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The daughter of a Protestant parish priest, Paul Krauss, she studied to be a teacher and married Roman Herzog in 1958. The couple had two sons (born 1959 and 1964). Her husband had, before he was elected President, a long and distinguished career as a legal scholar and professor at various universities, and since as a Member of Parliament, as a cabinet minister in the state of Baden-Württemberg, as a judge and finally President of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany from 1987 to 1994. The family lived in a number of cities, including Munich, West Berlin, Heidelberg, Bonn, Stuttgart and Karlsruhe.
From 1985 to 1993, she was the Vice President of the Christliches Jugenddorfwerk Deutschlands. During her husbands tenure as President, she was the patron of the German UNICEF committee and the Müttergenesungswerk, and took on several charitable responsibilities. She also appeared on the television show Zu Gast bei Christiane Herzog, where she invited a guest (usually some prominent person) to the Bellevue Palace and discussed contemporary issues in the kitchen of the presidential residence while they were cooking. The Christiane Herzog Foundation for the Cystic Fibrosis Sick is named in her honour.
Christiane and Roman Herzog were members of the Evangelical Church in Germany.