Christianity in Europe
|Christianity by Country
Christianity is the largest religion in Europe. Christianity has been practiced in Europe since the 1st century, and a number of the Pauline Epistles were directed at Christians living in Greece, as well as Rome. According to a 2012 survey by Pew Research Center 76.2% of European consider them self as Christians, Catholics being the largest Christian group in Europe, accounting for more than 46% European Christians. The second-largest Christian group in Europe is the Orthodox, who make up 35% of European Christians. Although the Protestant Reformation began in Europe, today fewer than 18% of European Christians are part of the Protestant tradition. Russia is the largest Christian country in the Europe by population, followed by Germany and Italy.
Throughout most of its history, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture. The Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science.
Historians believe that St. Paul probably wrote his first epistle to the Christians of Thessaloniki around 52 AD. His Epistle to the Galatians was perhaps written even earlier, between 48 and 50 AD. Other epistles written by Paul were directed to Christians living in Greece (1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Philemon, Philippians, 2 Thessalonians) and Rome (Romans) between 50-70s AD.
Armenia was the first country in the world (and Europe) to adopt Christianity as its state religion in 301AD. The oldest state-built Church in the world and Europe, Etchmiadzin Cathedral, was built between AD 301-303. It is the Seat of the Armenian Apostolic Church. The Roman Empire officially adopted Christianity in AD 380. During the Early Middle Ages, most of Europe underwent Christianisation, a process essentially complete with the Christianisation of Scandinavia in the High Middle Ages. The emergence of the notion of "Europe" or "Western World" is intimately connected with the idea of "Christendom", especially since Christianity in the Middle East was marginalized by the rise of Islam from the 7th century, a constellation that led to the Crusades, which although unsuccessful militarily were an important step in the emergence of a religious identity of Europe. At all times, traditions of folk religion existed largely independent from official denomination or dogmatic theology.
Movements in art and philosophy, such as the Humanist movement of the Renaissance and the Scholastic movement of the High Middle Ages, were motivated by a drive to connect Catholicism with Greek thought imported by Christian pilgrims.
Great Schism and Protestant Reformation
The Great Schism of the 11th and Protestant Reformation of the 16th century were to tear apart "Christendom" into hostile factions, and following the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, atheism and agnosticism became widespread in Western Europe. 19th century Orientalism contributed to a certain popularity of Buddhism, and the 20th century brought increasing syncretism, New Age and various new religious movements divorcing spirituality from inherited traditions for many Europeans. The latest history brought increased secularisation, and religious pluralism.
- Roman Catholicism: European countries or areas with significant Catholic populations areAndorra, Austria, west Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, France, south Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latgale region in Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, central and south Switzerland, west Ukraine and Vatican City. There are also large Catholic minorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina [13-17%] (Herzegovina, Central, Western and Northern Bosnia), Albania [10-15%], the United Kingdom (especially in Northern Ireland [40%] and Scotland [18%]), and most European countries such as the Netherlands [25%], In Czech Republic Catholics are [10%] of the population and in Serbia and Romania Catholics constitute over 5% of the overall population..
- Orthodox Christianity: The only country in Europe with significant Oriental Orthodox population is Armenia. The countries with significant Eastern Orthodox populations are Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan (European sector). There are a large minority in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and small minority in easternmost Hungary, Southern Italy, sizable minorities in Albania, Latvia and Lithuania, small minority in Armenia, Poland, Finland (Karelia).
- Protestantism: Countries with significant Protestant populations includeDenmark, Estonia, Finland, northern part of Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Norway, Sweden; east, north and west Switzerland; and the United Kingdom. There are significant Protestant minorities in France, the northwestern Piedmont region of Italy, Slovakia, the southern part of Germany, eastern part of Hungary, and smaller minorities in the eastern part of Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, the Netherlands, Ireland, Serbia and Romania.
- Anglicanism In the United Kingdom (England and Wales) with minorities in Ireland, Malta (through tourism) and Scotland.
- http://www.pewforum.org/Christian/Global-Christianity-europe.aspx Christianity in Europe
- Christianity in Europe
- Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.
- Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4.
- Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.
- Johannes Schade (2006), The Encyclopedia of World Religions, Foreign Media Books, ISBN 978-1-60136-000-7
- Howard Clark Kee, Franklin W. Young (1957), Understanding the New Testament, Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0-13-948266-3
- Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 9780884892984.
- Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. High Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 9780884892984.
- Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. Renaissance: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 9780884892984.
- Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 25. ISBN 9780813216836.
- Henkel, Reinhard and Hans Knippenberg "The Changing Religious Landscape of Europe" edited by Knippenberg published by Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam 2005 ISBN 90-5589-248-3, pages 7-9
- (Dutch) roman catholic church 4 million members out of a total Dutch population of 16,5 million
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christianity in Europe.|
- Religion in Europe
- Religion in the European Union
- Christianity in Belarus
- Christianity in Malta
- Christianity in France
- Christianity in Italy
- Protestantism by country
- Roman Catholicism by country
- Islam in Europe
- Christianity by country
- List of religious populations
- No Faith by Country
- Major world religions