Ellis Co, 1923.
- Dickey, Adam H. Memoirs of Mary Baker Eddy, Robert G. Carter, 1927.
- Dakin, Edwin Franden. Mrs. Eddy, the Biography of a Virginal Mind, C. Scribner's Sons, 1929.
- Fisher, H. A. L. Our New Religion: An Examination of Christian Science, E. Benn, 1929 (available here), reprinted Kessinger Publishing Co, 2003.
- Powell, Lyman P. Mary Baker Eddy: A Life Size Portrait, The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1930.
- Springer, Fleta Campbell. According to the Flesh, Coward-McCann, 1930.
- Bates, Ernest Sutherland and Dittemore, John V. Mary Baker Eddy: The Truth and the Tradition, A. A. Knopf, 1932.
- Tomlinson, Irving C. Twelve Years with Mary Baker Eddy, Christian Science Publishing Society, 1945.
- Studdert Kennedy, Hugh A. Mrs. Eddy: Her Life, Her Work and Her Place in History, Farallon Press, 1947.
- Beasley, Norman. The Cross and the Crown, the History of Christian Science, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1952.
- Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery, The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1966.
- Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Trial, The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1971.
- Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Authority, The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1977.
- Gardner, Martin. The Healing Revelations of Mary Baker Eddy, Prometheus Books, 1993.
- Thomas, David. With Bleeding Footsteps: Mary Baker Eddy's Path to Religious Leadership, Knopf 1994.
- Nenneman, Richard A. Persistent Pilgrim: The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, Nebbadoon Press, 1997.
- Gill, Gillian. Mary Baker Eddy, Da Capo Press, 1998.
- Gottschalk, Stephen. Rolling Away the Stone: Mary Baker Eddy's Challenge to Materialism, Indiana University Press, 2006.
- Books by former Christian Scientists (chronological)
- Simmons, Thomas. The Unseen Shore: Memories of a Christian Science Childhood, Beacon 1991.
- Wilson, Barbara. Blue Windows: A Christian Science Childhood, Picador 1997.
- Fraser, Caroline. God's Perfect Child: Living and Dying in the Christian Science Church, Metropolitan Books, 1999.
- Kramer, Linda S. The Religion That Kills: Christian Science: Abuse, Neglect, and Mind Control, Bookworld Services, 1999.
- Swan, Rita. The Last Strawberry, Hag's Head Press, 2009.
- Greenhouse, Lucy. fathermothergod: My Journey Out of Christian Science, Crown, 2011.