Chromosome 11 (human)

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Chromosome 11 Chart

Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. Humans normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 11 spans about 134.5 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells. It is one of the most gene- and disease-rich chromosomes in the human genome.

Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 11 likely contains between 1,300 and 1,700 genes.

A recent study [1] shows that 11.6 genes per megabase, including 1,524 protein-coding genes and 765 pseudogenes can be found on chromosome 11.

More than 40% of the 856 olfactory receptor genes in the human genome are located in 28 single- and multi-gene clusters along this chromosome.

Genes[edit]

The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 11:

  • ACAT1: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (acetoacetyl Coenzyme A thiolase)
  • APLNR: Apelin receptor (APJ receptor)
  • APOA4: apolipoprotein A-IV
  • ATM: ataxia telangiectasia mutated (includes complementation groups A, C and D)
  • BDNF:secretes BDNF, a member of the Neurotrophin family of proteins
  • CCL9: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 9
  • CD81
  • C11orf1
  • CPT1A: carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (liver)
  • DHCR7: 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase
  • HBB: hemoglobin, beta
  • HMBS: hydroxymethylbilane VIIA
  • INS: insulin gene [2]
  • MMP7: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP family)
  • MEN1: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
  • PAX6
  • PTS: 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase
  • SAA1: serum amyloid A1
  • SBF2: SET binding factor 2
  • SMPD1: sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1, acid lysosomal (acid sphingomyelinase)
  • TECTA: tectorin alpha (nonsyndromic deafness)
  • TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
  • USH1C: Usher syndrome 1C (autosomal recessive, severe)
  • WT1: Wilms tumor protein
  • RAG1/RAG2: recombination activating genes

Diseases & disorders[edit]

The following diseases are some of those related to genes on chromosome 11:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor TD, Noguchi H, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Kuroki Y, Dewar K, Lloyd C, Itoh T, Takeda T, Kim DW, She X, Barlow KF, Bloom T, Bruford E, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Eichler E, FitzGerald MG, Jaffe DB, LaButti K, Nicol R, Park HS, Seaman C, Sougnez C, Yang X, Zimmer AR, Zody MC, Birren BW, Nusbaum C, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Rogers J, Lander ES, Sakaki Y (2006). "Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification". Nature 440 (7083): 497–500. doi:10.1038/nature04632. PMID 16554811. 
  2. ^ INS - insulin - Genetics Home Reference
  3. ^ "Autism gene breakthrough hailed". Health. BBC NEWS. 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2010-01-02. 
  4. ^ Human Genome Project Information Site Has Been Updated