Christopher E. Rudd
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Christopher Edward Rudd, PhD, DSc., FRCPath, FMedSci is a Canadian-born immunologist-biochemist credited with having had a major impact on the understanding of the intracellular signals that control T-cell immunity. Rudd was the first to discover that intracellular protein kinases interact with surface receptors by identifying the interaction of T-cell co-receptors CD4 (also the receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1) and CD8 on T-cells with protein-tyrosine kinase p56lck. His discovery provided a role for members of the proto-oncogene pp60src kinase family in normal cell signaling. Subsequent to this, many other receptors were also then found to use src-related kinases to regulate cell growth. The CD4- and CD8-p56lck complexes are now widely accepted as the initiators of the T-cell activation cascade, leading to the recruitment and activation of a second tyrosine kinase ZAP-70, and which control the ability of T-cells to respond to foreign pathogens, allogeneic transplants and cancer cells.
In a second area, Rudd also elucidated signaling mechanisms by which co-receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 modulate T-cell responses. By showing that CTLA-4 activates T-cell motility and migration, he has proposed the 'reverse-stop signal model' to account for CTLA-4 down regulation of the responses of conventional T-cells to antigen. His research has also shown that a mutant form of an adapter protein termed ADAP can block the infection of T-cells by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) by simultaneously interfering with HIV-1 replication and the transmission of the virus between T-cells.
Born in Toronto, Canada, he was educated at Jesuit-run Brebeuf College School and McGill University, Montreal. He received his PhD and DSc from University College, London and has held faculty positions at Harvard Medical School and Imperial College London. He is the past recipient of awards including the Cancer Research Institute/Benjamin Jacobson Family Investigator Award (New York), Claudia Adams Barr Research Award (Boston) and has been a Scholar of the Leukemia Society of America and a Principal Research Fellow of the Wellcome Trust (UK). He is presently Professor of Molecular Immunology at the University of Cambridge.
- Rudd CE, Trevillyan JM, Wong LL, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF. (1998) The CD4 receptor is complexed to a T-cell specific tyrosine kinase (pp58) in detergent lysates from human T lymphocytes. Proc Nat'l Acad Sci USA. 85, 5190-94.
- Barber, EK, Dasgutpa JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE. (1989) The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein-tyrosine kinase (p56lck) that phosphorylates the CD3 complex. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 3277-81.
- Rudd CE. CD4, CD8 and the TcR/CD3 Complex: a novel class of protein tyrosine kinase receptor (1990) Immunology Today, 11, 400-406
- Schneider H, Downey J, Smith A, Zinselmeyer BH, Rush C, Brewer JM, Wei B, Hogg N, G Garside P, Rudd CE. (2006) Reversal of the TCR stop signal by CTLA-4. Science. 313,1972-5.
- Wei B, Han L, Abbink TEM, Elisabetta G, Lim D, Thaker R, Gao W, Wang J, Lever A, Jolly C, Wang H, Rudd CE (2013) Immune adaptor ADAP in T cells regulates HIV-1 transcription and cell-cell viral spread via different co-receptors. Retrovirol. 10 (1):101.