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Pre-historic period [ edit ]
150,000-100,000 BCE - Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology in north Tamil Nadu. [1 ] c.
30,000 BCE- Paleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu [2 ] c.
8000- 3000 BCE-Pre-pottery microlithic industries [3 ] c.
3000- 1000 BCE- Neolithic and fine microlithic industries [4 ]
Pre-Sangam period [ edit ]
Sangam age [ edit ]
Post-Sangam period [ edit ]
300- 590- Kalabhras invade the Tamil country and displace the traditional rulers c. 300-500-Post-Sangam period, Tamil epics such as
Pallava and Pandya [ edit ]
560- 580- Pallava Simhavishnu overthrows the Kalabhras in Tondaimandalam c.
560- 590-Pandya Kadungon rules from Madurai and displaces the Kalabhras from the south c.
590- 630-Pallava Mahendravarman I rules in Kanchipuram c.
610- Saiva saint Thirunavukkarasar (Appar) converts Mahendravarman from Jainism c.
628- Chalukya Pulakesi II invades the Pallava kingdom and lays siege on Kanchipuram c.
630- 668 Pallava Narasimhavarman I ( Mamalla) rules in Tondaimandalam c.
642-Pallava Narasimhavarman I launches a counter invasion into the Chalukya country and sacks Vatapi. Pulakesi is killed in battle c.
670- 700 CE-Pandya Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman rules in Madurai c.
700- 728-Pallava Rajasimha builds the Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and many of the shore temples in Mamallapuram c.
710- 730-Pandya king Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran expands the Pandya kingdom into the Kongu country c.
731-Succession crisis in the Pallava kingdom. Council of ministers select Nandivarman II (Pallavamalla) (731-796) as the Pallava king c.
731- 765-Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam c.
735-Chaluka Vikramaditya II invades the Pallava country and occupies the capital Kanchipuram c.
760-Pallava Nandivarman II invades and defeats the Ganga kingdom at the battle of Villande c.
768- 815-Pandya Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (Varaguna Pandyan) rules in Madurai [15 ] c.
767-Pandya forces defeat the Pallavas on the south banks of the Kaveri c.
800- 830-Varagunan I becomes Pandya king and extends his empire up to Tiruchirapalli by defeating the Pallava king Dandivarman c.
830- 862-Pandya Sirmara Srivallabha rules in Madurai c.
840-Srimara invades Lanka and captures the northern provinces of the Lanka king Sena I [16 ] c.
848 -Rise of Vijayalaya Chola in Tanjavur after defeating the Muttaraiyar [17 ] Muthuraja rulers of kaveri delta c.
846- 869-Pallava Nadivarman III leads an invasion against the Pandya kingdom and defeats the Pandyas at the battle of Tellaru. Pallava kingdom extends up to the river Vaigai c.
859-Pandya Srivallaba defeats the Pallavas at a battle at Kumbakonam c.
862-Sinhala forces under Sena II invade the Pandya country and sack Madurai. Srimara is killed in battle
Chola period [ edit ]
Chola to Pandya transition [ edit ]
Pandiya revival and Muslim rule [ edit ]
1251 -Accession of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I [23 ]
1279 -End of the Chola dynasty with the death of Rajendra Chola III [20 ]
1268- 1310 - Kulasekara Pandiyan rules in Madurai [23 ]
1308 - Malik Kafur a general of Allaudin Khilji invades Devagiri en route to Tamil Nadu [24 ]
1310 -Sundara Pandian, son of Kulasekara Pandiyan, kills his father and becomes king. In the ensuing civil war he is defeated by his brother Vira Pandiyan. [25 ]
1311 -Malik Kafur, invades Pandiya country and attacks Madurai [24 ]
1327- 1370 Madurai under the rule of Madurai Sultanate [24 ]
Vijayanagar and Nayak period [ edit ]
East India Company [ edit ]
British rule [ edit ]
1892 – British government passes the Indian Councils Act
1909 - 'Minto-Morley Reforms'. Madras Legislative Council formed
1921 - First regional elections held in Madras. Justice party forms government [29 ]
1927 - Madras Congress passes a resolution for 'Full Independence'
1928 - Simon Commission visits Madras. Mass protests result in several deaths
1937 - Congress party under C. Rajagopalachari wins provincial elections and forms government in Madras
1938 - Periyar E. V. Ramasamy organises a separatist agitation demanding Dravida Nadu consisting of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala
1941 - Indian Muslim League holds its congress in Madras. Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivers keynote speech
1944 - Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and C. N. Annadurai organise Dravidar Kazhagam
Post independence period [ edit ]
1947 - Madras Presidency, comprising Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka established
1953 -Madras state comes into being along linguistic lines
1965 -Widespread agitations in response to the Federal Government's directive of Hindi being the National Language
1968 -Madras state is renamed as Tamil Nadu (Country of the Tamils) [30 ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Pappu et al., Shanni. "Early Pleistocene Presence of Acheulian Hominins in South India". Science Magazine . Retrieved 12 April 2014.
^ "Excavations at the Palaeolithic Site of Attirampakkam, South India" (297). Antiquity journal. September 2003 . Retrieved 17 May 2013.
^ "Evidence of pre-historic humans in Thanjavur". The Hindu (Thanjavur, India). 10 May 2009.
^ "Bedrock on which Neolithic man sharpened stone tools found in T.N.". The Hindu (India). 3 April 2013.
^ "Kanchi district, gold mine of megalithic sites". IBN Live (Tamilnadu, India). 14 March 2012.
^ Coningham, R.A.E.; Allchin, F.R.; Batt, C.M., (1996). "Passage to India: Anuradhapura and the early use of Brahmi Script". Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6:2: 73–97.
^ Allan Dahlaquist. Megasthenes and Indian Religion
^ Keay, John (2000) . India: A history. India: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
^ Singh, Upinder (2009). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India 1st Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. ISBN 8131716775.
^ "Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela of Kalinga". Project South Asia. South Dakota State University . Retrieved 12 April 2014.
^ Strabo XV.1
^ Schoff (tr. & ed.), W.H. "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century (London, Bombay & Calcutta 1912)". Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University . Retrieved 12 April 2014.
^ Zvelebil, Kamil Veith (1991). Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9004093656.
^ Coningham (et al.), Robin. "Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) Project, Phase I: ASW2". Arts and Humanities Research Council . Retrieved 12 April 2014.
^ "Preserving the past". The Hindu (India). 3 February 2010.
^ "Sinhala king and South Indian invasions". Daily News (SriLanka). 20 October 2009.
^ "Chapter 1-4.pmd" (PDF) . Retrieved 2012-11-07.
^ a b c d Kulke and Rothermund (2010). A History of India. Routledge. p. 115. ISBN 9780415485432.
^ Majumdar, R.C. (1934). Ancient Indian Colonies In The Far East. Dacca: Asoke Humar Majumdar Ramna. p. 407.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2005). A History of South India. New Age International Limited (P). p. 158.
^ Meyer, Holger (1999). Umsatzsteuer - Binnenmarkt. Berlin: Boorberg. p. 73. ISBN 978-3415026131.
^ Sethuraman, N (1980). Medieval Pandyas, A.D. 1000-1200. University of Michigan.
^ a b Thinakaran, Alice Justina (15 May 2007). The Second Pandyan Empire, A.D. 1190-1312. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. p. 225.
^ a b c Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1921). South India and her Muhammadan Invaders. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 222–223.
^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1921). South India and her Muhammadan Invaders. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 97.
^ "Portuguese on the Coromandel". The Hindu (India). 17 May 2004.
^ "Historical Moments". Thanjavur Municipality, Tamilnadu state Government . Retrieved 28 May 2013.
^ "Excerpts from a Sergeant's Diary recounting Robert Clive's capture of Arcot, September-October 1751". Project South Asia. South Dakota State University, USA . Retrieved 11 July 2013.
^ "A history of agitational politics". Frontline (India). 10 April 2004.
^ "Tamil Nadu Secretariat - Brief History". Tamilnadu State government, India . Retrieved 16 May 2013.
Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. A History of South India, OUP, Reprinted 2000
Nilakanta Sastri, K.A., Srinivasachari, Advanced History of India, Allied Publishers Ltd, New Delhi, Reprinted 2000
Read, Anthony, The Proudest Day - India's Long Ride to Independence, Jonathan Cape, London, 1997
External links [ edit ]