Jesus in Christianity
Christian views of Jesus are based on the teachings and beliefs outlined in the Canonical gospels, New Testament letters, and the Christian creeds. These outline the key beliefs held by Christians about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. The second sentence in the ICET version of the Nicene Creed states: "We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God...". In the New Testament Jesus indicates that he is the Son of God by calling God his heavenly father.
Christians consider Jesus the Christ and believe that through his death and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life. These teachings emphasize that as the willing Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer on the cross at Calvary as a sign of his full obedience to the will of the Eternal Father, as an "agent and servant of God". The choice Jesus made thus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam's disobedience.
Most Christians believe that Jesus was both human and divine—the Son of God. While there has been theological debate over the nature of Jesus, Trinitarian Christians believe that Jesus is the Logos, God incarnate, God the Son, and "true God and true man"—both fully divine and fully human. Jesus, having become fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and rose to life again. According to the Bible, God raised him from the dead. He ascended to heaven to sit at the "Right Hand of God," and he will return to earth again for the Last Judgment and the establishment of the Kingdom of God in the World to Come.
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|“||that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth… — Philippians 2:10||”|
In the New Testament Jesus is not a "stained glass window" type of Christ; he is a real person, stained with sweat, tears, dust, and blood. He is one who agonized over what he was to do and say. The portrayal of Jesus in the New Testament has the ring of truth.
Although Christian views of Jesus vary, it is possible to summarize key elements of the shared beliefs among major denominations based on their catechetical or confessional texts. Christian views of Jesus are derived from various biblical sources, particularly from the canonical Gospels and New Testament letters such as the Pauline Epistles. Christians predominantly hold that these works are historically true.
Those groups or denominations committed to what are considered biblically orthodox Christianity nearly all agree on the following points:
- Christians believe that Jesus was a human being who was also fully God.
- Christians believe that Jesus came into the world as the son of only one earthly parent, Mary.
- Christians believe that Jesus never sinned or did anything wrong.
- Christians believe that Jesus was eventually martyred as a religious heretic, was buried in a tomb, and then on the third day came back to life.
- Christians believe that Jesus eventually ascended back to God the Father.
- Christians believe that Jesus will come back to earth a second time.
The five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Transfiguration, Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension. These are usually bracketed by two other episodes: his Nativity at the beginning and the sending of the Paraclete (Holy Spirit) at the end. The gospel accounts of the teachings of Jesus are often presented in terms of specific categories involving his "works and words", e.g., his ministry, parables and miracles.
Christians not only attach theological significance to the works of Jesus, but also to his name. Devotions to the name of Jesus go back to the earliest days of Christianity. These exist today both in Eastern and Western Christianity—both Catholic and Protestant.
Christians predominantly profess that through Jesus' life, death, and resurrection, he restored humanity's communion with God with the blood of the New Covenant. His death on a cross is understood as a redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity's salvation and the atonement for sin which had entered human history through the sin of Adam.
Christ, Logos and Son of God
|“||But who do you say that I am? Only Simon Peter answered him: You are the Christ, the Son of the living God — Matthew 16:15-16||”|
Jesus is mediator, but…the title means more that someone between God and man. He is not just a third party between God and humanity…. As true God he brings God to mankind. As true man he brings mankind to God.
Most Christians generally consider Jesus to be the Christ, the long awaited Messiah, as well as the one and only Son of God. The opening words in the Gospel of Mark (1:1), "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God", provide Jesus with the two distinct attributions as Christ and as the Son of God. His divinity is again re-affirmed in Mark 1:11. Matthew 1:1 which begins by calling Jesus the Christ and in verse 16 explains it again with the affirmation: "Jesus, who is called Christ".
In the Letters of Saint Paul, the word "Christ" is so closely associated with Jesus that apparently for the early Christians there was no need to claim that Jesus was Christ, for that was considered widely accepted among them. Hence Paul could use the term Christos with no confusion about who it referred to, and as in 1 Corinthians 4:15 and Romans 12:5 he could use expressions such as "in Christ" to refer to the followers of Jesus.
In the New Testament, the title "Son of God" is applied to Jesus on many occasions. It is often used to refer to his divinity, from the beginning in the Annunciation up to the Crucifixion. The declaration that Jesus is the Son of God is made by many individuals in the New Testament, and on two separate occasions by God the Father as a voice from Heaven, and is asserted by Jesus himself.
In Christology, the concept that the Christ is the Logos (i.e., "The Word") has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. This derives from the opening of the Gospel of John, commonly translated into English as: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." In the original Greek, Logos (λόγος) is used for "Word," and in theological discourse, this is often left in its English transliterated form, "Logos".
The pre-existence of Christ refers to the doctrine of the personal existence of Christ before his conception. One of the relevant Bible passages is John 1:1-18 where, in the Trinitarian view, Christ is identified with a pre-existent divine hypostasis called the Logos or Word. This doctrine is reiterated in John 17:5 when Jesus refers to the glory which he had with the Father "before the world was" during the Farewell discourse. also refers to the Father loving Jesus "before the foundation of the world". Non-Trinitarian views doubt the aspect of personal pre-existence or the aspect of divinity, or both.
Following the Apostolic Age, from the 2nd century forward, several controversies developed about how the human and divine are related within the person of Jesus. Eventually in 451, the concept of a Hypostatic union was decreed, namely that Jesus is both fully divine and fully human. However, differences among Christian denominations continued thereafter. See the article on Christology for details.
Incarnation, Nativity and Second Adam
|“||He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible. — Colossians 1:15-16||”|
The above verse from Colossians regards the birth of Jesus as the model for all creation. Apostle Paul viewed the birth of Jesus as an event of cosmic significance which brought forth a "new man" who undid the damage caused by the fall of the first man, Adam. Just as the Johannine view of Jesus as the incarnate Logos proclaims the universal relevance of his birth, the Pauline perspective emphasizes the birth of a new man and a new world in the birth of Jesus. Paul's eschatological view of Jesus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam. Unlike Adam, the new man born in Jesus obeys God and ushers in a world of morality and salvation.
In the Pauline view, Adam is positioned as the first man and Jesus as the second: Adam, having corrupted himself by his disobedience, also infected humanity and left it with a curse as its inheritance. The birth of Jesus counterbalanced the fall of Adam, bringing forth redemption and repairing the damage done by Adam.
In the 2nd century Church Father Irenaeus writes:
"When He became incarnate and was made man, He commenced afresh the long line of human beings, and furnished us, in a brief, comprehensive manner, with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam—namely to be according to the image and likeness of God- that we might recover in Christ Jesus."
In patristic theology, Paul's contrasting of Jesus as the new man versus Adam provided a framework for discussing the uniqueness of the birth of Jesus and the ensuing events of his life. The Nativity of Jesus thus began to serve as the starting point for "cosmic Christology" in which the birth, life and Resurrection of Jesus have universal implications. The concept of Jesus as the "new man" repeats in the cycle of birth and rebirth of Jesus from his Nativity to his Resurrection: following his birth, through his morality and obedience to the Father, Jesus began a "new harmony" in the relationship between God the Father and man. The Nativity and Resurrection of Jesus thus created the author and exemplar of a new humanity. In this view, the birth, death and Resurrection of Jesus brought about salvation, undoing the damage of Adam.
|“||The thief comes only in order to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have and enjoy life, and have it in abundance (to the full, till it overflows).—John 10:10 (Ampl)||”|
Jesus seemed to have two basic concerns with reference to people and the material: (1) that they be freed from the tyranny of things and (2) that they be actively concerned for the needs of others.
In the Canonical gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper. The Gospel of Luke (3:23) states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry. The date of the start of his ministry has been estimated at around AD 27-29 and the end in the range AD 30-36.
Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert. In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church. The Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the Commissioning the twelve Apostles, and covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee. The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem.
In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea. As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized.
The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with the Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem. The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem.
Teachings, parables and miracles
|“||The words that I say unto you I speak not from myself: but the Father who dwells in me does his works. — John 14:10||”|
In the New Testament the teachings of Jesus are presented in terms of his "words and works". The words of Jesus include several sermons, in addition to parables that appear throughout the narrative of the Synoptic Gospels (the gospel of John includes no parables).
Although the Canonical Gospels are the major source of the teachings of Jesus, the Pauline Epistles, which were likely written decades before the gospels, provide some of the earliest written accounts of the teachings of Jesus.
The New Testament does not present the teachings of Jesus as merely his own teachings, but equates the words of Jesus with divine revelation, with John the Baptist stating in John 3:34: "For the one whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for God gives the Spirit without limit." and Jesus stating in John 7:16: “My teaching is not my own. It comes from the one who sent me". In Matthew 11:27 Jesus claims divine knowledge, stating: "No one knows the Son except the Father and no one knows the Father except the Son", asserting the mutual knowledge he has with the Father.
The gospels include several discourses by Jesus on specific occasions, such as the Farewell discourse delivered after the Last Supper, the night before his crucifixion. Although some of the teachings of Jesus are reported as taking place within the formal atmosphere of a synagogue (e.g., in ) many of the discourses are more like conversations than formal lectures.
The Gospel of Matthew has a structured set of sermons, often grouped as the Five Discourses of Matthew which present many of the key teachings of Jesus. Each of the five discourses has some parallel passages in the Gospel of Mark or the Gospel of Luke. The five discourses in Matthew begin with the Sermon on the Mount, which encapsulates many of the moral teaching of Jesus and which is one of the best known and most quoted elements of the New Testament. The Sermon on the Mount includes the Beatitudes which describe the character of the people of the Kingdom of God, expressed as "blessings". The Beatitudes focus on love and humility rather than force and exaction and echo the key ideals of Jesus' teachings on spirituality and compassion. The other discourses in Matthew include the Missionary Discourse in Matthew 10 and the Discourse on the Church in Matthew 18, providing instructions to the disciples and laying the foundation of the codes of conduct for the anticipated community of followers.
The parables of Jesus represent a major component of his teachings in the gospels, the approximately thirty parables forming about one third of his recorded teachings. The parables may appear within longer sermons, as well as other places within the narrative. Jesus' parables are seemingly simple and memorable stories, often with imagery, and each conveys a teaching which usually relates the physical world to the spiritual world.
In the 19th century, Lisco and Fairbairn stated that in the parables of Jesus, "the image borrowed from the visible world is accompanied by a truth from the invisible (spiritual) world" and that the parables of Jesus are not "mere similitudes which serve the purpose of illustration, but are internal analogies where nature becomes a witness for the spiritual world". Similarly, in the 20th century, calling a parable "an earthly story with a heavenly meaning", William Barclay states that the parables of Jesus use familiar examples to lead others' minds towards heavenly concepts. He suggests that Jesus did not form his parables merely as analogies but based on an "inward affinity between the natural and the spiritual order."
|“||Believe the miracles, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. —John 10:38||”|
One characteristic shared among all miracles of Jesus in the Gospel accounts is that he delivered benefits freely and never requested or accepted any form of payment for his healing miracles, unlike some high priests of his time who charged those who were healed. In Matthew 10:8 he advised his disciples to heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse those who have leprosy, and drive out demons without payment and stated: "Freely you have received; freely give".
Christians in general believe that Jesus' miracles were actual historical events and that his miraculous works were an important part of his life, attesting to his divinity and the Hypostatic union, i.e., the dual natures of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis. Christians believe that while Jesus' experiences of hunger, weariness, and death were evidences of his humanity, the miracles were evidences of his deity.
Christian authors also view the miracles of Jesus not merely as acts of power and omnipotence, but as works of love and mercy: they were performed to show compassion for sinful and suffering humanity. Authors Ken and Jim Stocker state that "every single miracle Jesus performed was an act of love". And each miracle involves specific teachings.
Since according to the Gospel of John
Crucifixion and atonement
|“||(Jesus said:) …the Son of Man will be delivered over to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death and will hand him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life! —Matthew 20:17-19 (NIV)||”|
Life is attractive to us, but life through death is not attractive…. It is not surprising that we cry out for an alternative to the cross. The cross must become a living reality within one's heart, else it brings only judgment and not redemption.
Johannine "agency christology" combines the concept that Jesus is the Son of his Father with the idea that he has come into the world as his Father's agent, commissioned and sent by the Father to represent the Father and to accomplish his Father's work. Implied in each Synoptic portrayal of Jesus is the doctrine that the salvation Jesus gives is inseparable from Jesus himself and his divine identity. Sonship and agency come together in the Synoptic gospels only in the Parable of the Vineyard ( ; ; ). The submission of Jesus to crucifixion is a sacrifice made as an agent of God or servant of God, for the sake of eventual victory. This builds upon the salvific theme of the Gospel of John which begins in John 1:36 with John the Baptist's proclamation: "The Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world". Further reinforcement of the concept is provided in Revelation 21:14 where the "lamb slain but standing" is the only one worthy of handling the scroll (i.e., the book) containing the names of those who are to be saved.
A central element in the Christology presented in the Acts of the Apostles is the affirmation of the belief that the death of Jesus by crucifixion happened "with the foreknowledge of God, according to a definite plan". In this view, as in Acts 2:23, the cross is not viewed as a scandal, for the crucifixion of Jesus "at the hands of the lawless" is viewed as the fulfilment of the plan of God.
Paul's Christology has a specific focus on the death and resurrection of Jesus. For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus is directly related to his resurrection and the term "the cross of Christ" used in Galatians 6:12 may be viewed as his abbreviation of the message of the gospels. For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus was not an isolated event in history, but a cosmic event with significant eschatological consequences, as in 1 Corinthians 2:8. In the Pauline view, Jesus, obedient to the point of death (Philippians 2:8) died "at the right time" (Romans 4:25) based on the plan of God. For Paul the "power of the cross" is not separable from the Resurrection of Jesus.
John Calvin supported the "agent of God" Christology and argued that in his trial in Pilate's Court Jesus could have successfully argued for his innocence, but instead submitted to crucifixion in obedience to the Father. This Christological theme continued into the 20th century, both in the Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church Sergei Bulgakov argued that the crucifixion of Jesus was "pre-eternally" determined by the Father before the creation of the world, to redeem humanity from the disgrace caused by the fall of Adam. In the Western Church, Karl Rahner elaborated on the analogy that the blood of the Lamb of God (and the water from the side of Jesus) shed at the crucifixion had a cleansing nature, similar to baptismal water.
Resurrection, Ascension and Second Coming
The New Testament teaches that the resurrection of Jesus is a foundation of the Christian faith.
In the teachings of the apostolic Church, the resurrection was seen as heralding a new era. Forming a theology of the resurrection fell to Apostle Paul. It was not enough for Paul to simply repeat elementary teachings, but as states, "go beyond the initial teachings about Christ and advance to maturity". Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's Resurrection and redemption. Paul explained the importance of the resurrection of Jesus as the cause and basis of the hope of Christians to share a similar experience in :
But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive.
If the cross stands at the center of Paul's theology, so does the Resurrection: unless the one died the death of all, the all would have little to celebrate in the resurrection of the one. Paul taught that, just as Christians share in Jesus' death in baptism, so they will share in his resurrection for Jesus was designated the Son of God by his resurrection.
Dale Martin contends that Paul's various disagreements with the Corinthians were the result of a fundamental conflict over the ideological construction of the human body (and hence the church as the body of Christ). According to Martin, most Corinthian Christians and Paul himself saw the body as an entity that could be permeated by different pollutions. Other members of the Corinthian church, however, viewed the body as hierarchical—as a microcosm of the universe—and were not particularly concerned about body boundaries. These differing views of the human body (and also of the church as the body of Christ) led to differing opinions on a variety of subjects—including the resurrection of the body. According to theologian Peter Carnley, the resurrection of Jesus was different from the Resurrection of Lazarus as: "In the case of Lazarus, the stone was rolled away so that he could walk out.... the raised Christ didn't have to have the stone rolled away, because he is transformed and can appear anywhere, at any time."
The Apostolic Fathers, discussed the death and resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius (50−115), Polycarp (69−155), and Justin Martyr (100−165). Following the conversion of Constantine and the liberating Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of Resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.
- Chronology of Jesus
- Gospel harmony
- Great Commission
- Life of Jesus in the New Testament
- Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament
- Religious perspectives on Jesus
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- Basic Christian doctrine by John H. Leith 1993 ISBN 0-664-25192-7 pages 1-2
- Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum (V.19); Thomas Aquinas, Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses?; c.f. Catechism of the Catholic Church, §116; R.C. Sproul, Knowing Scripture pp. 45–61; Greg Bahnsen, A Reformed Confession Regarding Hermeneutics (art. 6); Scott Foutz, Martin Luther and Scripture
- "Who is Jesus? What Do Christians Believe?" John Hopkins University. Graduate Christian Fellowship.  1 May 2013
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- Vaught, Carl G. The Sermon on the Mount: a Theological Investigation. Baylor University Press; 2nd edition, 2001. ISBN 978-0-918954-76-3. pp. xi-xiv
- "Beatitudes." F. L. Cross (Editor), E. A. Livingstone (Editor). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0192802903
- Hastings, James. A Dictionary Of The Bible. Oxford University Press, USA; 3rd Revised edition, 2005. ISBN 1-4102-1730-2 pp.15-19
- Jegen, Carol Frances. Jesus the Peacemaker. Sheed & Ward, 1986. ISBN 0-934134-36-7. pp. 68-71
- Majerník Ján, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt. The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke. Sheed & Ward, 2005. ISBN 1-931018-31-6, pp.63-68
- Toussaint, Stanley D. Behold the King: A Study of Matthew. Kregel Academic & Professional, 2005. ISBN 0-8254-3845-4. pp.215-216
- Jensen, Richard A. Preaching Matthew's Gospel. CSS Publishing Company, 1998. ISBN 978-0-7880-1221-1. pp. 25 & 158
- Chouinard, Larry. Matthew (The College Press NIV Commentary). College Press Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-89900-628-0. p.321
- Lockyer, Herbert. All the Parables of the Bible. Zondervan, 1988. ISBN 978-0-310-28111-5. p.174
- Pentecost, J. Dwight. The parables of Jesus: Lessons in Life from the Master Teacher. Zondervan, 1998. ISBN 0-8254-3458-0. p.10
- Lisco, Friedrich Gustav, and Patrick Fairbairn. The parables of Jesus Explained and Illustrated Volume 29. Nabu Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1149508398. pp.9-11
- Oxenden, Ashton. The parables of our Lord. William Macintosh Publishers, London, 1864. ASIN: B008RW5N2S. p.6
- Barclay, William. The Parables of Jesus. Westminster John Knox Press, 1999. ISBN 0-664-25828-X p.12.
- The emergence of Christian theology by Eric Francis Osborn 1993 ISBN 0-521-43078-X page 100
- Marthaler, Berard L. The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology. Twenty-Third Publications; 3rd Revised edition. p. 220. ISBN 0-89622-537-2.
- Lockyer, Herbert (1988). All the Parables of the Bible. Zondervan. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-310-28111-5.
- Perkins, Pheme (1988). Reading the New Testament: An Introduction. Paulist Press. p. 54. ISBN 0-8091-2939-6.
- Blomberg, Craig L. (2009). Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey. B & H Academic. p. 197. ISBN 0-8054-4482-3.
- Catholic Encyclopedia on Miracles
- Lockyer, Herbert. All the Parables of the Bible. Zondervan, 1988. ISBN 978-0-310-28111-5. p.25
- Brande, William Thomas, George William Cox. A dictionary of science, literature, & art. London, 1867, also Published by Old Classics on Kindle, 2009, page 655
- Ramm, Bernard L. An Evangelical Christology: Ecumenic and Historic. Regent College Publishing, 1993. ISBN 1-57383-008-9. p.45
- Stocker, Ken. Jim Stocker. Facts, Faith, and the FAQs. Xulon Press, 2006. ISBN 978-1600347535. p.139
- Maguire, Robert. The Miracles of Christ. Ulan Press, 2012. ASIN: B009QMIYOW. p.133
- Wiersbe, Warren W. Classic Sermons on the Miracles of Jesus. Kregel Academic & Professional, 1995. ISBN 0-8254-3999-X. p.132
- Powell, Mark Allan (ed.) and David R. Bauer (ed.). Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology. Westminster John Knox Press, 1999. ISBN 0-664-25752-6. p.106
- Bauckhman, Richard. "The Johannine Jesus and the Synoptic Jesus".  2 May 2013
- Sadananda, Rathnakara Sadananda (2004). The Johannine exegesis of God: An Exploration into the Johannine Understanding Of God. Walter De Gruyter Inc. p. 281. ISBN 3-11-018248-3.
- Pollard, T. E. (2005). Johannine Christology and the Early Church. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-521-01868-4.
- Hengel, Martin (2004). Studies in Early Christology. T&T Clark. p. 371. ISBN 0-567-04280-4.
- De Haan, M. R. (1998). Studies in Revelation. Kregel Classics. p. 103. ISBN 978-0825424854.
- Matera, Frank J. (1999). New Testament Christology. Kregel Classics. p. 67. ISBN 0-664-25694-5.
- The speeches in Acts: their content, context, and concerns by Marion L. Soards 1994 ISBN 0-664-25221-4 page 34
- Schwarz, Hans (1998). Christology. pp. 132–134. ISBN 0-8028-4463-4.
- Edmondson, Edmondson (2004). Calvin's Christology. Cambridge University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-521-54154-9.
- The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures by Hughes Oliphant Old 2002 ISBN 0-8028-4775-7 page 125
- Bulgakov, Sergei; Jakim, Boris (2008). The Lamb of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 129. ISBN 0-8028-2779-9.
- Rahner, Karl (2004). Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi. Burns & Oates. p. 74. ISBN 0-86012-006-6.
- The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology by Berard L. Marthaler 2007 ISBN 0-89622-537-2 page 361
- Dunn, James D. G. Theology of Paul the Apostle. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003. ISBN 978-0802844231. p. 235
- Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0
- Reichelt, Karl Ludvig and Sverre Holth. Meditation and Piety in the Far East , 2004. ISBN 0-227-17235-3 p.30
- Martin, Dale B. The Corinthian Body, Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-300-08172-3. p. 126 in particular.
- National Interest - Archbishop Peter Carnley
- Ignatius makes many passing references, but two extended discussions are found in the Letter to the Trallians and the Letter to the Smyrnaeans.
- The Resurrection and the icon by Michel Quenot 1998 ISBN 0-88141-149-3 page 72