Chronology of Colonial Cuba
The chronology of the colonial time of Cuba is about the Spanish colonial period in Cuba, and the efforts to obtain independence from the Spanish Empire and includes history from the "discovery" of the island by Christopher Columbus to the Hispanic-Cuban-North American War.
Foundation of the 7 Villas
- 1512 - Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Baracoa
- 1513 - San Salvador de Bayamo
- 1514 - Virgen de la Santísima Trinidad
- 1514 - Sancti Spíritus
- 1514 - Camagüey
- 1515 - Santiago de Cuba
- 1515 - San Cristóbal de La Habana
Arrival of the colonizers in Cuba
The Guanajatabey, Ciboney and Taíno peoples lived in Cuba in the 15th century; these were peaceful and were organized in a primitive community. On 27 October 1492, the first European contact was made when Columbus was trying to sail to the Orient. Sebastián de Ocampo made the first bojeo around the island in 1509 and calls Careenings to the site that at the moment occupies the port of Havana. In the 1510 above conquering expedition of Diego Vela'zquez. The Indians directed by quisqueyano Cacique Hatuey resist to the Spaniards but they are defeated and captured to use them as cheap manual labor. The colonos saw the great possibilities of wealth of the continent and the island went away depopulating gradually.
Spanish Colonialism restored in the island
In the 1560 already Island it was a strategically important point for the commercial distribution to the Antilles and Central America, Corona divided the government of the Island between Havana and Santiago of Cuba. Santiago being controlled by the powerful Cuenca Family. Between years 1717 and 1727 the real monopoly of the tobacco settles down, this gives to reason to several revolts of vegueros with balance of deaths and executions. In 1762 the English take Havana, remain in her during several months until giving back it. Spain changes to the island by Florida and retakes the power on her.
Arrival of the slaves
With the depopulation caused in the India large city begins to introduce originating slaves of Africa. In 1812 a revolt of slaves takes place, headed by Jose Antonio Aponte.
Conspiracies against the Spanish regime
In 1821 are discovered several conspiracies and it persecutes its promoters, among them one of most representative was the poet Jose Maria Heredia. With the imposition of the absolute power that Fernando VII again imputed in Spain and its dominions, the opposition between Creoles and Spaniards is become serious in Cuba. What would cause that in 1850 the expedition organized by Narcissus Lopez took the city of Cardinal red; nevertheless it failed and it had to return. The flag of the solitary star is raised for the first time. The rise of Jose J. of Omen failed and all the heads are shot, the 12 of October 1851. Narcissus Lopez returns to disembark in Cuba, maintains several combats; it falls into the hands of the Spaniards and it is executed.
War of the Ten Years (1868-1878)
Carlos Manuel de Cespedes gave Grito de Yara on the 10 of October 1868, beginning the Great War or of the Ten Years that ended with the Pact of the Trench, without Cubans independence or the total abolition with indemnification of the slaves. Among other glorious actions, de1878 emphasizes the Protest of Baraguá the 15 of March, in which independentista general Antonio Maceo proclaims his discord with the Pact of the Trench and its decision to continue fighting.
Fecund Truce (1878-1895)
General Calixto Garcia again sent to the fight, giving him beginning to the Very small War that lasts a year hardly. In the successive years, Jose Marti is exiled in the United States, there (PRC) founds Partido Revolucionario Cubano and with Maximum Gomez and Antonio Maceo it initiates the preparations to relaunch the independence war. Martí stands out like great politician, writer and poet and agglutinates to the Cuban nationalistic forces beyond social generations, races and positions.
Necessary War (1895-1898)
The 24 of February explode the war with Grito de Baire. Jose Martí dies in the combat of Two Rivers, Province of East (19 of May 1895, a great loss for the Cuban independentista cause. The following year General Antonio Maceo next to his assistant dies Francisco Go'mez Toro, in the property San Pedro, Province of Havana, the 7 of December. The commander in chief, the Spanish Valeriano Weyler gave beginning to the reconcentración policy, that came to be like a prefiguration of the Nazi fields of extermination, directed to isolate to mambises of the town and that caused damage in the population. But in spite of the strength and the armament of the Spanish army, the tactics of the Cubans always prevailed and with the invasion from east to the West the process was accelerated that would give complete independence them. But in 1898 it flies in strange circumstances the American battleship Maine in the Bay of Havana, this fact brought like consequence the American intervention in the war, which War passes to be Hispanic-Cuban-North American that finishes with the treaty of Paris, the 10 of December per which Spain yields to Cuba and Puerto Rico to the United States. A new stage in Cuban history begins therefore.