Chromebook

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Chromebook
Chromebook-logo.png
Samsung Series 3 Chromebook.JPG
Samsung Series 3 Chromebook
Product type Personal computer - Notebook
Owner Google
Introduced June 15, 2011 (2011-06-15)
Website www.google.com/chromebook/

A Chromebook is a personal computer running Chrome OS as its operating system. The devices are designed to be used while connected to the Internet similar to netbooks, though there are a variety of apps that can be run offline. All the data is stored in the "cloud" accessed by an internet connection. A Chromebook is an example of a thin client.[1][2]

The first Chromebooks for sale, by Acer Inc. and Samsung, were announced at the Google I/O conference in May 2011 and began shipping on June 15, 2011.[3] Lenovo, Hewlett Packard and Google itself entered the market in early 2013. In addition to laptop models, a desktop version, called a Chromebox, was introduced in May 2012. Samsung also launched a Samsung Chromebook specifically for the Indian market, with Samsung's Exynos 5 Dual core processor, in December 2013.[4]

Chromebooks are primarily sold both directly from Google and from the company's retail partners. By 2012, schools had become the largest category of customer. That October, Google broadened its marketing strategy to include first-time computer users and households seeking an additional computer. Critical reaction to the device was initially skeptical, with some reviewers, such as New York Times technology columnist David Pogue,[5] unfavorably comparing the value proposition of Chromebooks with that of more fully featured laptops running the Microsoft Windows operating system. That complaint dissipated later in reviews of machines from Acer and Samsung that were priced at the budget end of the market, respectively.[6] In February 2013, Google announced and began shipping the Chromebook Pixel, a higher-spec machine with a high-end price tag.

In October 2012, Simon Phipps, writing in InfoWorld, said, "The Chromebook line is probably the most successful Linux desktop/laptop computer we've seen to date".[7] Measures of overall success are mixed. As of May 2013, the Samsung Series 3 Chromebook has led Amazon's list of best-selling laptops, a position it established when it launched in October 2012.[8]

Design[edit]

Samsung Chromebook Series 3 with bottom panel removed.

Chromebooks are shipped with Google Chrome OS, an operating system that uses the Linux kernel and the Google Chrome web browser with an integrated media player.[9][10] With limited offline capability and a claimed boot time of eight seconds (actual boot time varies depending on hardware, e.g. the Acer C7 is claimed by Google to boot in 18 seconds[11]), Chromebooks are primarily designed to be used connected to the Internet.[12] Instead of installing traditional applications such as word processing and instant messaging, users add web apps from the Chrome Web Store.[13] Google claims that a multi-layer security architecture eliminates the need for anti-virus software.[3]

Support for many USB devices such as cameras, mice, external keyboards and flash drives is included, utilizing a feature similar to plug-and-play on other operating systems. Like the prototype Cr-48, Chromebooks have a specialized keyboard complete with buttons for opening and controlling multiple browser windows, as well as a Web search button which replaces the caps lock key (caps lock being activated by pressing both alt+search).[14]

An analysis of the Samsung Series 5 components by iFixit in June 2011 estimated that the unit cost about US$322.12 in materials and US$12.20 in labor costs giving a total cost of $334.32. With an initial retail price of US$499.99, which also must include the shipping, marketing and research & development costs and retail margins, it indicates that the profit margins on the Chromebooks are quite thin, requiring a large production run to make a profit.[15]

While Chromebooks are designed to be used when connected to the Internet, users are able to access Google applications such as Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Keep, and Google Drive in offline mode. Chromebooks also come with a built-in local music player, a photo editor, and a PDF and Microsoft Office document viewer that are functional without internet access.[16][17] Lastly, Chrome apps such as Amazon's Cloud Reader, the New York Times App, and Angry Birds offer offline capability.

The first-generation, Atom-based Mario, Alex and ZGB Chromebooks used an UEFI-based Insyde H2O to boot the machine. The ARM-based Snow and Daisy use Das U-Boot. All Celeron- and i5-based Chromebooks run Coreboot with Das U-Boot as payload, but additionally use the closed-source Intel Firmware Support Package (FSP) to perform various initializations; they also come with the Intel Management Engine firmware (in a separate flash segment).[18][19]

Sales and marketing[edit]

Google's Sundar Pichai speaking about the Chromebook at its launch at Google I/O, May 2011.

Google secured a long list of development partners working on hardware Chrome OS, including Acer, Adobe, Asus, Freescale, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, Toshiba,[20] Intel,[21] Samsung,[22][23] and Dell.[24] Chrome OS for Business had been led, from its inception, by Rajen Sheth, best known as the "father of Google Apps". His strategy for marketing Chromebooks centered on the total cost of ownership, which he claimed could be "dramatically" reduced by lower maintenance, management and security costs, even if hardware costs remain unchanged.[25]

The first two commercially available Chromebooks, the Samsung Series 5 and the Acer AC700, were unveiled on May 11, 2011, at the Google I/O developer conference. They were to begin selling through online channels, including Amazon and Best Buy in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain starting June 15, 2011; however, Acer's AC700 was not available until early July.[26] The first machines sold for between $349 and $499, depending on the model and 3G option.[27] Google also offered a monthly payment scheme for business and education customers at $28 and $20 per user, per month, respectively for a three-year contract, including replacements and upgrades. Verizon offered models equipped with 3G/4G LTE connectivity 100-200 MB of free wireless data per month, for two years.[28][29]

Google's early marketing efforts relied primarily on hands-on experience: giving away Samsung machines to 10 Cr-48 pilot program participants along with the title Chromebook Guru and loaning Chromebooks to passengers on some Virgin America flights.[30][31][32] At the end of September 2011, Google launched the Chrome Zone, a "store within a store", inside the Currys and PC World superstore in London.[33] The store had a Google-style look and feel with splashes of color all around the retail store front.[34] Google said it was planning to open more Chrome Zones in the UK over the next few months.[35]

In addition to these marketing strategies, Google Chrome has created several "Chromebook minis" that demonstrate the ease of use and simplicity of the devices in a comical manner. For example, when the question "How do you back up a Chromebook" is asked, it is implied to refer to data backup, but instead, shows two hands pushing a Chromebook back to the end of a table. This is followed by the statement, "You don't have to back up a Chromebook," showing how all data is stored on the web.[36]

In an article published on ZDNet in June 2011, entitled "Five Chromebook concerns for businesses", Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols faulted the devices for lack of virtual private network capability, not supporting some Wi-Fi security methods, in particular Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) Enterprise with Extensible Authentication Protocol-Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) or Cisco’s Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol (LEAP). He also noted that its file manager does not work, the need to use the undocumented crosh shell to accomplish basic tasks such as setting up a secure shell (SSH) network connection as well as serious deficiencies in documentation.[37]

In one of the first customer reviews, the City of Orlando, Florida reported on their initial testing of 600 Chromebooks as part of a broader study related to accessing virtual desktops. Early indications show potential value in reducing IT support costs. End users have indicated that the Chromebook is easy to travel with and starts up quickly. One stated that "If I just need to stay connected for emergencies, I take my Chrome," but when traveling for business she would still take her laptop. Orlando does plan to continue to use the Chromebooks.[38]

A Paradise Valley Unified School District student using a Chromebook as part of the organization's pilot project

On November 21, 2011, Google announced price reductions on all Chromebooks.[39] Since then, the Wi-Fi-only Samsung Series 5 was reduced to $349, the 3G Samsung Series 5 was reduced to $449, and the Acer AC700 was reduced to $299. By January 2012, commercial sales for Chromebooks were flat, with the exception of the education market. Google had placed nearly 27,000 Chromebooks in schools across 41 states, including "one-on-one" programs, which allocate a computer for every student, in South Carolina, Illinois, and Iowa.[40] As of August 2012, over 500 school districts in the United States and Europe were using the device, as well as universities, corporations and government facilities.[41][42]

The updated Series 5 550 and the Chromebox, the first ChromeOS desktop machines, were released by Samsung in May 2012.[43][44][45][46] While the two lowest cost Chromebooks emerged later in the fall: the $249[47] Samsung Series 3 and the $199[48] Acer C7. The following February, Google introduced the most costly machine, their Chromebook Pixel, with a starting price of $1299.[49] All models released after May 2012, include 100GB-1.09TB of Google Drive cloud storage and 12 GoGo WiFi passes.[50][51]

By January 2013, Acer's Chromebook sales were being driven by "heavy Internet users with educational institutions", and the platform represented 5-10 percent of the company's U.S. shipments, according to Acer president Jim Wong. He called those numbers sustainable, contrasting them with low Windows 8 sales which he blamed for a slump in the market. Wong said that the company would consider marketing Chromebooks to other developed countries, as well as to corporations. He noted that although Chrome OS is free to license for hardware vendors, it has required greater marketing expenditure than Windows, offsetting the licensing savings.[52]

In April 2013, Intel said that its Bay Trail chips will be used in a series of inexpensive touchscreen laptops primarily running Google's Android operating system. The move would create a direct competitor to Chromebooks (as well as Windows 8 laptops) using Google's other operating system.[53]

Over the summer of 2013 sales of Chromebooks increased to 3.3% of the market, while sales of Windows and Apple laptops declined. From June 30 to September 7, 2013 computer sales in general were down with chromebooks the only category that were increasing, with 175,000 units sold.[54]

Chromebook models[edit]

Chromebooks
Available Brand Model Code Name Processor Battery RAM Screen Resolution Weight WWAN Touch
2010-12[55] Google Cr-48 Mario Atom N455 8 hours 2 GB 12.1 in (30.7 cm) 1280×800 3.80 lb (1.7 kg) 3G
2011-06[55] Samsung Series 5 Alex Atom N570 8.5 hours 2 GB 12.1 in (30.7 cm) 1280×800 3.06–3.26 lb (1.4–1.5 kg) Optional
2011-08[55] Acer AC700 ZGB Atom N570 6 hours 2-4 GB 11.6 in (29.5 cm) 1366×768 3.19–3.20 lb (1.4–1.5 kg) Optional
2012-05[55] Samsung Series 5 550 Lumpy Celeron 867
Core i5-2467M
6 hours 4 GB 12.1 in (30.7 cm) 1280×800 3.02 lb (1.4 kg) Optional
2012-10[55] Samsung Series 3 Snow (Daisy) Exynos 5 Dual 6.5 hours 2 GB 11.6 in (29.5 cm) 1366×768 2.43 lb (1.1 kg) Optional
2012-11[55] Acer C710 Parrot Celeron 847
Celeron 1007U
4 hours 2-4 GB 11.6 in (29.5 cm) 1366×768 3.04–3.20 lb (1.4–1.5 kg)
2013-01[55] Lenovo Thinkpad X131e Stout Celeron 743 6.5 hours 4 GB 11.6 in (29.5 cm) 1366×768 3.92 lb (1.8 kg)
2013-02[55] HP Pavilion Chromebook Butterfly Celeron 847 4.2 hours 2-4 GB 14 in (35.6 cm) 1366×768 3.96 lb (1.8 kg)
2013-02[55] Google Pixel Link Core i5-3427U 5 hours 4 GB 12.85 in (32.6 cm) 2560×1700 3.35 lb (1.5 kg) Optional Touchscreen
2013-10[55] HP Chromebook 11 Daisy Spring Exynos 5 Dual 6 hours 2 GB 11.6 in (29.5 cm) 1366×768 2.26 lb (1.0 kg) Optional
2013-10[55] HP Chromebook 14 Falco Celeron 2955U 9.5 hours 2-4 GB 14 in (35.6 cm) 1366×768 4.07 lb (1.8 kg) Optional
2013-10[55] Acer C720 Peppy Celeron 2955U 8.5 hours 2-4 GB 11.6 in (29.5 cm) 1366×768 2.76 lb (1.3 kg)
2013-11 Acer C720P Peppy Pepto Celeron 2955U 7.5 hours 2-4 GB 11.6 in (29.5 cm) 1366×768 2.98 lb (1.4 kg) Touchscreen
2014-01[55] Dell Dell Chromebook 11 Wolf Celeron 2955U 10 hours 2-4 GB 11.6 in (29.5 cm) 1366×768 2.90 lb (1.3 kg)
2014-02[55] Toshiba CB30 Leon Celeron 2955U 9 hours 2 GB 13.3 in (33.8 cm) 1366×768 3.30 lb (1.5 kg)

Google Chromebooks[edit]

Cr-48[edit]

Cr-48
Technical Specifications
Screen 12.1 in (310 mm) 1280×800
Size 0.9 × 11.8 × 8.6 in (23 × 300 × 218 mm)
GPU GMA 3150
Webcam Integrated
Ports USB 2.0 / VGA / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack
WiFi 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR
Extras 100 MB/month free from Verizon (US)
Model Color WWAN Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
Cr-48[56] Black World-mode 3G Intel Atom N455 8 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.80 lb (1.72 kg)

At a December 7, 2010, press briefing,[57][58][59] Google announced the Chrome OS Pilot Program, a pilot study and the first Chromebook, the Cr-48 Chrome notebook, a prototype, to test the Chrome OS operating system and modified hardware for it. The device had a minimal design and was all black, completely unbranded although it was made by Inventec,[60] and had a rubberized coating. The device was named after Chromium-48, an unstable isotope of the metallic element Chromium,[61] and the participants were named Cr-48 Test Pilots. Google distributed about 60,000 Cr-48 Chrome notebooks between December 2010 and March 2011[62][63] for free to participants and in return asked for feedback such as suggestions and bug reports. The Cr-48 was intended for testing only, not retail sales.[64][65][66]

The Cr-48's hardware design broke convention by replacing certain keys with shortcut keys,[67] such as the function keys, and replacing the caps lock key with a dedicated search key,[68] which can be changed back to caps lock in the OS's keyboard settings. Google addressed complaints that the operating system offers little functionality when the host device is not connected to the Internet, demonstrated an offline version of Google Docs, and announced a 3G plan that would give users 100 MB of free data each month, with additional paid plans available from Verizon.[12][69]

The Cr-48 notebooks featured some unused hardware components, including a Bluetooth 2.1 controller.[70] The USB port could support a keyboard, mouse, Ethernet adapter, or USB storage, but not a printer, as Chrome OS offers no print stack.[71] Adding further hardware outside of the previously mentioned items will likely cause problems with the operating system's "self knowing" security model.[72] Users instead were encouraged to use a secure service called Google Cloud Print to print to legacy printers connected to their desktop computers, or to connect an HP ePrint, Kodak Hero, Kodak ESP, or Epson Connect printer to the Google Cloud Print service for a "cloud aware" printer connection.[73]

The Cr-48 prototype laptop gave reviewers their first opportunity to evaluate Chrome OS running on a device. Ryan Paul of Ars Technica wrote that the machine "met the basic requirements for Web surfing, gaming, and personal productivity, but falls short for more intensive tasks." He praised Google's approach to security, but wondered whether mainstream computer users would accept an operating system whose only application is a browser. He thought Chrome OS "could appeal to some niche audiences": people who just need a browser or companies that rely on Google Apps and other Web applications. But the operating system was "decidedly not a full-fledged alternative to the general purpose computing environments that currently ship on netbooks." Paul wrote that most of Chrome OS's advantages "can be found in other software environments without having to sacrifice native applications."[62]

In reviewing the Cr-48 on December 29, 2010, Kurt Bakke of Conceivably Tech wrote that a Chromebook had become the most frequently used family appliance in his household. "Its 15 second startup time and dedicated Google user accounts made it the go-to device for quick searches, email as well as YouTube and Facebook activities." But the device did not replace other five notebooks in the house: one for gaming, two for the kids, and two more for general use. "The biggest complaint I heard was its lack of performance in Flash applications."[74]

In ongoing testing, Wolfgang Gruener, also writing in Conceivably Tech, said that cloud computing at cellular data speeds is unacceptable and that the lack of offline ability turns the Cr-48 "into a useless brick" when not connected.[75] "It's difficult to use the Chromebook as an everyday device and give up what you are used to on a Mac/Windows PC, while you surely enjoy the dedicated cloud computing capabilities occasionally."[76]

Pixel[edit]

Chromebook Pixel (WiFi)
Technical Specifications
Screen 12.85 in (326 mm) 2560×1700 (239 ppi) Multi-touch Gorilla Glass
Size 0.64 × 11.72 × 8.84 in (16 × 298 × 225 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics 4000
Webcam 720p HD
Keyboard Backlit
Ports USB 2.0 / Mini DisplayPort / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack
WiFi 2×2 MIMO Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 3.0
Extras [77] 100 MB/month free from Verizon (US) (LTE only)
12 free sessions of Gogo Inflight Internet
1 TB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 3 years
Model WWAN Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
Google Chromebook Pixel (WiFi)[78] Intel Core i5-3427U 5 hours 4 GB 32 GB SSD 3.35 lb (1.52 kg)
Google Chromebook Pixel (LTE)[79] Verizon LTE 64 GB SSD

The Chromebook Pixel, a higher-spec and higher-price model, featured a touch-screen with the highest pixel density of any laptop at that time,[80] a faster CPU than its predecessors in the Intel Core i5, 32 GB of solid-state storage, an exterior design described by Wired as "an austere rectangular block of aluminum with subtly rounded edges",[81] and a colored lightbar on the lid added purely for its cool factor.[82] A second Pixel featuring LTE wireless communication and twice the storage capacity was shipped for arrival on April 12, 2013, priced at $1449.[83] Sundar Pichai, the senior vice president of engineering in charge of Chrome and Android, said that the goal behind the high-end Pixel model was "to push the boundary and build something premium. Google engineers set out on the 'labor of love' project two years ago, asking themselves, 'What could we do if we really wanted to design the best computer possible at the best price possible?'"[80]

From its February 2013 launch, the Chromebook Pixel received a high degree of tech media attention, drawing immediate comparisons to the similarly priced Windows machines and the MacBook Air. In a side-by-side analysis of specifications with the latter, Will Shanklin of Gizmag wrote that the Chromebook had a slightly smaller screen, weighed 12 percent more, and had much less storage capacity: 32GB versus 128GB. The Chromebook's pixel density, 239 pixels/inch, was "the killer spec," delivering a much sharper image than the MacBook Air's 128 PPI display. But he questioned the overall concept of a Chromebook at this price. "Chrome OS was designed for budget laptops, and sold to customers whose needs center primarily around the web. To pay more than a MacBook...for a Chromebook–at this point–would be insanity."[84]

David Pierce in The Verge praised the Chromebook Pixel, but lamented the limitations of Chrome OS for such a high-end laptop. "I can't remember the last time I so unequivocally enjoyed using a device. Its display, keyboard, trackpad, and overall fit and finish are as good as any laptop I've ever used, and in some cases is my new standard-bearer for laptop reviews going forward." Pierce singled out Pixel's unusual 3:2 display aspect ratio, which, he argued, gives needed vertical room compared to the more common 16:9. "And yet, when it came time to write this review, edit and upload pictures, and do real research, I opened up my MacBook Air again." He found he needed to work offline using Photoshop and Evernote, a more sophisticated application than Google's pre-Keep Scratchpad text editing application, as well as to quickly move between three windows. Pierce concluded that "everyone should want a Chromebook Pixel—I certainly do. But almost no one should buy one."[85]

Acer Chromebooks[edit]

Acer AC700[edit]

Acer AC700-1099 Chromebook
Technical Specifications
Screen 11.6 in (290 mm) 1366×768
Size 1.0 × 11.24 × 8.06 in (25 × 285 × 205 mm)
GPU Intel GMA 3150
Webcam HD
Ports USB 2.0 / HDMI / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 3.0
Extras 100 MB/month free from Verizon (US) (3G only)
Model Color WWAN Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
AC700-1099 Black Atom N570 6 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.19 lb (1.45 kg)
AC700-1090 Verizon 3G 3.20 lb (1.45 kg)

Acer C710[edit]

Acer C7 C710 - Nov 2012
Technical Specifications
Screen 11.6 in (290 mm) 1366×768
Size 1.1 × 11.2 × 8.0 in (28 × 284 × 203 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics
Webcam HD
Ports USB 2.0 / HDMI / VGA / SD Card Reader / K-Slot
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Ethernet Gigabit
Bluetooth No
Extras [77] 12 free sessions of Gogo Inflight Internet
100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
Model Color Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
C710-2055[86] Iron Gray Intel Celeron 847 4 hours 4 GB 320 GB HDD 3.20 lb (1.45 kg)
C710-2411[87] Intel Celeron 1007U 3.5 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2457[88] Intel Celeron 847 3.5 hours 4 GB 16 GB SSD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2481[89] Intel Celeron 1007U 4 hours 4 GB 16 GB SSD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2487 Intel Celeron 847 3.5 hours 4 GB 320 GB HDD 3.00 lb (1.36 kg)
C710-2605 Intel Celeron 847 6 hours 4 GB 500 GB HDD 3.20 lb (1.45 kg)
C710-2688[90] Intel Celeron 847 4 hours 4 GB 16 GB SSD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2815[91] Intel Celeron 847 7 hours 4 GB 16 GB SSD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2822[92] Intel Celeron 1007U 4 hours 4 GB 16 GB SSD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2826 Intel Celeron 847 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.30 lb (1.50 kg)
C710-2827[93] Intel Celeron 1007U 4 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2833[94] Intel Celeron 847 4 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.00 lb (1.36 kg)
C710-2834 Intel Celeron 1007U 4 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.05 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2847[95] Intel Celeron 847 4 hours 2 GB 320 GB HDD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)
C710-2856[96] Intel Celeron 847 3.5 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.04 lb (1.38 kg)

Originally called the Acer C7, the C710 was released on November 13, 2012.[97]

Acer C720[edit]

Technical Specifications
Screen 11.6 in (290 mm) 1366×768
Size 0.8 × 11.3 × 8.0 in (20 × 287 × 203 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics
Webcam VGA
Ports USB 3.0 / 1× USB 2.0 / HDMI / SD Card Reader / K-Slot
Barrel Power Plug dimensions 1.1mm ID, 3.0mm OD (Digi-Key Part # CP-119-ND [98])
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.0
Extras [77] 12 free sessions of Gogo Inflight Internet
100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
60-day free trial with Google Play Music All Access
Model Color Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
C720-2802[99] Granite Gray Celeron 2955U 8.5 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 2.76 lb (1.25 kg)
C720-2848[100]
C720-2103[101]
C720-2420[102] 2 GB 32 GB SSD
C720-2832[103]
C720-2800[104] 4 GB 16 GB SSD
C720-2844[105]

The C720-2832 comes with a bilingual canadian keyboard (English and French).

Acer C720P[edit]

Acer C720P-2666 Chromebook
Technical Specifications
Screen 11.6 in (290 mm) 1366×768
Touchscreen Yes
Size 0.8 × 11.3 × 8.0 in (20 × 287 × 203 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics
Webcam VGA
Ports USB 3.0 / 1× USB 2.0 / HDMI / SD Card Reader / K-Slot
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.0
Extras [77] 12 free sessions of Gogo Inflight Internet
100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
60-day free trial with Google Play Music All Access
Model Color Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
C720P-2600[106] Moonstone White Celeron 2955U 7.5 hours 2 GB 32 GB SSD 2.98 lb (1.35 kg)
C720P-2625[107] Granite Gray 4 GB 16 GB SSD 2.98 lb (1.35 kg)
C720P-2664[108] Iron Gray 4 GB 16 GB SSD 2.98 lb (1.35 kg)
C720P-2666[109] Granite Gray 2 GB 32 GB SSD 2.98 lb (1.35 kg)
C720P-2834[110] Granite Gray 2 GB 32 GB SSD 2.98 lb (1.35 kg)

Dell Chromebooks[edit]

Dell Chromebook 11[edit]

Technical Specifications
Screen 11.6 in (290 mm) 1366×768
Size 0.97 × 11.6 × 7.9 in (25 × 295 × 201 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics
Webcam 2M pixel
Ports USB 3.0 / HDMI / SD Card Reader
WiFi Dell DW1901 (Atheros) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.0
Extras 100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
Model Color Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
[111] Foggy Night Dull Celeron 2955U 8+ hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.00 lb (1.36 kg)
4 GB

HP Chromebooks[edit]

HP Pavilion Chromebook[edit]

Technical Specifications
Screen 14 in (360 mm) 1366×768 HD BrightView LED-backlit
Size 0.81–0.83 × 13.66 × 9.37 in (21–21 × 347 × 238 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics
Webcam HD
Ports USB 2.0 / HDMI / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack / K-Slot
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Ethernet 10/100BASE-T LAN (RJ-45)
Bluetooth Bluetooth 3.0
Extras [77] 100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
Model Color Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
14-c000ed[112] Black Celeron 847 4.25 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.96 lb (1.80 kg)
14-c010us[113]
14-c011nr[114]
14-c001tu[115] 4 GB
14-c015dx[116]
14-c020us[117]
14-c025us[118]
14-c030us[119] 320 GB HDD
14-c035us[120]
14-c050nr[121] 16 GB SSD
14-c053cl[122]

HP's first Chromebook, the HP Pavilion 14, was released February 4, 2013.[123]

HP Chromebook 14[edit]

Technical Specifications
Screen 14 in (360 mm) 1366×768 LED-backlit
Size 0.81 × 13.56 × 9.44 in (21 × 344 × 240 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics
Webcam HP TrueVision HD
Ports USB 3.0 / 1× USB 2.0 / HDMI / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack / K-Slot
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.0
Extras [77] 200MB/month free from T-Mobile for the life of the device (US) (LTE only)
12 free sessions of Gogo Inflight Internet
100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
60-day free trial with Google Play Music All Access
Model Color WWAN Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
14-q010dx[124] Snow White Celeron 2955U 9.5 hours 2 GB 16 GB M.2 SSD 4.07 lb (1.85 kg)
14-q010nr[125]
14-q020nr[126] Ocean Turquoise
14-q030nr[127] Peach Coral
14-q070nr[128] Snow White T-Mobile's HSPA+ 4G 4 GB
14-q029wm[129] Snow White
14-q039wm[130] Ocean Turquoise
14-q049wm[131] Peach Coral
14-q050ca[132] Snow White 2 GB
14-q063cl[133] T-Mobile's HSPA+ 4G 4 GB 32 GB M.2 SSD

HP Chromebook 11[edit]

Technical Specifications
Screen 11.6 in (290 mm) 1366×768 LED-backlit IPS
Size 0.69 × 11.69 × 7.68 in (18 × 297 × 195 mm)
GPU Mali-T604
Webcam VGA
Ports USB 2.0 / SlimPort / 3.5-mm Audio Jack
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.0
Extras [77] 100 MB/month free from Verizon (US) (LTE only)
12 free sessions of Gogo Inflight Internet
100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
60-day free trial with Google Play Music All Access
Model Color WWAN Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
11-1100us Black / Black Exynos 5 Dual 6 hours 2 GB 16 GB eMMC 2.26 lb (1.03 kg)
11-1101us White / Blue
11-1102us White / Red
11-1103us White / Yellow
11-1104us White / Green
11-1121us White / Blue Verizon 4G LTE only[134]

HP introduced the Chromebook 11 on October 8, 2013 in the US.[135] In December 2013 it was discovered that some HP laptop cords were overheating while plugged in, forcing Google and HP to recall 145,000 chargers.[136] Sales were halted until they could resume with a redesigned charger in January 2014.[137]

Lenovo Chromebooks[edit]

Thinkpad X131e[edit]

Technical Specifications
Screen 11.6 in (290 mm) 1366×768
Size 1.27 × 11.55 × 8.5 in (32 × 293 × 216 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics 3000
Webcam HD
Ports USB 3.0 / 1× USB 2.0 / HDMI / VGA / SD Card Reader
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Ethernet Yes
Bluetooth Yes
Extras [77] 100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
Model Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
X131e[138] Intel Celeron 743 processor 6.5 hours 4 GB 16 GB SSD 3.92 lb (1.78 kg)

Samsung Chromebooks[edit]

Samsung Series 5[edit]

Samsung Series 5.
Technical Specifications
Screen 12.1 in (310 mm) 1280×800
Size 0.8 × 11.6 × 8.6 in (20 × 295 × 218 mm)
GPU Intel GMA 3150
Webcam Integrated
Ports USB 2.0 / VGA via Dongle Adapter / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth No
Extras 100 MB/month free from Verizon (US) (3G only)
Model Color WWAN Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
XE500C21-A01US[139] Arctic White Atom N570 8.5 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.26 lb (1.48 kg)
XE500C21-H01US[140] Verizon 3G
XE500C21-A03US[141] Titan Silver
XE500C21-H02US[142] Verizon 3G
XE500C21-H04US[143] Verizon 3G
XE500C21-A04US[144] Black 6.5 hours 3.06 lb (1.39 kg)

Reviewing the Samsung Series 5 specifications, Scott Stein of CNET was unimpressed with a machine with a 12-inch screen and just 16 GB of onboard storage. "Chrome OS might be lighter than Windows XP, but we'd still prefer more media storage space. At this price, you could also get an 11.6-inch (290 mm) Wi-Fi AMD E-350-powered ultraportable running Windows 7."[44] On the other hand, MG Siegler of TechCrunch wrote a largely favorable review, praising the improvements in speed and trackpad sensitivity over the CR-48 prototype, as well as the long battery life and the fact that all models are priced below the iPad.[145]

In June 2011 iFixit dismantled a Samsung Series 5 and concluded that it was essentially an improved Cr-48. They rated it as 6/10 for repairability, predominantly because the case has to be opened to change the battery and because the RAM chip is soldered to the motherboard. iFixit noted that the "mostly-plastic construction" felt "a little cheap". On the plus side they stated that the screen was easy to remove and most of the components, including the solid-state drive would be easy to replace. iFixit's Kyle Wiens wrote that the Series 5 "fixes the major shortfalls of the Cr-48 and adds the polish necessary to strike lust into the heart of a broad consumer base: sleek looks, 8+ hours of battery life, and optimized performance."[146]

Shortly after the Samsung Series 5 Chromebook was released to the public in July 2011, the review site Chromebook Ratings praised the Series 5 and its 8-second boot-up time, claiming that "You can literally go from a cold machine to searching the internet in about 10 seconds. It’s one thing to see it described, but it’s another to experience it first-hand." They also lauded the Series 5 for its "exceptionally long battery life" that exceeded the battery life of the Acer AC700 Chromebook.[147]

Samsung Series 5 550[edit]

Technical Specifications
Screen 12.1 in (310 mm) 1280×800
Size 0.83 × 11.5 × 8.5 in (21 × 292 × 216 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics
Webcam HD
Ports USB 2.0 / DisplayPort++ / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack / K-Slot
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Ethernet Gigabit
Bluetooth No
Extras [77] 100 MB/month free from Verizon (US) (3G only)
12 free sessions of Gogo Inflight Internet
100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
Model Processor WWAN Battery RAM Storage Weight
XE550C22-A01US[148] Intel Celeron 867 6 hours 4 GB 16 GB SSD 3.02 lb (1.37 kg)
XE550C22-H01US[149] Verizon 3G
XE550C22-A02US[150] Intel Core i5-2467M

In May 2012, Samsung introduced the Chromebook Series 5 550, with a Wi-Fi model and more expensive 3G model.[151]

Reviews generally questioned the value proposition. Dana Wollman of Engadget wrote that the Chromebook's keyboard "put thousand-dollar Ultrabooks to shame" and offered better display quality than on many laptops selling for twice as much. But the price "seems to exist in a vacuum—a place where tablet apps aren't growing more sophisticated, where Transformer-like Win8 tablets aren't on the way and where there aren't some solid budget Windows machines to choose from." [152]

Joe Wilcox of BetaNews wrote that "price to performance and how it compares to other choices" is "where Chromebook crumbles for many potential buyers." He noted that the new models sell for more than their predecessors, and while the price-performance ratio is quite favorable compared to the MacBook Air, "by the specs, there are plenty of lower-cost options."[153]

Samsung Series 3[edit]

Samsung Series 3 Chromebook
Technical Specifications
Screen 11.6 in (290 mm) 1366×768
Size 0.66–0.69 × 11.40 × 8.21 in (17–18 × 290 × 209 mm)
GPU Mali-T604
Webcam VGA
Ports USB 3.0 / 1× USB 2.0 / HDMI / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack
WiFi Dual-band (2.4/5 GHz) 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 3.0
Extras [77] 12 free sessions of Gogo Inflight Internet
100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
Model Processor WWAN Battery RAM Storage Weight
XE303C12-A01US[154] Samsung Exynos 5 Dual 7 hours 2 GB 16 GB eMMC 2.43 lb (1.10 kg)
XE303C12-H01US[155] Verizon 3G 6.3 hours

In October 2012, the Series 3 Chromebook was introduced at a San Francisco event with the Samsung Chromebook XE303. The device was cheaper, thinner and lighter than the Chromebook 550. Google marketed the Series 3 as the computer for everyone, due to its simple operating system (Chrome OS) and affordable price. Target markets included students and first-time computer users, as well as households looking for an extra computer.[156][157]

The lower price proved a watershed for some reviewers. New York Times technology columnist David Pogue reversed his earlier thumbs-down verdict on the Chromebook, writing that "$250 changes everything." The price is half that of an "iPad, even less than an iPad Mini or an iPod Touch. And you’re getting a laptop." He wrote that the Chromebook does many of the things people use computers and laptops for: playing flash videos, and opening Microsoft Office documents. "In other words, Google is correct when it asserts that the Chromebook is perfect for schools, second computers in homes and businesses who deploy hundreds of machines."[5][6]

CNET's review of the Series 3 Chromebook was even more favorable, saying the machine largely delivered as a computer for students and as an additional computer for a household—especially for users who are already using Google Web applications like Google Docs, Google Drive, and Gmail. "It's got workable if not standout hardware, its battery life is good, it switches on quickly, and the $249 price tag means it's not as much of a commitment as the $550 Samsung Series 5 550 that arrived in May." The review subtracted points for performance. "It's fine for many tasks, but power users accustomed to having more than a couple dozen browser tabs open should steer clear."[156]

Toshiba Chromebooks[edit]

Toshiba CB30[edit]

Technical Specifications
Screen 13.3 in (340 mm) 1366×768
Size 0.80 × 12.90 × 8.90 in (20 × 328 × 226 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics
Webcam HD
Ports USB 3.0 / HDMI / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack / K-Slot
WiFi 802.11a/b/g/n
Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.0
Extras 100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
Model Color Processor Battery RAM Storage Weight
CB30-A3120[158] Sunray Silver Celeron 2955U 9 hours 2 GB 16 GB SSD 3.30 lb (1.50 kg)
CB35-A3120

Chromebox models[edit]

Chromeboxes are the desktop variants of Chromebooks. Classed as small form-factor PCs, the devices typically feature a power switch and a set of ports: local area network, USB, DVI-D, DisplayPorts, and audio. As with Chromebooks, Chromeboxes employ solid-state memory and support Web applications, but require an external monitor, keyboard, and pointing device.[159]

Samsung Series 3 Chromebox[edit]

Image Available Brand Model Code Name Processor RAM Storage Size
Chromebox AO1US
2012-05[151] Samsung Series 3 XE300M22-A01US Stumpy[55] Celeron B840 4 GB 16 GB SSD 1.3″×7.6″×7.6″
Series 3 XE300M22-A02US[160] Intel Core i5-2450M
Samsung Chromebox
2013-03 Series 3 XE300M22-B01US Celeron B840 4 GB 16 GB SSD 1.57"×8.10"×8.10"

Samsung released the first Chromebox on May 29, 2012.[161]

Asus Chromebox[edit]

Technical Specifications
Size 4.88 × 4.88 × 1.65 in (124 × 124 × 42 mm)
GPU Intel HD Graphics with 4K video support
RAM 2GB or 4GB
Ports USB 3.0 / HDMI / DisplayPort / SD Card Reader / 3.5-mm Audio Jack / K-Slot
WiFi Dual-band 802.11a/b/g/n
Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbit/s
Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.0
Extras 100 GB of Google Drive Cloud Storage for 2 years
Reference Processor Storage
[162] Celeron 2955U 16 GB SSD
Core i7-4600U
Core i3-4010U

The new Asus Chromebox is scheduled to be released in March 2014.

HP Chromebox[edit]

HP announced that they will enter the Chromebox market in the spring of 2014.[163] Their 5-inch square box with come with a 4th generation Intel Core i7 processor, both HDMI and DisplayPort ports, and will be available in black, white and teal.[163]

Alternate operating systems[edit]

Some Chromebooks include SeaBIOS, which can be turned on to install arbitrary Linux distributions, though this requires the use of developer mode.[164][165]

All-in-one PCs[edit]

In January 2014 LG Electronics unveiled its Chromebase all-in-one with a 21.5-inch display at International CES in Las Vegas.[166]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven (June 18, 2012). "It's 2016, and Chrome OS is ascendant". Computerworld. Retrieved September 7, 2013. 
  2. ^ Enderle, Rob (May 12, 2011). "Why Google's Chromebooks are born to lose". Digital Trends. Retrieved September 7, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Upson, Linus; Pichai, Sundar (May 11, 2011). utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+blogspot%2FMKuf+%28Official+Google+Blog%29&utm_content=Google+Reader "A New Kind Of Computer: Chromebook". The Official Google Blog. Retrieved May 12, 2011. 
  4. ^ Sunday, December 8, 2013 (2013-12-05). "Samsung Chromebook launched in India for Rs.26990". Gadget Cluster. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  5. ^ a b Pogue, David (June 15, 2011). "A Laptop, Its Head in the Cloud". New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Pogue, David (November 29, 2012). "Laptop Buyers Should Pay Some Attention to the Chromebook". New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2012. 
  7. ^ Phipps, Simon (October 26, 2012). "Why I left my MacBook for a Chromebook". InfoWorld. Retrieved October 28, 2012. 
  8. ^ Kendrick, James (April 18, 2013). "The misunderstood Chromebook: Why few get it". ZDNet. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  9. ^ Bailey, Dan (May 2011). "Chrome OS File Manager Gets Secret Shortcuts". Conceivably Tech. Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  10. ^ Smith, William. "8 Things You Need to Know About Chrome OS". MaximumPC. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  11. ^ Pichai, Sundar (November 12, 2012). "The new Acer Chromebook". Google. Retrieved December 19, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Sherr, Ian (May 11, 2011). "Google to launch Chrome Laptops in June". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 11, 2011. 
  13. ^ "What is the Chrome Web Store?". Google Inc. 
  14. ^ Poeter, Damon (May 12, 2011). "Three Big Questions for the Samsung Chromebook". PC Mag. 
  15. ^ Lam, Wayne (June 13, 2011). "Samsung Chromebook Carries $332.12 Bill of Materials, IHS iSuppli Teardown Reveals". IHS Technology. 
  16. ^ Use your Chromebook offline
  17. ^ Yes you can use the new Chromebook offline
  18. ^ coreboot tutorial oscon 2013, p. 6, 16, 22 and 66
  19. ^ "Coreboot on Chromebooks". 
  20. ^ Pichai, Sundar (July 8, 2009). "Google Chrome OS FAQ". Official Google Blog. Google, Inc. Retrieved July 21, 2009. 
  21. ^ Myslewski, Rik (July 10, 2009). "Intel Cozying up to Google Chrome OS". The RegisterOSnews. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  22. ^ Richards, David (February 11, 2010). "Samsung Confirms Chrome Based Netbook". Channel News Australia. Retrieved February 13, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Google Chrome OS gets detailed, first laptops from Acer and Samsung coming mid-2011". engadget. December 7, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2010. 
  24. ^ Ricadela, Aaron (June 25, 2010). "Dell Tests Google's Chrome Operating System on Some Computers". Bloomberg News. Retrieved September 5, 2010. 
  25. ^ Metz, Cade (October 7, 2011). "Chromebook: ‘Father of Google Apps’ Raises Second Child". Wired. Retrieved October 7, 2011. 
  26. ^ Melanie Pinola (July 11, 2011). "Acer ships AC700 Chromebook". Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  27. ^ "The Google Chromebook Breaks Cover At I/O 2011, Hits Retailers June 15th". TechCrunch. 
  28. ^ "Samsung". Samsung. May 29, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  29. ^ HP (September 11, 2013). "HP News - HP Unveils Sleek and Colorful Chromebook". hp.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  30. ^ Sood, Natesh (June 2011). "Google launches new Chromebook Guru Program". Gagetell. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  31. ^ Parfeni, Lucien (June 2011). "The Most Enthusiastic Cr-48 Owners Will Get a Free Samsung Chromebook". Softpedia. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  32. ^ Paula, Rooney (June 30, 2011). "Google, Virgin America partner to push ChromeBooks, free WiFi in the clouds (the real ones)". ZDNet. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  33. ^ "Google gets its own store ... sort of". Neowin.net. September 30, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Google launches Chrome Zone in London store". TechRadar. September 30, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Go hands-on with a Chromebook in London". Google Chrome Blog. September 30, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Explore Chrome OS". Google.com. Retrieved May 8, 2012. 
  37. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (June 2011). "Five Chromebook concerns for businesses". ZDNet. Retrieved June 14, 2011. 
  38. ^ Thibodeau, Patrick. "Orlando tries out 600 Chromebooks, The Chrome OS-based laptops may fit into city's cloud strategy". Computerworld. 
  39. ^ "Official Google Blog: ‘Tis the season for Chromebooks". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved March 31, 2012. 
  40. ^ Temple, James (January 25, 2012). "Google's Chromebooks making big school push". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 6, 2012. 
  41. ^ Lai, Eric (October 21, 2012). "The Google Chromebook, Suddenly, Is An Enterprise Contender". ZDNet. Retrieved October 11, 2012. 
  42. ^ Lardinois, Frederic (June 25, 2012). "Google: More Than 500 School Districts In The U.S. And Europe Now Use Chromebooks". Techcrunch. Retrieved October 22, 2012. 
  43. ^ "A new kind of computer: Chromebook". The Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  44. ^ a b Stein, Scott (May 11, 2011). "First Take: Samsung Series 5 Chromebook, the future of Netbooks?". CNET News. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  45. ^ "SAMSUNG And Google Introduce The Second-Generation Chromebook and The World's First Chromebox". Samsung. May 29, 2012. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  46. ^ Hecei, Dave (July 2, 2012). "Google Chromebox Mac Mini Clone". The Post-Journal. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  47. ^ "Official Blog: The new Chromebook, for everyone". Googleblog.blogspot.com. October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  48. ^ Pichai, Sundar (November 12, 2012). "Official Blog: The new Acer Chromebook". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  49. ^ Upson, Linus (February 21, 2013). "Official Blog: The Chromebook Pixel, for what’s next". Googleblog.blogspot.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  50. ^ Chromebook. "Google Drive offer for Chrome devices - Chromebook Help". Support.google.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Support Home Page". Custhelp.gogoinflight.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  52. ^ Culpan, Tim (January 27, 2013). "Acer Sees Success in Chrome; Windows Fails to Drive Sales". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 30, 2013. 
  53. ^ Newman, Jared (April 26, 2013). "Android laptops: The $200 price is right, but the OS may not be". PCWorld. Retrieved April 28, 2013. 
  54. ^ "Windows Touch and Chromebooks Boost U.S. Back-to-School Computer Sales, But Not Enough to Stop Overall Declines, According to The NPD Group". NPD Group. September 26, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2014. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Developer Information for Chrome OS Devices". Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  56. ^ "Google Chrome Cr-48 Specs". Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  57. ^ Chrome Event - 12/07/2010
  58. ^ Upson, Linus (2010-12-07). "Google Chrome Blog: An update on Chrome, the Web Store and Chrome OS". Chrome.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  59. ^ "Cr48 - Pilot-Program - Chrome OS". Web.archive.org. 2010-12-10. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  60. ^ Savov, Vlad. "Inventec ships 60,000 Chrome OS netbooks to Google, says 'let the testing begin!'". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  61. ^ Metz, Cade (December 10, 2010). "Google Cr-48: Inside the Chrome OS 'unstable isotope'". The Register. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 
  62. ^ a b Paul, Ryan (December 2010). "Nothing but 'Net: hands-on with the Cr-48 Chrome OS laptop". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  63. ^ Gruener, Wolfgang (December 2010). "Chrome OS Is Ahead Of Its Time". Conceivably Tech. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2010. 
  64. ^ Ackerman, Dan (December 7, 2010). "Google Cr-48 Chrome hardware pilot program: "Not for the faint of heart"". CNET News. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  65. ^ Calore, Michael (December 2010). "First Look: Google's Netbook Has Its Head in the Cloud". Wired. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  66. ^ Google (December 2010). "Cr-48 Chrome Notebook". Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  67. ^ Chromebook. "Explore keyboard features - Chromebook Help". Support.google.com. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  68. ^ Diaz, Jesus (December 7, 2010). "Google wants to take your Caps Lock key away". Gizmodo. Retrieved December 7, 2010. 
  69. ^ Paul, Ryan (December 2010). "Google demos Chrome OS, launches pilot program". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  70. ^ "CR48 Prototype Hardware Specs – Chrome OS Lounge". Retrieved April 18, 2011. 
  71. ^ "Google Cloud Print Help". Retrieved April 18, 2011. 
  72. ^ "YouTube – Chrome OS Security". Retrieved April 18, 2011. 
  73. ^ "Google Cloud Print". Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  74. ^ Bakke, Kurt (December 2010). "Where Did All Those Chromebooks Go To?". Conceivably Tech. Archived from the original on February 2, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2010. 
  75. ^ Gruener, Wolfgang (January 2011). "When Google's Cr-48 Truly Sucks". Conceivably Tech. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  76. ^ Gruener, Wolfgang (February 2011). "Cr-48 and Chrome OS: When You Really Hate Netflix". Conceivably Tech. Archived from the original on January 10, 2012. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "How to get Chrome Goodies for your Chromebook". Retrieved January 29, 2014. 
  78. ^ "Google Chromebook Pixel (WiFi) Pixel". Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  79. ^ "Google Chromebook Pixel (LTE) Pixel". Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  80. ^ a b Shankland, Stephen (21 February 2013). "Google's Chromebook Pixel elevates Chrome OS ambitions". CNET. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  81. ^ Olivarez-Giles, Nathan (February 21, 2013). "Google Debuts Pixel, a Premium Touchscreen Chromebook". Wired. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  82. ^ "Google Chromebook Pixel - Lightbar". Google Inc. [non-primary source needed]
  83. ^ Sin, Gloria (April 12, 2013). "Pre-Ordered Chromebook Pixel LTEs Should Arrive Today". Digital Trends. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  84. ^ Shankin, Will (February 21, 2013). "Chromebook Pixel vs. MacBook Air". Gizmag. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  85. ^ Pierce, David (February 25, 2013). "Chromebook Pixel review: Google's first Chrome OS device combines high tech and high fashion". The Verge. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  86. ^ "Acer C710-2055 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  87. ^ "Acer C710-2411 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  88. ^ "Acer C710-2457 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  89. ^ "Acer C710-2481 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  90. ^ "Acer C710-2688 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  91. ^ "Acer C710-2815 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  92. ^ "Acer C710-2822 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  93. ^ "Acer C710-2827 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  94. ^ "Acer C710-2833 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  95. ^ "Acer C710-2847 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  96. ^ "Acer C710-2856 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  97. ^ Zak Islam (2012-11-13). "Google Launches $199 Acer C7 Chromebook". Tomshardware.com. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  98. ^ http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/PP-019/CP-119-ND/1624273
  99. ^ "Acer C720-2802 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  100. ^ "Acer C720-2848 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  101. ^ "Acer C720-2103 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  102. ^ "Acer C720-2420 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  103. ^ "Acer C720-2832 Datasheet". Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  104. ^ "Acer C720-2800 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  105. ^ "Acer C720-2844 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  106. ^ "Acer C720P-2600 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  107. ^ "Acer C720P-2625 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  108. ^ "Acer C720P-2664 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  109. ^ "Acer C720P-2666 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  110. ^ "Acer C720P-2834 Datasheet". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  111. ^ "Dell Chromebook 11". Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  112. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c000ed Chromebook Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  113. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c010us Chromebook PC Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  114. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c011nr Chromebook Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  115. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c001tu Chromebook support". Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  116. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c015dx Chromebook Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  117. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c020us Chromebook PC Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  118. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c025us Chromebook PC Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  119. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c030us Chromebook Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  120. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c035us Chromebook Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  121. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c050nr Chromebook Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  122. ^ "HP Pavilion 14-c053cl Chromebook PC Product Specifications". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  123. ^ "The HP Pavilion 14 Chromebook". Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  124. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q010dx support". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  125. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q010nr support". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  126. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q020nr support". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  127. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q030nr support". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  128. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q070nr support". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  129. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q029wm support". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  130. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q039wm support". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  131. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q049wm support". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  132. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q050ca support". Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  133. ^ "HP Chromebook 14-q063cl support". Retrieved January 6, 2014. 
  134. ^ "H-P Chromebook Points to Trends in Chips, Patents". Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  135. ^ "The new HP Chromebook, made with Google". Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  136. ^ "Consumer Product Safety Commission". Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  137. ^ "HP Chromebook Now Good to Go – Google Replaces Faulty Charger". Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  138. ^ "Lenovo Thinkpad X131e Chromebook". Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  139. ^ "Samsung XE500C21-A01US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  140. ^ "Samsung XE500C21-H01US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  141. ^ "Samsung XE500C21-A03US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  142. ^ "Samsung XE500C21-H02US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  143. ^ "Samsung XE500C21-H04US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  144. ^ "Samsung XE500C21-A04US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  145. ^ "Initial Thoughts on the Samsung Series 5 Chromebook". TechCrunch. 
  146. ^ Paul, Ryan (June 2011). "iFixit tears the chrome off of a Samsung Chromebook". Ars Technica. Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  147. ^ Sutliff, Jack. "Samsung Series 5 3G 12.1-Inch Chromebook Review July 2011". ChromebookRatings. 
  148. ^ "Samsung XE550C22-A01US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  149. ^ "Samsung XE550C22-H01US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  150. ^ "Samsung XE550C22-A02US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  151. ^ a b "SAMSUNG And Google Introduce The Second-Generation Chromebook and The World's First Chromebox". Samsung press release. May 29, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  152. ^ Wollman, Dana (May 29, 2012). "Samsung Chromebook Series 5 550 review". Engadget. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  153. ^ Wilcox, Joe (May 29, 2012). "Is Samsung Chromebook Series 5 550 worth spending $549?". BetaNews. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  154. ^ "Samsung XE303C12-A01US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  155. ^ "Samsung XE303C12-H01US Specs". Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  156. ^ a b "Hands-on with Samsung's $249 Chromebook". CNET. October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012. 
  157. ^ "The new Chromebook, for everyone". Google: Official Blog. October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012. 
  158. ^ "Toshiba CB30-A3120 Chromebook". Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  159. ^ "Chromebox device". Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  160. ^ "There Are Two Chromeboxes – Here is the Second – $499.99 With Intel Core i5". Retrieved January 26, 2014. [self-published source]
  161. ^ "Slick new Chromebook, first “Chromebox” desktop out from Samsung today". May 29, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  162. ^ "Announcing the ASUS Chromebox". Retrieved February 7, 2014. 
  163. ^ a b "HP Chromebox Turns Any Screen into a Chrome PC". Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  164. ^ "3 alternatives to Chrome OS on Google’s Chromebook Pixel — Tech News and Analysis". Gigaom.com. 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2014-02-25. 
  165. ^ Acer C720 Chromebook Delivers Fast Ubuntu Performance
  166. ^ Dara Kerr (17 December 2013). "Chromebase: LG's all-in-one desktop that runs Chrome OS". CNET. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 

External links[edit]