Christopher Busby

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Christopher Busby

Christopher Busby (born 1 September 1945) is a British scientist known for his controversial theories about the negative health effects of very low-dose ionising radiation. Busby is a director of Green Audit Limited, a private company,[1] and scientific advisor to the Low Level Radiation Campaign (LLRC), another private company that he set up in 1999.[2] Busby was the National Speaker on Science and Technology for the Green Party of England and Wales.[3][4]

Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Busby established a television and internet presence where he discussed the risks of ionizing radiation and the Japanese Government's handling of the disaster. Busby furthermore marketed, on his Japanese language website, tests and a mineral supplement (dubbed by critics an "anti-radiation" pill) that he claimed could mitigate the effects of ingested radioisotopes.[5]


Busby obtained a BSc in Chemistry with First Class Honours from the University of London. His membership in the Royal Society of Chemistry lapsed in 1984.[citation needed] He later gained a PhD in chemical physics at the University of Kent, researching Raman spectro-electrochemistry.[6] In 1999 Busby stood as an Election Candidate for the European Parliamentary elections.[7] Busby was a member of the British government sponsored Committee Examining Radiation Risks from Internal Emitters (CERRIE), which operated from 2001 to 2004.[6] In 2001, he was appointed to the UK Ministry of Defence Oversight Committee on Depleted Uranium (DUOB).[6] Between 2003 and 2007 he was a Fellow of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Liverpool, in the Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology,[6] and he was formerly a visiting professor at the School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster.[8]

Second event theory and photoelectric effect controversy[edit]

The Biphasic Curve: The cancer risk vs. radiation level in the low-dose regime (0 to 200 mSv) for LNT and the 'Biphasic Curve' promoted by Busby. Background radiation is ~2.4 mSv/year (diagram adapted by Busby from Burlakova et al. (1998)).[9]

From 1987 onwards Busby has written on the health effects of ionizing radiation and developed what he has named "second event theory" (SET) and "photoelectric effect theory" (PET). He claims that these theories demonstrate that the widely accepted linear no-threshold (LNT) model substantially underestimates the risk of low level radiation (the LNT model is largely constructed from the 1958 to 2001 'Life Span Study' of the 120,321 Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors (hibakusha (被爆者?)) who were exposed to a powerful external burst of neutron and gamma radiation).[10] Busby claims that in the low dose regime, radiation moderately above background causes more cancer than much higher levels of radiation i.e. a biphasic (bimodal) curve; a claim based on the work of Russian biologist Elena Burlakova.[9][11]

Busby initially proposed the Second Event Theory (SET) in 1995, in his self-published book 'Wings of Death: Nuclear Pollution and Human Health'[12] claiming that isotopes which decay sequentially, emitting two or more particles in a short decay chain, have far greater genotoxic effects than predicted by the LNT model. According to this theory, the 90Sr-90Y decay chain would be ~30 times more carcinogenic than predicted by LNT. According to SET, primary exposure to a beta particle alters a cell to the G2 Phase, which Busby claims would render the cell highly radio-sensitive and more prone to malignant changes when exposed to a second particle.

SET was criticized by Cox & Edwards (2000)[13] who stated that if Busby's "biologically implausible" theory was correct and all irradiated cells undergo transformation to the G2 Phase, it would cause an increased risk factor of just 1.3 times and predict, on the contrary, substantial risk reduction at low doses for single emitting radioisotopes. Furthermore, it was established in 1906 (The Law of Bergonié and Tribondeau) that cells in the G2 Phase are more resistant to radiation than cells in the M Phase (Radiosensitivity and Cell cycle).[14] The Committee Examining Radiation Risks of Internal Emitters (CERRIE) report, on which Busby was one of twelve members, exhaustively examined the biological plausibility of SET and commissioned an independent consultant to conduct a literature review. In 2004 CERRIE rejected the SET by a 10 to 2 majority consensus (Busby and non-scientist Richard Bramhall, dissented). The rejection was made for following reasons:[15]

  • The lack of biological plausibility for the basic preconditions of the SET
  • The paucity of supporting evidence in the proponents’ reviews of the SET
  • The weakness of studies cited in support of the SET
  • The absence of supporting evidence found by the independent review commissioned by the Committee

CERRIE also considered and rejected by 10 to 2 consensus the biphasic (bimodal) curve of Burlakova et al. (1999),[11] due to the study's "substantial shortcomings"; tables were so ambiguous that the risk-dose response could be interpreted as linear, biphasic or even promoting health (radiation hormesis).[15]

In 2011, Busby began selling a minority report for £25 on his website, in which he two co-authors claimed that cancer risk from internal exposures to low doses of radiation is 300 times greater than predicted under the LNT model, that the LNT model is meaningless, and that cancer incidence rates in Sweden and Belarus had increased by 40% since Chernobyl.[16]

Later work by Busby focused on the health effects of ingested depleted uranium particles. In particular he has proposed that ingested uranium particles cause photoelectric enhancement, which he claims increases the genotoxic effect of natural background gamma radiation by 500 to 1000 times. In particular, he claims that natural gamma rays striking incorporated uranium in turn generates secondary electrons that damage cells).[17][18] Recent work by Busby (2008)[19] The plausibility of photoelectric enhancement mediated by ingested uranium particles as a mechanism of cell damage has been reported on in the New Scientist magazine. The majority of scientists interviewed in that article expressed interest in the theory but doubted that the effect could be as large as has been claimed by its proponents.[20]

However, subsequent computer simulations by Pattison, Hugtenburg & Green (2010)[21] indicate a radiation enhancement factor of only 1 to 10 fold for uranium particles, considerably lower than Busby's preliminary estimate. Indeed, a large body of research has accumulated into the efficacy of gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy (GNRT), where the effects of radiotherapeutic intense gamma ray and x-ray sources are modestly enhanced via the photoelectric effect by 0.3 to 1.16 fold, a lower range than estimated for uranium particles.[22]

Conflicts with other low-dose radiation researchers[edit]

Busby is the author of two self-published books on cancer incidence in Wales, Wings of Death and Wolves of Water.

The books were criticised in the Journal of Radiological Protection as "erroneous in consequence of various mistakes".[23][24] According to Richard Wakeford, the editor-in-chief of the journal, a fellow CERRIE committee member representing the nuclear industry, and a specialist in the health effects of low-dose radiation (formerly with British Nuclear Fuels),[25] Busby's work is "Deeply flawed".[26]

Busby served on the UK Government's Committee Examining Radiation Risks of Internal Emitters (CERRIE), which operated between 2001 and 2004, and included medical professionals, scientists, delegates from Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth, and Richard Wakeford representing the nuclear industry.[26] Busby ultimately disagreed with the committee's conclusions and published a "minority report" with another committee member from LLRC[27] On the LLRC website page selling the minority report, it's claimed (without citation) that north Sweden cancer rates have increased by 40% since Chernobyl.[28] A doctoral dissertation from 2007 was reported as saying that the area "has shown a small but statistically significant increase in the incidence of cancer."[29]

Busby has criticized other researchers studying health effects from low-dose radiation, for being "stupid" and "ignorant", and in particular Prof. Wade Allison (emeritus) of Oxford who had quoted a UN report saying that only 28 people have died as of 2005 from radiation releases at Chernobyl and who has said there is an "over-reaction" to low-dose radiation.[30][31] In particular, he seems to have taken exception to Allison on philosophical grounds:

I have chosen to pitch into him since he epitomises and crystallises for us the arguments of the stupid physicist. In this he has done us a favour, since he is really easy to shoot down. All the arguments are in one place. Stupid physicists? Make no mistake, physicists are stupid. They make themselves stupid by a kind of religious belief in mathematical modelling. The old Bertie Russell logical positivist trap.[30]

Busby went on to say, claiming support from a New York Academy of Sciences publication titled Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, that "more than a million people have died between 1986 and 2004 as a direct result of Chernobyl."[30] The report was in actuality only a translation of a Russian book not put under peer review by NYAS. Contrary to the UN report cited by Allison, it claims several hundred thousand deaths and projects the number to go higher, with some support from mathematical modeling.[32] He can be equivocal about modelling—in earlier comments on BBC, he'd claimed "significant" plutonium releases from Fukushima detected far north of the reactor complex, supposedly established in part through the use of "a very advanced, sophisticated, computer air-flow model."[33]

Antone Brooks (recently retired as the Technical Research Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Dose Radiation Research Program)[34] has also had differences with Busby.[citation needed]

Televised comments on Fukushima I nuclear accidents[edit]

In a March 14 broadcast on BBC, Busby was interviewed along with Ian Fells, and characterized the accident as "exactly the same scenario" as Chernobyl. While admitting that the containment structure for Fukushima Dai-ichi was more much advanced than that at Chernobyl, he claimed there could be "nuclear explosion" rather than (as reported) a hydrogen explosion, if fuel elements had melted down and collected at the bottom of the vessel. He also asserted that radiation levels measured at a reactor north of Fukushima Dai-ichi (i.e. Onagawa) indicated that "up to 100 kilometers away, we are getting concentrations of plutonium, cesium and iodine" (sic - presumably radionuclides thereof) released from Fukushima Dai-ichi, making the releases comparable in his opinion to Chernobyl, in terms of human health impact. In response to Fells' characterization of the worst immediate effects being loss of power to an advanced industrial society, Busby said "this is a radiological catastrophe already", asserting in particular that plutonium releases were a major cause of concern.[33]

On 30 March 2011 Busby first appeared on Russia Today stating that the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster was worse than being reported.[35] During the follow up interview on April 13, 2011, Busby stated that Fukushima radiation pollution could cause up to 400,000 added cancer cases among those living within 200 km of the reactor, with " reports of significant radiation ... even south of Tokyo".[36][37]

On April 25 Busby stated on Russia Today that he believed one of the explosions at the Fukushima I nuclear reactors was a "nuclear" one, rather than a hydrogen explosion as reported. In the same Russia Today broadcast, he referred to calculations made with his colleagues estimating that Chernobyl had killed 1,400,000 people, and that Fukushima's death toll would be in the same range, if not worse.[38]

Controversy Regarding Sale of "Anti-Radiation" Pills[edit]

Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Busby established an internet presence discussing the risks of ionizing radiation and a conspiracy theory involving Japanese Government's efforts to spread radioactive contamination throughout the country. He also marketed online, services and a mineral supplement he claimed mitigate the dangers of ingested radioisotopes.[5]

Most notably, Busby claimed radioactive caesium-137 released from the nuclear disaster can cause heart muscle damage and heart attacks in children and a mineral supplement, sold on his Japanese language website via 4u-detox of San Pedro, California, could prevent these deleterious effects (labelled Busby Laboratories, Formula 1, Christopher Busby Foundation for The Children of Fukushima).[39] Busby says he bases his cardiac claims on the work of husband-and-wife team Yury Bandazhevsky & Galina Bandazhevskaya; known for their controversial claims that arrhythmia and heart attacks occurred in children at caesium-137 levels as low as 50 Bqkg−1 and that oral apple pectin increases its excretion (by comparison banana contains ca. 3000 Bqkg−1 of natural potassium-40).[40][41]

Busby later self-published a document that he claimed offered theoretical support for his supplement, namely an ability to block certain radioisotopes from binding to DNA. However, his document also explains that his supplement cannot block caesium-137, because it does not contain a protective dose of stable caesium:

Additionally, Busby alleges the Japanese Government is involved in a conspiracy to spread radioactive contamination throughout Japan, in an effort to hide cancer clusters from epidemiologists and thus hinder litigation (cancer clusters are typically statistically identified by comparison with an unexposed cohort).[5]

Gerry Thomas, professor of molecular pathology at the department of surgery and cancer at Imperial College, London, condemned the "anti-radiation" pills as useless and described the claims made by Busby as ludicrous. Ohtsura Niwa, professor at the Kyoto University Radiation Biology Center and CEO of BioMedics Japan, disagreed with Busby's contention that radiation is being deliberately spread throughout Japan. Niwa noted that the ownership of dosimeters in Japan is now widespread and if radioactive contamination was actively spread about, people would know. Niwa also agreed with Thomas, that mineral supplements cannot guard against strontium, uranium and plutonium radioisotopes. Similar mineral supplements are widely available in chemists in Tokyo, at 1/8th cost offered by Busby Laboratories.[5][43]

Recently, a research team at the Experimental Radio-TOXological Laboratory (LRTOX), France, independently investigated the effects of high level (500 Bqkg−1) caesium-137 exposure in animals (heart, testes, blood, cholesterol, immune system, foetus etc.). For example, Guéguen et al. (2008) investigated the possible cardiac effects of 500 Bqkg−1 caesium-137 exposure in rats over 3 months. They observed that, while caesium-137 exposure did not cause any damage to heart cells or arrhythmias, results indicated that quite subtle cardiac impairment might worsen in some sensitive individuals over time.[44] Also, Le Gal et al. (2006) found that the excretion of caesium-137 was not increased by oral apple pectin, however prussian blue (the drug Radiogardase®) enhanced faecal excretion of caesium-137 fivefold.[45] Furthermore, the study of Bandazhevskaya (2004) involving oral apple pectin was criticised by Jargin (2010), who highlighted a number of serious flaws that meant the claims made could not substantiated.[46]

Claiming that a supplement can be of use in the "cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease" renders it equivalent to a drug and subject to oversight by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Section 201(g)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act). Specifically, drugs must be demonstrated to work and proven safe. In April 2011, the FDA sent warning letters to an unrelated company, Premier Micronutrient Corporation of Nashville, Tennessee, USA, who similarly claim that it's "anti-oxidant" supplements are capable of preventing illness caused by radiation (Bioshield-Radiation® R1 and Bioshield Radiation® R2). The FDA pointed out there was no scientific data demonstrating the drugs safety or effectiveness in treating radiation exposure.[47] However, Bioshield Radiation® R2 subsequently resumed sale with a legal waver, "These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease."; that it is a food supplement.[48] The FDA approves three over-the-counter drugs for iodine-131 and one prescription drug (Radiogardase®) for caesium-137 contamination.[49][50]

Research on WDU (Weapons Derived Uranium)[edit]

Busby has written on the potential health effects of DU [51][52][53][54] and given presentations at the Royal Society, London,[55] where he again gave a talk in Nov. 2008, titled "Scientific Dishonesty" [56] and he reported or published the following findings:

  • "a statistically significant increase in uranium in all the filters beginning at the start of the 2nd Gulf War (03-04/2003) and ending when it ended" from analysis of data —obtained using FOIA— from high volume air samplers, deployed by the AWE Aldermaston, Berkshire (UK) [57]
  • isotopic signatures showing EU (slightly Enriched Uranium) in a veteran of the Bosnia theatre in 1996 [58][59]
  • EU from "guided weapons employed by the Israeli samples from bomb craters in southern Lebanon" [60][61] and in the air filter of an ambulance, stating "The measurements made in the air filter show that at least part of Beirut has been contaminated and that the Uranium use was not restricted to areas near Khiam, where the Uranium was first detected by our sampling."[62]
  • "Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009" [63] "worse than Hiroshima" [64][65]
  • EU "in hair from the parents of children with congenital anomalies in Fallujah" in 2011 [66]

In November 2012, Busby gave a talk in Geneva at the Human Rights Council [67] about the failures of radiation protection as a Human Rights Issue.[68]

A review of past studies of birth defects in Iraq concluded that there was no clear increase in birth defects and no clear indication of a possible environmental exposure including depleted uranium.[69]

Selected publications[edit]

  • Busby Chris, Hamdan Malak, Ariabi Entesar (2010). "Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009". Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7 (7): 2828–2837. doi:10.3390/ijerph7072828. PMC 2922729. PMID 20717542. 
  • Busby CC (2009). "Very low dose fetal exposure to Chernobyl contamination resulted in increases in infant leukemia in Europe and raises questions about current radiation risk models". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6 (12): 3105–3114. doi:10.3390/ijerph6123105. PMC 2800337. PMID 20049249. 
  • Busby Chris, Lengfelder Edmund, Pflugbeil Sebastian, Schmitz Feuerhake, Inge (2009). "The evidence of radiation effects in embryos and fetuses exposed by Chernobyl fallout and the question of dose response". Medicine, Conflict, Survival 25 (1): 18–39. 
  • Busby Chris and Schnug Ewald (2008). "Advanced biochemical and biophysical aspects of uranium contamination". In: (Eds) De Kok, L.J. and Schnug, E. Loads and Fate of Fertilizer Derived Uranium. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands, ISBN/EAN 978-90-5782-193-6.
  • Koppe JG, Bartonova A, Bolte G, Bistrup ML, Busby C, Butter M et al. (2006). "Exposure to multiple environmental agents and their effects". Acta Paediatrica S 453: 106–114. 
  • Van den Hazel P, Zuurbier M, Babisch W, Bartonova A, Bistrup M-L Bolte G, Busby C et al. (2006). "Today's epidemics in children: possible relations to environmental pollution". Acta Paediatrica S 453: 18–26. 
  • Busby C, Fucic A (2006). "Ionizing Radiation and children's health: PINCHE conclusions". Acta Paediatrica S 453: 81–86. 
  • Busby CC, Scott Cato M (2001). "Increases in leukemia in infants in Wales and Scotland following Chernobyl: Evidence for errors in statutory risk estimates and dose response assumptions". International Journal of Radiation Medicine 3 (1): 23. 
  • Busby CC, Scott Cato M (1997). "Death Rates from Leukemia are Higher than Expected in Areas around Nuclear Sites in Berkshire and Oxfordshire". British Medical Journal 315: 309. doi:10.1136/bmj.315.7103.309. 


  • Busby, CC (1992). Low level radiation from the nuclear industry: the biological consequences. (Aberystwyth: Green Audit) ISBN 1-897761-00-7.
  • Busby, CC (1994). Radiation and Cancer in Wales (Aberystwyth: Green Audit). ISBN 1-897761-02-3.
  • Busby, CC (1995). Wings of Death: Nuclear Pollution and Human Health (Aberystwyth: Green Audit) ISBN 1-897761-03-1.
  • Edited by Busby CC, Bertell R, Yablokov A, Schmitz-Feuerhake I, and Scott Cato M (2003). ECRR2003: 2003 recommendations of the European Committee on Radiation Risk: The health effects of ionizing radiation at low dose — Regulator's edition. (Brussels: ECRR-2003). ISBN 1-897761-24-4.
  • Scott Cato M with Busby CC and Bramhall R (2000). I don’t know Much about Science: political decision making in scientific and technical areas. Aberystwyth: Green Audit. ISBN 1-897761-21-X.
  • Bramhall R with Busby CC and Dorfman P (2004). CERRIE Minority Report 2004: Minority Report of the UK Department of Health/ Department of Environment (DEFRA) Committee Examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters (CERRIE). Aberystwyth: Sosiumi Press. ISBN 0-9543081-1-5.
  • Busby CC and others (2004) Report of the Committee Examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters (CERRIE) Chilton, UK: National Radiological Protection Board. ISBN 0-85951-545-1.
  • Busby C and Yablokov AV (2006) ECRR 2006. Chernobyl 20 year On. The Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident. Brussels: ECRR/ Aberystwyth: Green Audit. ISBN 1-897761-15-5.
  • Busby C (2006) Wolves of Water. A Study Constructed from Atomic Radiation, Morality, Epidemiology, Science, Bias, Philosophy and Death. Aberystwyth: Green Audit ISBN 1-897761-26-0
  • Busby C (2009) Our Mother who art in Everything: Poems 2004-8. Llandrinddod Wells, Wales: Sosiumi Press. ISBN 0-9543081-5-8.
  • Busby, C (ed.) &al. (2011). Fukushima and Health: What to Expect: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the European Committee on Radiation Risk, Lesvos Greece May 5/6th 2009 (Documents of the ECRR) Green Audit. ISBN 978-1897761175.
  • Also: Busby C (2004) Nuclear Cover-Ups Video DVD Aberystwyth: Green Audit Films Busby Christo (2009) Songs from a Cold Climate (CD) Aberystwyth: Green Audit.

Book Chapters[edit]

  • Busby, C. C. (1996a), ‘ in Bramhall, R. (ed.), The Health Effects of Low Level Radiation: Proceedings of a Symposium held at the House of Commons, 24 April 1996 (Aberystwyth: Green Audit).
  • Busby, C. C. (1998), ‘Enhanced mutagenicity from internal sequentially decaying beta emitters from second event effects.’ In ‘Die Wirkung niedriger Strahlendosen- im kindes-und Jugendalter, in der Medizin, Umwelt ind technik, am Arbeitsplatz’. Proceedings of International Congress of the German Society for Radiation Protection. Eds: Koehnlein W and Nussbaum R. Muenster, 28 March 1998 (Bremen: Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz)
  • Busby C.C and Scott Cato M (1999) 'A Planetary Impact index' in Molly Scott Cato and Miriam Kennett eds. Green Economics- beyond supply and demand to meeting peoples needs. Aberystwyth: Green Audit
  • Busby C (2004) Depleted Science: the health consequences and mechanisms of exposure to fallout from Depleted Uranium weapons. In The Trojan Horses of Nuclear War Kuepker M and Kraft D eds. Hamburg: GAAA
  • Busby Chris (2007) New nuclear risk models, real health effects and court cases. pp 35–46 in- Updating International Nuclear Law Eds—Stockinger H, van Dyke JM et al. Vienna: Neuer Wissenschaftlicher Verlag
  • Busby C (2008) Depleted Uranium. Why all the fuss? United Nations Disarmament Forum Journal UNIDIR, Nov 2008
  • Christopher Busby (2012) 'Aspects of DNA Damage from Internal Radionuclides' in "New Research Directions in DNA Repair" edited by Clark Chen, ISBN 978-953-51-1114-6, Pub.: 2013-05-22; DOI: 10.5772/53942 [70]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Green Audit
  2. ^ Green Audit, About Green Audit
  3. ^ "Greens launch radiation activist network". Green Party of England and Wales. 23 October 2004. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  4. ^ "Far more spin than substance". Green Party of England and Wales. 2 September 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d Monbiot, George; Justin McCurry (2011-11-21). "Post-Fukushima 'anti-radiation' pills condemned by scientists". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Dr Chris Bubsy (CERRIE biography)". Committee Examining Radiation Risks from Internal Emitters. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  7. ^ "1999 * Election candidates". UK Office of the European Parliament. Retrieved 3 April 2011. 
  8. ^ "Professor Chris Busby". University of Ulster. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Burlakova, E. B.; A. N. Goloshchapov, N. V. Gorbunova, S. M. Gurevich, G. P. Zhizhina, A. I. Kozachenko, A. A. Konradov, D. B. Korman, E. M. Molochkina, L. G. Nagler, others (1998). "Peculiarities of Biological Action of Low Irradiation Doses and Their Probable Relation to the Health State of Participants of Chernobyl Accident Liquidation". Kurri Kr (21): 223–234. ISSN 1342-0852. 
  10. ^ Samartzis, Dino; Nobuo Nishi, Mikiko Hayashi, John Cologne, Harry M. Cullings, Kazunori Kodama, Edward F. Miles, Sachiyo Funamoto, Akihiko Suyama, Midori Soda, Fumiyoshi Kasagi (2011-03-31). "Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Development of Bone Sarcoma: New Insights Based on Atomic-Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki". J Bone Joint Surg Am 93 (11): JBJS.J.00256. doi:10.2106/JBJS.J.00256. PMID 21984980. Retrieved 2011-04-30. 
  11. ^ a b Burlakova, E. B.; Yu. S. Antova; A. N. Goloshchapov; S. M. Gurevich; G. P. Zhizhina; A. I. Kozachenko (1999). "Mechanisms of biological action of low-dose irradiation". Consequences of the Chernobyl Catastrophe on Human Health. New York, US: Nova Science Publishers Inc. pp. 11–38. ISBN 1-56072-699-7. 
  12. ^ Busby, Chris (October 1995). Wings of Death: Nuclear Pollution and Human Health. Green Audit Books. ISBN 1-897761-03-1. 
  13. ^ Edwards, A A; R Cox (January 2000). "Commentary on the Second Event Theory of Busby". International Journal of Radiation Biology 76 (1): 119–122. doi:10.1080/095530000139087. ISSN 0955-3002. PMID 10665965. 
  14. ^ Ribondeau, L.; J Bergonié (1906). "De quelques résultats de la radiotherapie et essai de fixation d'une technique rationnelle". Comptes-Rendus de Séances de l'Académie des Sciences 143: 983–985. 
  15. ^ a b Goodhead, D.; R. Bramhall, C. Busby, R. Cox, S. Darby, P. Day, J. Harrison, C. Muirhead, P. Roche, J. Simmons, others (2004). Report of the Committee Examining Radiation Risks of Internal Emitters (CERRIE). London: Committee Examining Radiation Risks of Internal Emitters. ISBN 0-85951-545-1. 
  16. ^ Bramhall, Richard; Chris Busby; Paul Dorfman (2011-07-23). "Committee Examining Radiation Risk of Internal Emitters - MINORITY REPORT". Committee Examining Radiation Risk of Internal Emitters. 
  17. ^ radio, January 31, 2003 interview with Busby, Retrieved 10-02-2008
  18. ^ "Scientist raises new radiation fear",, July 5, 2001
  19. ^ Busby, C.; E. Schnug (2008). "Advanced biochemical and biophysical aspects of uranium contamination". In: Loads and Fate of Fertilizer-derived Uranium. Margraf Publishers, Weikersheim. pp. 11–22. ISBN 978-3-8236-1546-0. 
  20. ^ Oliver Tickell (September 7, 2008). "How war debris could cause cancer". New Scientist. 
  21. ^ Pattison, John E.; Hugtenburg, Richard P.; Green, Stuart (2010). "Enhancement of Natural Background Gamma-radiation Dose around Uranium Micro-particles in the Human Body". Journal of the Royal Society Interface 7 (45): 603–611. doi:10.1098/rsif.2009.0300. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  22. ^ Cho, Sang Hyun; Bernard L Jones; Sunil Krishnan (August 2009). "The dosimetric feasibility of gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy (GNRT) via brachytherapy using low-energy gamma-/x-ray sources". Physics in Medicine and Biology 54 (16): 4889–4905. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/54/16/004. ISSN 0031-9155. PMC 3064075. PMID 19636084. Retrieved 2011-05-01. 
  23. ^ Steward, John A.; White, Ceri; Reynolds, Shelagh (2008). "Leukaemia incidence in Welsh children linked with low level radiation—making sense of some erroneous results published in the media". Journal of Radiological Protection 28 (1): 33–43. doi:10.1088/0952-4746/28/1/001. PMID 18309193. 
  24. ^ Wakeford, Richard (2008). "What to believe and what not to believe". Journal of Radiological Protection 28 (1): 5–7. doi:10.1088/0952-4746/28/1/E03. PMID 18309191. 
  25. ^ "Dr Richard Wakeford". Who's Who: Committee Examining Radiation Risks of Internal Emitters. CERRIE. 2004. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  26. ^ a b Wakeford, Richard (2004). "Editorial: Reflections on CERRIE". Journal of Radiological Protection 24 (4): 337–340. doi:10.1088/0952-4746/24/4/E02. PMID 15682902. 
  27. ^ Leake, Jonathan (2004-08-01). "Nuclear Experts Gagged". London: Times Online. Retrieved 2011-04-19. 
  28. ^ "Minority Report of CERRIE (flyer)" (PDF). LLRC. Retrieved 2011-04-18. 
  29. ^ "Increase In Cancer In Sweden Can Be Traced To Chernobyl". Science News. 2007-05-30. Retrieved 2011-04-18.  Martin Tondel, the researcher behind this work, was at last report, active with the Swedish section of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW). "In this capacity Dr. Tondel has visited India and Pakistan several times with International delegations arguing for nuclear disarmament in South Asia."
  30. ^ a b c Busby, Christopher (2011-03-28). "Deconstructing Nuclear Experts". CounterPunch. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  31. ^ Allison, Wade (26 March 2011). "Viewpoint: We should stop running away from radiation". BBC. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  32. ^ "Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for the Environment and the People, The New York Academy Of Sciences Volume 1181, Written by Alexey V. Yablokov (Center for Russian Environmental Policy, Moscow, Russia), Vassily B. Nesterenko, and Alexey V. Nesterenko (Institute of Radiation Safety, Minsk, Belarus). Consulting Editor Janette D. Sherman-Nevinger (Environmental Institute, Western Michigan niversity, Kalamazoo, Michigan). Volume 1181, December 2009 335 Pages". 
  33. ^ a b "Professor Busby gives his assessment of radiation from Fukushima nuclear reactor". BBC News. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  34. ^ Brooks, Antone. "Dr". Nuclear Street. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  35. ^ "Full meltdown in full swing? Japan maximum nuclear alert". RT News. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  36. ^ Kondo, Dwight (14 April 2011). "Scientist: 400,000 Cancers Within 200 km of Fukushima Evacuation Zone". Hawai'i News Daily. Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  37. ^ "Busby: 400,000 to develop cancer in 200 km radius of Fukushima". 
  38. ^ "Busby: 'Can't seal Fukushima like Chernobyl - it all goes into sea'". Russia Today. 2011-04-25.  (“I don’t think the end of Fukushima accident is in sight”)
  39. ^ Christopher Busby Foundation for The Children of Fukushima (CBFCF)
  40. ^ Bandazhevskaya, GS; VB Nesterenko; VI Babenko; IV Babenko; TV Yerkovich; YI Bandazhevsky (2004). "Relationship between Caesium (137Cs) load, cardiovascular symptoms, and source of food in "Chernobyl" children-preliminary observations after intake of oral apple pectin". Swiss Medical Weekly 134 (49–50): 725–729. PMID 15635491. 
  41. ^ Blomfield, Adrian; Adrian Blomfield (2006-04-24). "Chernobyl scientist warns of 'nuclear folly'". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  42. ^ Busby, Chris (2011-11-07). "Calcium and other supplements to protect against internal radiation". 
  43. ^ Monbiot, George (2011-11-22). "Christopher Busby's wild claims hurt green movement and Green party". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  44. ^ Guéguen, Yann; Philippe Lestaevel, Line Grandcolas, Cédric Baudelin, Stéphane Grison, Jean-René Jourdain, Patrick Gourmelon, Maâmar Souidi (2008-03-08). "Chronic Contamination of Rats with 137Cesium Radionuclide: Impact on the Cardiovascular System". Cardiovascular Toxicology 8 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1007/s12012-008-9013-3. ISSN 1530-7905. PMID 18327657. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  45. ^ Le Gall, B.; F. Taran, D. Renault, J.-C. Wilk, E. Ansoborlo (November 2006). "Comparison of prussian blue and apple-pectin efficacy on 137Cs decorporation in rats". Biochimie 88 (11): 1837–1841. doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2006.09.010. ISSN 0300-9084. PMID 17069947. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  46. ^ Jargin, Sergei V. (2010-07-17). "Overestimation of Chernobyl consequences: poorly substantiated information published". Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 49 (4): 743–745. doi:10.1007/s00411-010-0313-1. ISSN 0301-634X. PMID 20640449. Retrieved 2011-11-24. 
  47. ^ "Warning Letters - Premier Micronutrient Corporation 4/28/11" (WebContent). Retrieved 2011-11-24. 
  48. ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Consumer Information - Overview of Dietary Supplements" (WebContent). Retrieved 2011-11-24. 
  49. ^ Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness - FDA Approves First New Drug Application for Treatment of Radiation Contamination due to Cesium or Thallium (10/2/2003)" (WebContent). Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  50. ^ U.S. FTC (2011-03-21). "FTC Warns Consumers About Scam Artists’ Pitch for Potassium Iodide Treatment" (Government). Federal Trade Commission. 
  51. ^ Depleted Science: the health consequences and mechanisms of exposure to fallout from Depleted Uranium weapons in The Trojan Horses of Nuclear War M. Kuepker and D. Kraft eds. Hamburg, 2004
  52. ^ Depleted Uranium Weapons, metal particles and radiation dose European J. Biology and Bioelectromagnetics 2005, 1(1) 82-93
  53. ^ Does uranium contamination amplify natural background radiation dose to the DNA? European J. Biology and Bioelectromagnetics 2005, 1(2) 120-131
  54. ^ Depleted Uranium. Why all the fuss? United Nations Disarmament Forum Journal UNIDIR, Nov 2008
  55. ^ "Science on Trial: On the Biological Effects and Health Risks following exposure to aerosols produced by the use of DU weapons" Invited presentation to the Royal Society, London July 19, 2000 (also given at the Int. Conference against DU, Manchester, Nov. 4) and on "Health effects of Depleted Uranium (again)" in 2001
  56. ^ Dr Chris Busby at the Royal Society: Scientific Dishonesty on YouTube
  57. ^ Did the use of uranium weapons in Gulf War 2 result in contamination of Europe? Chris Busby and Saoirse Morgan; March 1, 2006, European J. Biology and Bioelectromagnetics
  58. ^ Uranium and Health: The Health Effects of Exposure to Uranium and Uranium Weapons Fallout Chris Busby; Documents of the ECRR 2010 No 2
  59. ^ Ballardie FW, Cowley R, Cox A, Curry A, Denley H, Denton J, Dick J, Gerquin-Kern J-L, Redmond A, A man who brought the war home with him The Lancet, Vol. 372 No. 9653 p 1926
  60. ^ Busby C, Williams D, Evidence of Enriched Uranium in guided weapons employed by the Israeli Military in Lebanon in July 2006 Research Note 6/2006 Aberystwyth: Green Audit (accessed 2014-09-20)
  61. ^ Richard Silverstein Israel Reported to Have Used Uranium Bomb in Lebanon in Tikun Olam - תיקון עולם on October 31, 2006 (accessed 2014-09-20)
  62. ^ Busby Busby Chris and Williams Dai, Further Evidence of Enriched Uranium in guided weapons employed by the Israeli Military in Lebanon in July 2006: Ambulance Air Filter Analysis Green Audit Research Note 7/2006 Nov 3rd 2006
  63. ^ Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009 Chris Busby, Malak Hamdan, Entesar Ariabi; International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7, 2828-2837, July 6, 2010; doi:10.3390/ijerph7072828
  64. ^ Toxic legacy of US assault on Fallujah 'worse than Hiroshima' Robert Cockburn, The Independent July 24, 2010
  65. ^ Worse Than Hiroshima? - The Toxic Legacy From the Siege of Fallujah Robert Cockburn,, July 27, 2010
  66. ^ Uranium and other contaminants in hair from the parents of children with congenital anomalies in Fallujah, Iraq Samira Alaani1, Muhammed Tafash, Christopher Busby, Malak Hamdan and Eleonore Blaurock-Busch; Conflict and Health 2011, 5:15; doi:10.1186/1752-1505-5-15
  67. ^ Obama-backed UN "Human Rights" Council Facilitates US-bashing Meet by Anne Bayefsky
  68. ^ Birth Defects study in Fallujah Iraq (Press release)
  69. ^ Al-Hadithi, T.; J. Al-Diwan; A. Saleh; N. Shabila (2012). "Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: a review". Conflict and health 6 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1752-1505-6-3. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  70. ^ INTECH: Aspects of DNA Damage from Internal Radionuclides by C. Busby, in "New Research Directions in DNA Repair" edited by Clark Chen (accessed 2013-08-08)

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