Christianity in Israel
Christianity in Israel is one of the recognized religions in Israel and is practiced by more than 161,000 Israeli citizens (about 2.1% of population). Some 80% of Christian residents of Israel are Arab Christians, who are historically bound with Palestinian Christians; some 25,000—the majority of the remaining are immigrants from the former Soviet Union who immigrated with Jewish relatives due to mixed marriages; there are also smaller ethnoreligious affiliations of about 7,000 Maronites, 1,000 Assyrians and 1,000 Copts; certain number of Israelis also practice Messianic Judaism—usually considered a form of Christianity, but exact numbers are not available. Nine churches are officially recognized under Israel's confessional system, for the self-regulation of status issues, such as marriage and divorce. These are the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic (Latin rite), Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Chaldean (Uniate), Melkite (Greek Catholic), Ethiopian Orthodox, Maronite and Syriac Orthodox churches, and Anglicanism. The practice of religion is however free, and there is no limitation for other forms of Christianity as well as other faiths.
Christian Arabs are one of the most educated groups in Israel. Maariv has described the Christian Arabs sector as "the most successful in the education system", since Christian Arabs fared the best in terms of education in comparison to any other group receiving an education in Israel.
According to historical and traditional sources, Jesus lived in Roman Judea, and died and was buried on the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, making the area a Holy Land for Christianity. However, few Christians now live in the region, compared to Muslims and Jews. This is mainly because Islam displaced Christianity throughout the Middle East, and the rise of modern Zionism and the establishment of the State of Israel has seen millions of Jews emmigrate to Israel. The Christian population in Israel has increased significantly with the immigration of many mixed families from the former Soviet Union (1989-late 1990s) and by the influx of some 10,000 Christian Maronites from Lebanon in 2000. Recently a further increase in Christianity came with arrival of many foreign workers and asylum seekers, some of Christian background (for instance from the Philippines and South Sudan). As a result, numerous churches have opened in Tel Aviv.
The largest Christian community in Israel is that of the Greek Catholics, (Melkite), which comprise 40% of the total Christian population. They are followed by the Greek Orthodox, 32%, the Roman Catholics, 20%, and the Maronites, 7%. The remaining Christian groups amount to around 1% of the total.[dubious ]
Most Christians in Israel belong primarily to branches of the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Roman Catholic Churches that oversee a variety of churches, monasteries, seminaries, and religious institutions all over the land, particularly in Jerusalem. In the 19th century the Russian Empire constituted itself the guardian of the interests of Christians living in the Holy Land, and even today large amounts of Jerusalem real estate (including the site of the Knesset building) are owned by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
Many Christian citizens of Israel belong to the Catholic Churches and affiliated Eastern churches. The most practiced are Roman Catholic Church proper (Latin Church), Greek Catholic Church (Melchite) and Maronite Church affiliations.
There has been a small Protestant community in Israel since its inception in 1948, based on either Christian Arabs who had changed their religious affiliation to Protestant teachings or European residents moving to the area. The community of Jews who hold to the tenets of the Christian faith - called Hebrew Christians, Jewish Christians, or 'Messianic' Jews not to be confused with those adhering to the Messianic Judaism movement , has been estimated at between 3,000 to 10,000. Most adhere to an evangelical belief, rejecting traditional Christianity and its symbols in favour of celebrating Jewish festivals and observing the Jewish Sabbath. Although Jewish Christians are not considered bona-fide Jews under Israel's Law of Return, there are an estimated 10,000 adherents in the State of Israel, both Jews and other non-Arab Israelis, many of whom are ex-patriates or immigrants from the former Soviet Union. In Jerusalem, there are twelve Messianic congregations[not in citation given]. On 23 February 2007, Israel Channel 2 News released a news documentary about the growing number of Messianic Jews in Israel. In Israel Jewish Christians themselves, go by the name Meshikhiyyim (from Messiah, as found in the Franz Delitzsch Hebrew New Testament) rather than the traditional Talmudic name for Christians Notzrim, (from Nazarene).
Christian-Jewish Relations in the 21st Century
Sons of the New Testament Party
Recently, there has been a steady undercurrent of Christian Arabs who seek deeper integration into Israeli society. Under the leadership of Priest Gabriel Nadaf, the "Sons of the New Testament" is a political party that advocates Christian enlistment in the IDF and a more distinct societal separation of Christians from Muslims. This separation is partly based on the purported fact that Christians in Israel are not technically Arabs, seeing as they were present in the holy land long before the Arab conquest, hallmarked by the Siege of Jerusalem. This distinction is in the process of being formalized into law, as the Likud government is currently drafting legislation to grant this request.
This new attitude is founded largely by the perception by some that only in Israel is the Christian population growing due to natural increase and no state persecution, seeing the entire Middle East as where Christianity is and has been rapidly on the decline. In addition, increasing numbers of Christian leaders and community members are pointing to Muslim violence as a threat to their way of life in Arab majority cities and towns. Sons of the New Testament as a party and a national movement has been met with wide admiration from the Jews of Israel, harshly negative scorn from the Muslim Arabs, and mixed reactions from the Christians themselves. Because of Israel's parliamentary system where each party must attain at least 2% of the popular vote, Sons of the New Testament must be supported by non-Christians to enter the Knesset.
Christian Arabs are one of the most educated groups in Israel. Maariv has described the Christian Arabs sectors as "the most successful in education system", since Christian Arabs fared the best in terms of education in comparison to any other group receiving an education in Israel. Christian Arabs have one of the highest rates of success in the matriculation examinations, (64%) both in comparison to the Muslims and the Druze and in comparison to all students in the Jewish education system as a group. although lower than the secular Jewish education (64.5%) and the national religious Jewish education (65.9%). Arab Christians were also the vanguard in terms of eligibility for higher education. and they have attained a bachelor's degree and academic degree more than the median Israeli population.
The rate of students studying in the field of medicine was also higher among the Christian Arab students, compared with all the students from other sectors. the percentage of Arab Christian women who are higher education students is higher than other sectors.
|years||number of children aged 0-4 in thousands|
The median age in 2012 was: Female: 32.1 Male: 31.2
Total fertility rate 2010: 2.1
Age structure 2013: 0-19: 29.6 % 19-65: 60.1 % 65+: 10.3 %
- המגזר הערבי נוצרי הכי מצליח במערכת החינוך)
- Christians in Israel: Strong in education
- Adriana Kemp & Rebeca Raijman, "Christian Zionists in the Holy Land: Evangelical Churches, Labor Migrants, and the Jewish State", Identities: Global Studies in Power and Culture, 10:3, 295-318
- Mansour, Johnny (2012) Palestinian Christians in Israel. Facts, Figures and Trends. Dyar. ISBN 978-9950-376-14-4. p.23
- Daphna Berman. Aliyah with a cat, a dog and Jesus. WorldWide Religious News citing & quoting "Haaretz," 10 June 2006. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- Larry Derfner and Ksenia Svetlova. "Messianic Jews in Israel claim 10,000". rickcross.com, citing & quoting Jerusalem Post 29 April 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- Messianic perspectives for Today. leeds Messianic fellowship. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- "Israel Channel 2 News - 23 February 200...". video.google.com. 8 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-28. (9 minute video, Hebrew audio, English subtitles)
- Avner Falk Franks and Saracens: Reality and Fantasy in the Crusades p4 2010 - 225 "Nonetheless, the Talmudic Hebrew name (as well as the modern Hebrew name) for Christians is not meshikhiyim (messianic) but notsrim (people from Nazareth), referring to the fact that Jesus came from Nazareth."
- "Father Nadaf | JPost | Israel News". jpost.com. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
- "Historic new law gives boost to Christians in Israel | The Way, Christianity without walls". theway.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
- "Israel's Christian Awakening - WSJ.com". online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
- משרד החינוך: קטן שיעור הזכאים לבגרות העומדים בדרישות הסף של האוניברסיטה - חינוך וחברה - הארץ