Christianity in Korea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The practice of Christianity in Korea revolves around two of its largest branches, Protestantism and Catholicism, accounting for 8.6 million[1][2] and 5.3 million[3] members respectively. Roman Catholicism was first introduced during the late Joseon Dynasty period. In 1603, Yi Gwang-jeong, Korean diplomat, returned from Beijing carrying several theological books written by Matteo Ricci, a Jesuit missionary to China.[3] He began disseminating the information in the books and the first seeds of Christianity were sown. In 1758 King Yeongjo of Joseon officially outlawed Catholicism as an evil practice. Roman Catholicism was again introduced in 1785 by Yi Seung-hun. Korean Christians were subject to persecution and hardship.[4]

Many were martyred, especially during the Catholic Persecution of 1801 and later. The Joseon Dynasty saw the new religion as a subversive influence and persecuted its earliest followers in Korea, culminating in the Catholic Persecution of 1866, in which 8,000 Catholics across the country were killed, including 9 French missionaries. The opening of Korea to the outside world in the following years brought religious toleration for the remaining Catholics and also introduced Protestantism. The first Presbyterian missionary in Korea, Horace Newton Allen, arrived in 1884 and remained in Korea until 1890, by which time he had been joined by many others.[5]

The growth of both was gradual before 1945. In that year, approximately 2% of the population was Christian. Rapid growth ensued: in 1991, 18.4% of the population (8.0 million) was Protestant, and 6.7% (2.5 million) was Catholic.[6] The Catholic Church has increased its membership by 70% in the last ten years.[7] Anglicanism in Korea has also experienced significant growth in the recent decades. Protestantism has been a dynamic force, providing a dynamic standard against which Catholics and Buddhists have been forced to compete. It was the inspiration for numerous sects, such as the Unification Church, founded in 1954 by Sun Myung Moon.

The influence on education has been decisive as Christians started 293 schools and 40 universities including 3 of the top 5 academic institutions.[8] Protestantism is seen as the religion of the middle class, youth, intellectuals, and urbanites, and has been central to South Korea's pursuit of modernity and emulation of the United States.[9][10] In recent years, the growth of Protestantism has slowed, however, perhaps due to scandals involving church leadership and conflict among various sects, as well as what some perceive as overly-zealous missionary work[citation needed].

Cultural significance[edit]

Grayson argues that Protestantism has been a dynamic force in Korean life, and had a positive impact on other religions. It made for a dynamic competitor against which Catholics and Buddhists had to compete, as well as the inspiration for numerous smaller sects. They adopted many of the methods pioneered by the Protestants. The influence on higher education in Korea has been decisive as the Christians started 293 schools and 40 universities including 3 of the top 5 academic institution.[8] Sukman argues that since 1945 Protestantism has been widely seen by Koreans and the religion of the middle class, youth, intellectuals, urbanites, and modernizers. It has been a powerful force supporting South Korea's pursuit of modernity and emulation of the United States, and opposition to the old Japanese colonialism and Communism of North Korea.[11] Prior to the Korean War (1950–1953), two-thirds of Korean Christians lived in the North, but most later fled to the South.[4] It is not known exactly how many Christians remain in North Korea today, and there is some uncertainty about the exact number in South Korea. It is known that by the end of the 1960s there were around one million Protestants in South Korea, but during the "Conversion Boom" period ending in the 1980s, the number of Protestants increased faster than in any other country. The 2005 South Korean census showed 29.2 percent of the population as Christian, up from 26.3 percent ten years previously.[12] Presbyterian Churches are the biggest Protestant denominations in South Korea, with close to 20,000 churches affiliated with the two largest Presbyterian denominations in the country.[13]

South Korea currently provides the world's second largest number of Christian missionaries, surpassed by the United States.[14] GSM, the missionary body of the "Hapdong" General Assembly of Presbyterian Church of Korea, is the single largest missionary organization in South Korea.[15][16] South Korean missionaries are especially prevalent in 10/40 Window nations that are hostile to Westerners. In 2000, there were 10,646 Protestant South Korean missionaries in 156 countries, along with an undisclosed number of Catholic missionaries. According to an article published in 2004 "South Korea dispatched more than 12,000 missionaries to over 160 countries in comparison to about 46,000 American and 6,000 British missionaries, according to missionary organizations in South Korea and the West".[17] According to an article published in 2007 "Korea has 16,000 missionaries working overseas, second only to the US".[18] In 1980, South Korea sent 93 missionaries and by 2009 it was around 20,000.[14][19][20][21]

Seoul contains 11 of the world's 12 largest Christian congregations.[citation needed] A number of South Korean Christians, including David Yonggi Cho, senior pastor of Yoido Full Gospel Church, have attained worldwide prominence. Aaron Tan, director of the Hong Kong architectural firm called Research Architecture Design, described the night scene of Seoul as "full of glowing Christian crosses".[22]

Growth of Christianity[edit]

Appeal in the North[edit]

Christianity, especially Protestantism, had a special appeal to Koreans in the North. Between 1440 and 1560, there were migrations to the northern provinces designed to strengthen the border. This created a society of mixed backgrounds without an aristocracy and without long-standing religious institutions. However, it did have a strong and ambitious merchant class, as well as a strong military tradition. Local elites gained administrative positions and adopted Confucian literati lifestyles but were still unable to attain high-level positions. During Japanese colonial rule, the north became the more industrial region of Korea. The area was highly receptive to Protestant missionaries, who brought Western knowledge, hospitals, schools, and a window to the wider world. The middle-class elites sent their sons to the Protestant schools and in turn the sons became strong nationalists who saw the United States as the rallying point in opposition to Japanese colonial imperialism. In a reversal with the south, the north then produced many influential figures in Korean history. After 1945, most of the Christians fled to South Korea[23] in pursuit of religious freedom.

Academic sympathy[edit]

Matteo Ricci's books provoked academic controversy when Yi Gwang-jeong brought them into Korea, and academics remained critical for many years. Early in the 17th century, Yi Su-gwang, a court scholar, and Yu Mong-in, a cabinet minister, wrote highly critical commentaries on Ricci's works, and over the next two centuries academic criticism of Christian beliefs continued. Some scholars, however, were more sympathetic to Christianity. Members of the Silhak (실학; "practical learning") school believed in social structure based on merit rather than birth (see classism), and were therefore often opposed by the mainstream academic establishment.

Silhak scholars saw Christianity as an ideological basis for their beliefs and were therefore attracted to what they saw as the egalitarian values of Christianity.[5] When Christianity was finally established in Korea, there was already a substantial body of educated opinion sympathetic to it, which was crucial to the spread of the Catholic faith in the 1790s.[6] An 1801 study indicated that 55% of all Catholics had family ties to the Silhak school.[7]

Lay leadership[edit]

As a result of the influence of the Silhak school, Christianity in Korea began as an indigenous lay movement rather than being imposed by a foreign missionaries. The first Catholic prayer-house was founded in 1784 at Seoul by Yi Sung-hun, a diplomat who had been baptized in Beijing.[8] In 1786, Yi proceeded to establish a hierarchy of lay-priests.[9] Although the Vatican ruled in 1789 that the appointment of lay-priests violated Canon Law, Christianity was introduced into Korea by indigenous lay-workers, not by foreign prelates. Since Christianity began as largely a grass roots effort in Korea, it spread more quickly through the population than it would if it had originated with outsiders with no initial popular support.

Hangul, literacy and education[edit]

Hangul, a phonemic Korean alphabet invented around 1446 by scholars in the court of King Sejong,[10][11] was used little for several centuries because of the perceived cultural superiority of Classical Chinese (a position similar to that of Latin in Europe). However, the Catholic Church became the first Korean organization to officially adopt Hangul as its primary script, and Bishop Berneux mandated that all Catholic children be taught to read it.[12][13] Christian literature printed for use in Korea, including that used by the network of schools established by Christian missionaries, mostly used the Korean language and the easily learned Hangul script. This combination of factors resulted in a rise in the overall literacy rate, and enabled Christian teachings to spread beyond the elite, who mostly used Chinese. As early as the 1780s, portions of the Gospels appeared in Hangul; doctrinal books such as the "Jugyo Yoji" (주교요지) appeared in the 1790s and a Catholic hymnary was printed around 1800.

John Ross, a Scottish Presbyterian missionary in Manchuria, completed his translation of the Bible into Korean in 1887[24] and Protestant leaders began a mass-circulation effort. In addition, they established the first modern educational institutions in Korea.[14] The Methodist Paichai School for boys was founded in 1885, and the Methodist Ewha School for girls (later to become Ewha Womans University) followed in 1886. These, and similar schools established soon afterwards, helped the expansion of Protestantism among the common people, and Protestants surpassed Catholics as the largest Christian group in Korea. Female literacy rose sharply, since women had previously been excluded from the educational system.[15]

Christianity under Japanese occupation, 1910-1945[edit]

Christianity grew steadily, with the Catholic population reaching 147,000, and the Protestants 168,000 in the mid-1930s. The stronghold for both groups was the North. The Japanese-controlled police made systematic efforts to minimize the impact of the missionaries, which had a depressing effect during the years 1911-1919. The idealistic pronouncements of American President Woodrow Wilson contributed to the rapid growth of Korean nationalism in the 1920s, but disillusionment set in after the movement failed to acheive meaningful reform. In 1924 Protestants founded the Korean National Christian Council to coordinate activities by dividing the country into regions assigned to specific Protestant denominations. Korean Protestants also founded overseas missions to Koreans living in Manchuria and China. By 1937, the Presbyterian Church of Korea was largely independent of financial support from the United States; in 1934 the Methodist Church became autonomous and elected a Korean bishop. The most active missionaries among the Catholics were the Maryknoll order, which opened the Maryknoll School of Nursing in Pusan in 1964; it is now the Catholic University of Pusan.[25]

Korean nationalism[edit]

Syngman Rhee adhered to Methodism.

One of the most important factors leading to widespread acceptance of Christianity in Korea was the identification that many Christians forged with the cause of Korean nationalism during the Japanese occupation (1910–1945). During this period, Japan undertook a systematic campaign of cultural assimilation. There was an emphasis on Showa, so the Koreans would revered the Japanese emperor. In 1938, even use of the Korean language was prohibited.[16] However, the distinctly Korean nature of the church was reinforced during those years by the allegiance to the nation that was demonstrated by many Christians. While the subsequent constitution of South Korea guarantees freedom of religion as well as separation of church and state, the South Korean government has been favorable to Christianity, regarding the religion as an ideological protection against Communism.

On 1 March 1919, an assembly of 33 religious and professional leaders known as the "March 1 Movement" passed a Declaration of independence. Although organized by leaders of the Chondogyo religion, 15 of the 33 signatories were Protestants[17], and many of them were imprisoned. Also in 1919, the predominantly Catholic pro-independence movement called "Ulmindan" [18] was founded, and a China-based government-in-exile was at one time led by Syngman Rhee, a Methodist.[19]

Christianity was linked even more with the patriotic cause when some Christians refused to participate in worship of the Japanese Emperor, which was required by law in the 1930s.[20][21] Although this refusal was motivated by theological rather than political convictions, the consequent imprisonment of many Christians strongly identified their faith, in the eyes of many Koreans, with the cause of Korean nationalism and resistance to the Japanese occupation. Catholics and Methodists complied with demands to attend Shinto ceremonies.[26]

Minjung theology[edit]

Main article: Minjung theology

The Christian concept of individual worth has found expression in a lengthy struggle for human rights and democracy in Korea. In recent years, this struggle has taken the form of Minjung theology. Minjung theology is based on the "image of God" concept expressed in Genesis 1:26–27, but also incorporates the traditional Korean feeling of han, a word that has no exact English translation, but that denotes a sense of inconsolable pain and utter helplessness. Minjung theology depicts commoners in Korean history as the rightful masters of their own destiny. Two of the country's best known political leaders, Kim Young-sam, a Presbyterian, and Kim Dae-jung, a Roman Catholic, subscribe to Minjung theology.[22] Both men spent decades opposing military governments in South Korea and were frequently imprisoned as a result, and both also served terms as President of the Republic after democracy was restored in 1988.

One manifestation of Minjung theology in the final years of the Park Chung-hee regime (1961–1979) was the rise of several Christian social missions, such as the Catholic Farmers Movement and the Protestant Urban Industrial Mission, which campaigned for better wages and working conditions for laborers. The military government imprisoned many of their leaders because it considered the movement a threat to social stability, and their struggle coincided with a period of unrest which culminated in the assassination of President Park on 26 October 1979,[23].

Social change[edit]

Many Korean Christians believe that their values have had a positive effect on various social relationships. Traditional Korean society was hierarchically arranged according to Confucian principles under the semi-divine emperor. Women had no social rights,[24] children were totally subservient to their parents,[25] and individuals had no rights except as defined by the overall social system. This structure was challenged by the Christian teaching that all human beings are created in the image of God and thus that every one of them is equal and has essential worth.[26] According to Kim Han-sik, this concept also supported the idea of property being owned by individuals rather than by families (or by the heads of families).

Christians regarded the emperor as a mere man who was as much under God's authority as were his subjects,[27] and Christian values favored the social emancipation of women and children.[28][29] The church permitted the remarriage of widows (as taught by the apostle Paul, not traditionally allowed in East Asian societies),[citation needed] prohibited concubinage and polygamy, and forbade cruelty to or desertion of wives.[citation needed] Christian parents were taught to regard their children as gifts from God, and were required to educate them.[30] Arranged child marriages and the neglect of daughters (who were often regarded as less desirable than sons in Asian culture) were prohibited.[citation needed]

Economic growth[edit]

South Korea's rapid economic growth in the 1960s and 1970s is usually credited to the policy of export-oriented industrialization led by Park Chung-hee to indigenous cultural values and work ethic, a strong alliance with the United States, and the infusion of foreign capital. Many South Korean Christians view their religion as a factor in the country's dramatic economic growth over the past three decades, believing that its success and prosperity are indications of God's blessing. [27]

A 2003 study by economists Robert J. Barro and Rachel McCleary suggests that societies with high levels of belief in heaven and high levels of church attendance exhibit high rates of economic growth.[28] Barro and McCleary's model has been influential in subsequent scholarship and, to some observers, it supports the belief that Christianity has played a major role in South Korea's economic success.[29][30] The study has been criticised by scholars such as Durlauf, Kortellos and Tan (2006).[31] There is a tendency to build megachurches since 2000, that leads some churches to financial debt.[32]

Evangelization[edit]

"In the 1960s the church reached out to people who were oppressed, such as prostitutes and new industrial laborers. As the Korean economy was burgeoning, the issue of the industrial labor force came to the fore as one of the most important areas of evangelization work. Churches established industrial chaplaincies among the workers within factories. In addition, with military service mandatory for men in South Korea, the part the chaplain's corps in the armed forces became equally important. Many soldiers converted to Christianity during their military service."[33]

Political and social issues[edit]

There have been various political and social criticisms in the Korean Christian scene since President Lee Myung-bak came into power. The South Korean government proposed to restrict South Korean citizens working for missionary works in the Middle East.[34] Professor Son Bong-ho of Goshin University criticized the president for partaking in a national-level Christian prayers' gathering on March 2011 that signaled a potential danger of the strong Protestant influence in the secular South Korean politics.[35] Increasing acts of hostility by Protestant Christians against Buddhism, the largest religion in South Korea and a major influence in traditional Korean culture, have drawn strong criticism and backlash against Protestant churches by the South Korean public and has contributed in Protestantism's growing decline in Korea.[36]

Seoul Free Lunch Referendum[edit]

Former Mayor of Seoul, Oh Se-hoon, proposed a referendum in Seoul on 24 August 2011. Pastors of multiple churches in Seoul were found to involve unlawfully with the lay people about the referendum and later being penalized by the Seoul Metropolitan election Commission (서울시선거관리위원회).[37]

October 2011 by-election[edit]

A Christian group in Seoul had been indicted by the Seoul Metropolitan election Commission for sending politically motivated emails to the laypeople in order to vote for the conservative candidate, Na Kyung-won, before the October 2011 by-election.[38]

On individuals[edit]

The Korean Association of Church Communication petitioned Lee Guen An (이근안) to be stripped of his pastoral position due to his past as a torturer of Kim Geun-tae during Chun Doo-hwan's dictatorship.[39]

Creationism[edit]

Christian groups have been involved in the promotion of creationism in South Korea, specifically the Korea Association for Creation Research (KACR), which advocates creation following the Book of Genesis, and the Society for Textbook Revise (STR), alternative translation Committee to Revise Evolution In Textbook (CREIT),[40] an independent offshoot of the KACR, which has distanced itself from KACR doctrine.[41] In early 2008, Seoul Land, a leading amusement park, hosted a Creation Science exhibit, organized by KACR, which was visited by over 116,000 visitors in three months, and as of 2012, the park is in talks to create a year-long exhibition.[41]

In 2012, following pressure from STR, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) announced that many high-school textbooks would be revised to remove certain examples of evolution, such as of the horse and the dinosaur Archaeopteryx.[40][41][42] The changes were limited to removal or revision of certain examples[43] which were either no longer accepted or were subject of some dispute;[40] changes did not involve removal of evolution or inclusion of creationism in textbooks.[43] However, STR plans to submit further petitions to remove evolution of humans and the adaptation of finch beaks, with the end goal of diminishing the role of Darwinian evolution in teaching.[41]

Religious conflict[edit]

Fundamentalist Protestant antagonism against Buddhism has been a major issue for religious cooperation in South Korea, especially during the 1990s to late 2000s. Acts of vandalism against Buddhist amenities and "regular praying for the destruction of all Buddhist temples"[44][45] have drawn criticism. Buddhist statues have been considered as idols, attacked and decapitated. Arrests are hard to enforce, as the perpetrators work by stealth at night."[46] Such acts, which are supported by some Protestant leaders, have led to South Koreans having an increasingly negative outlook on Protestantism and being critical of church groups involved, with many Protestants leaving their churches in recent years.[36][47]

In contrast, relations between South Korean Catholics and Buddhists and other faiths has remained largely cooperative, partly due to the syncretism of many Buddhist and Confucian customs and philosophies into South Korean Catholicism, most notably the practice of jesa.[48]

Unification Church[edit]

Sun Myung Moon Korean evangelist.

Sun Myung Moon claimed that Jesus appeared to him in 1935 and requested him to complete the mission which he (Jesus) had failed to finish due to his crucifixion. Rev. Moon accepted, and in 1954 founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, better known as the Unification Church. Besides the Bible, the Church also accepts Moon's 1966 Divine Principle. Known for its mass weddings and interfaith events, the Unification Church now includes hundred of thousands of members around the globe. Moon died in 2012.

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Numbered references[edit]

  1. ^ According to figures compiled by the South Korean National Statistical Office. "인구,가구/시도별 종교인구/시도별 종교인구 (2005년 인구총조사)". NSO online KOSIS database. Retrieved 23 August 2006. 
  2. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2008 – Korea, Republic of". U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2010. 
  3. ^ Report Finds Catholic Population Growing in South Korea
  4. ^ Evangelical Missions Quarterly – Persecution: A Biblical and Personal Reflection
  5. ^ Kim, Sang-Hwan (1996). The impact of early Presbyterian missionary preaching (1884–1920) on the preaching of the Korean church (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  6. ^ Korean Overseas Information Service, A Handbook of Korea (1993) p, 132
  7. ^ "한국 가톨릭 태두 정진석 추기경 :: 네이버 뉴스" (in Korean). News.naver.com. 25 July 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  8. ^ a b James H. Grayson, Korea: A Religious History (2002) p 169.
  9. ^ Jang Sukman, "Historical Currents and Characteristics of Korean Protestantism after Liberation," Korea Journal (2004) 44#4 pp 133-156
  10. ^ Samuel P. Huntington (2007). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. p. 101. 
  11. ^ Jang Sukman, "Historical Currents and Characteristics of Korean Protestantism after Liberation," Korea Journal (2004) 44#4 pp 133-156.
  12. ^ figures from the 2005 census Figures from the 1995 census
  13. ^ http://www.pck.or.kr/Eng/History/MajorH.asp, http://www.gapck.org
  14. ^ a b "Missions Incredible | Christianity Today | A Magazine of Evangelical Conviction". Christianity Today. 3 January 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  15. ^ "World Mission Conference of the Presbyterian Church" (in Korean). Korea Computer Mission. 11 December 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  16. ^ "[GMS]Global Mission Society". E-gms.gms.kr. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ Jeffreys, Daniel (4 August 2007). "South Korea turns against 'arrogant' Christian hostages". The Independent (London). 
  19. ^ "Deported Koreans May Not Revisit Foreign Countries". Koreatimes.co.kr. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  20. ^ [2][dead link]
  21. ^ "Ministry". Suitable Helper Ministry. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  22. ^ Kim (김), Su-han (수한) (25 March 2011). "세계적인 건축가 아론 탄 "서울 야경은 십자가예요"". Hereld Biz (in Korean). Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  23. ^ Kyung Moon Hwang, "From the Dirt to Heaven: Northern Koreans in the Chosŏn and Early Modern Eras," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (2002) 62#1 pp 135-78 in JSTOR
  24. ^ John Ross (1842–1915), Scottish Presbyterian Missionary in Manchuria
  25. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age: Vol. 5: The Twentieth century outside Europe (1962) pp 414-5
  26. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette, A history of the expansion of Christianity: Volume VII: Advance through Storm: A.D. 1914 and after, with concluding generalizations (1945) 7:403, 406
  27. ^ Bush, Luis. "Transformation from Poor to Blessed: A Korean Case Study". 
  28. ^ "Harvard Econ Department – Contact Info for Robert Barro". Economics.harvard.edu. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  29. ^ "Religion linked to economic growth". The Taipei Times. 4 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012. 
  30. ^ Lee, Felicia R. (31 January 2004). "Faith Can Enrich More Than the Soul". The New York Times. 
  31. ^ Steven N. Durlauf, Andros Kourtellos, and Chih Ming Tan (27 September 2006). "Is God in the Details? A Reexamination of the Role of Religion in Economic Growth". Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  32. ^ Ahn (안), Seong-mo (성모) (8 July 2011). "빚 내서 몸 키우는 한국 대형 교회들". SisaJournal (in Korean). Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  33. ^ Gelder, Craig Van (15 November 2007). The missional church in context: Helping congregations develop contextual ministry. ISBN 978-0-8028-4567-2. 
  34. ^ '중동 선교활동' 여권법 개정 논란
  35. ^ Park (박), Gwang-hui (광희) (11 March 2011). "[직격 인터뷰] 손봉호 교수 "정치인들, 개신교 편 들지 말라"". Hankook Ilbo (in Korean). Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  36. ^ a b Crisis in the Church
  37. ^ 대형교회 목사 등 주민투표법 위반 조사 (종합) 2011-08-23 Yonhap News
  38. ^ Jeong (정), Hwan-bo (환보); Kim Tae-hun (김태훈) (26 October 2011). "기독교단체 ‘나경원 지지하라’ 메일 발송…선거법 위반 확인". The Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). Retrieved 25 November 2011. 
  39. ^ Kim (김), Min-jeong (민정) (9 January 2012). "한국교회언론회 "이근안 목사 안수 재고해야"". News Mission (in Korean). Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  40. ^ a b c "[서울신문] 과학 교과서서 사라지는 ‘진화론’" [The theory of Evolution to Disappear from Science Textbooks] (in Korean). Seoul News. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012, translation available at: Evolutionary Theory to Disappear from Science Textbooks, koreaBANG, Justin_C, 18 May 2012 
  41. ^ a b c d Park, Soo Bin (2012-06-05). "South Korea surrenders to creationist demands". Nature 486 (7401): 14. doi:10.1038/486014a. PMID 22678257. Retrieved 2012-06-19.  edit
  42. ^ Traywick, Catherine (12 June 2012). "South Korean Textbooks Reject Evolution". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  43. ^ a b comment by Joonghwan Jeon, scientist quoted in Nature article
  44. ^ New York Times: "Religious peace under threat in South Korea" by Choe Sang-Hun 14 October 2008
  45. ^ "YouTube — S. Korean Christians praying for Buddhist temple to collapse". Youtube.com. 11 August 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  46. ^ Harry L. Wells, Korean Temple Burnings and Vandalism: The Response of the Society for Buddhist-Christian Studies. Buddhist-Christian Studies, Vol. 20, 2000, pp. 239-240; http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/buddhist-christian_studies/v020/20.1wells.html
  47. ^ Anti-Christian sentiment in Korea
  48. ^ Suh, Sharon A. (2004). Being Buddhist in a Christian World: Gender and Community in a Korean American Temple. University of Washington Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-295-98378-7 
  1. ^ Patrick Johnstone and Jason Mandryk, Operation World, Carlisle, Cumbria, and Waynesboro, GA., 2001, pp. 387–390.
  2. ^ CHOI Suk-woo, 'Korean Catholicism Yesterday and Today', Korean Journal XXIV, 8, August 1984, p. 4.
  3. ^ KIM Han-sik, 'The Influence of Christianity', Korean Journal XXIII, 12, December 1983, p. 5.
  4. ^ Ibid., pp. 6–7.
  5. ^ Ibid., p. 6.
  6. ^ KIM Ok-hy, 'Women in the History of Catholicism in Korea', Korean Journal XXIV, 8, August 1984, p. 30.
  7. ^ CHOI Suk-Woo, pp. 5–6.
  8. ^ National Unification Board, The Identity of the Korean People, Seoul, 1983, pp. 132–136.
  9. ^ Seoul International Publishing House, Focus on Korea, Korean History, Seoul, 1983, pp. 7–8.
  10. ^ Seoul International Publishing House, Focus on Korea, Korean History, Seoul, 1983, pp. 7–8.
  11. ^ The Identity of the Korean People, pp. 132–136.
  12. ^ Ilyon, tr. HA Tae-hung and Grafton K. Minz, Samguk Yusa, Seoul 1972, pp. 32–33.
  13. ^ Marguerite Johnson, 'The Culture', in Pico Iyer (ed.) 'An Ancient Nation on the Eve of a Modern Spectacle: SOUTH KOREA', Time CXXXII, 10, 5 September 1988, p. 48.
  14. ^ Ibid., p. 48.
  15. ^ Focus on Korea, pp. 7–8.
  16. ^ CHO Kwang, 'The Meaning of Catholicism in Korean History', Korean Journal XXIV, 8, August 1984, pp. 20–21.
  17. ^ Colin Whittaker, Korea Miracle, Eastbourne, 1988, p. 133.
  18. ^ Andrew C. Nah, A Panorama of 5000 Years: Korean History, Seoul, 1983, p. 81.
  19. ^ Whittaker, p. 62.
  20. ^ Ibid., p. 65.
  21. ^ Ibid., p. 63.
  22. ^ CHOI Suk-woo, p. 10.
  23. ^ Encyclopedia Americana, Vol. 23, Danbury, Conn., 1988, p. 464.
  24. ^ CHO Kwang, p. 11.
  25. ^ Whittaker, p. 65.
  26. ^ Merit Students Encyclopedia, Vol. 10, New York and London, 1980, p. 440.
  27. ^ Whittaker, p. 34.
  28. ^ CHO Kwang, pp. 20–21.
  29. ^ Whittaker, p. 40.
  30. ^ KIM Ok-hy, p. 34.
  31. ^ CHO Kwang, pp. 16–18.
  32. ^ Ibid., pp. 18–19.
  33. ^ KIM Han-sik, pp. 11–12.
  34. ^ CHOI Suk-woo, p. 7.
  35. ^ CHO Kwang, pp. 16–18.
  36. ^ Ibid., pp. 18–19.
  37. ^ Ibid., pp. 16–19.
  38. ^ Michael Lee, 'Korean Churches Pursue Social and Political Justice', in Brian Heavy (Ed.), Accent III, 3 Auckland, May 1988, pp. 19–20.
  39. ^ Kessing's Contemporary Archives, London, 25 April 1980, p. 30216.
  40. ^ J. Earnest Fisher, Pioneers of Modern Korea, Seoul, 1977, pp. 65–74.

Further reading[edit]

  • Baker, Don. “From Pottery to Politics: The Transformation of Korean Catholicism.” Pp. 127–68 in Religion and Society in Contemporary Korea, edited by Lewis R. Lancaster and Richard K. Payne. (University of California Press, 1997)
  • Bays, Daniel H., and James H. Grayson. 2006. “Christianity in East Asia: China, Korea, and Japan.” Pp. 493–512 in The Cambridge History of Christianity: World Christianities c. 1815–c. 1914, edited by Sheridan Gilley and Brian Stanley. (Cambridge University Press 2006)
  • Buswell, Robert E., Jr., and Timothy S. Lee, eds. Christianity in Korea (University of Hawai’i Press, 2005)
  • Cho, Kwang (August 1984). "The Meaning of Catholicism in Korean History". Korea Journal 24 (8): 14–27. ISSN 0023-3900. 
  • Clark, Donald N. Christianity in Modern Korea (1986)
  • Choi, Suk-Woo (August 1984). "Korean Catholicism Yesterday and Today". Korea Journal 24 (8): 4–13. ISSN 0023-3900. 
  • Encyclopedia Americana (1986). Vol. 23, Danbury, Conn.: Grolier. ISBN 0-7172-0117-1
  • Farhadian, Charles E.; Hefner, Robert W. (2012). Introducing World Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 122–35. 
  • Fisher, J. Earnest (1977). Pioneers of Modern Korea. Seoul: Christian Literature Society of Korea. 
  • Focus on Korea (1986). Vol. 2, "Korean History", Seoul: Seoul International Pub. House.
  • Grayson, James H. Korea: A Religious History (RoutledgeCurzon, 2002). ch 10-11 excerpt and text search
  • Grayson, James H. Early Buddhism and Christianity in Korea: A Study in the Emplantation of Religion (E. J. Brill, 1985)
  • Ilyon (1972). Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea. trans. Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Seoul: Yonsei University Press. 
  • Johnson, Marguerite (5 September 1988). "An Ancient Nation on the Eve of a Modern Spectacle". Time. 
  • Johnson, Patrick; Mandryk, Jason (2001). Operation World: The Definitive Prayer Guide to the Nations, Peoples, and Cities of the World. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Global Mapping International (CD-ROM). 
  • Kane, Danielle, and Jung Mee Park, "The Puzzle of Korean Christianity: Geopolitical Networks and Religious Conversion in Early Twentieth-Century East Asia," American Journal of Sociology (2009) 115#2 pp 365–404 in JSTOR
  • Kang, Wi Jo. Christ and Caesar in Modern Korea: A History of Christianity and Politics (1997) excerpt and text search
  • Keesing's (1979). Keesing's Contemporary Archives 25: p. 30216. ISSN 0022-9679.
  • Kim, Han-Sik (December 1983). "The Influence of Christianity on Modern Korean Political Thought". Korea Journal 23 (12): 4–17. ISSN 0023-3900. 
  • Kim, Sang-Hwan (1996). The impact of early Presbyterian missionary preaching (1884–1920) on the preaching of the Korean church (M.A. thesis). Wilfrid Laurier University. 
  • Kim, Ok-Hy (August 1984). "Women in the History of Catholicism in Korea". Korea Journal 24 (8): 28–40. ISSN 0023-3900. 
  • Lee, Michael (May 1981). "Korean Churches Pursue Social and Political Justice". Accent 3 (3). .
  • Lee, Timothy S. "A Political Factor in the Rise of Protestantism in Korea: Protestantism and the 1919 March First Movement," Church History 2000. 69#1 pp 116–42. in JSTOR
  • Merit Students Encyclopedia (1980). Vol. 10, New York: Macmillan Educational.
  • Park, Sangyil, Korean Preaching, Han, and Narrative (Peter Lang, 2008) (American University Studies, Series 7: Theology and Religion, 282).
  • Ryu, Dae Young. "The Origin and Characteristics of Evangelical Protestantism in Korea at the Turn of the Twentieth Century," Church History (2008) 77#2 371-398 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0009640708000589
  • Koon Sik Shim (2008). Rev. Sang-Dong Han, The Founder of the Presbyterian Church in Korea (Koshin): A Biography. The Hermit Kingdom Press. ISBN 978-1-59689-073-2. 
  • Mullins, Mark, and Richard Fox Young, eds. Perspectives on Christianity in Korea and Japan: The Gospel and Culture in East Asia (Edwin Mellen, 1995)
  • Park, Chung-shin. Protestantism and Politics in Korea (U. of Washington Press, 2003)
  • Suh, Kuk-sung () (1983). The Identity of the Korean People: A History of Legitimacy on the Korean Peninsula. trans. Chung Chung. Seoul: National Unification Board. 
  • Whittaker, Colin (1988). Korea Miracle. Eastbourne, Sussex: Kingsway. ISBN 0-86065-522-9. 

External links[edit]