Chronology of events of the Peninsular War

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The following table shows the sequence of events of the Peninsular War (1807–1814). It includes major battles, smaller actions, uprisings, sieges and other related events that took place during that period.

For ease of reference using modern maps, the provinces/regions given for Spain and Portugal are those that correspond to the 20th century, that is, resulting from the 1976 Constitution of Portugal and the processes of devolution of Spain's transition to democracy (1979), which created 17 autonomous communities (regions) and 2 autonomous cities. This affects, in particular, the historical regions and provinces of León and Old Castile (Spanish: Castilla la Vieja), constituted in 1983 as Castile and León. Events in Portugal and France are specified.

Overview[edit]

The Peninsular War[a] was a military conflict for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars, waged between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom and Portugal. It started when French and Spanish armies, then allied, occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its former ally. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, and significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. British and Portuguese forces eventually secured Portugal, using it as a safe position from which to launch campaigns against the French army, while both Spanish and Portuguese guerrillas weakened the occupying forces.

The Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española (Spanish War of Independence), which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. Although Spain had been in upheaval since at least the Mutiny of Aranjuez (March 1808), May 1808 marks the start of the Spanish War of Independence. The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas. In 1810, a reconstituted national government, the Cádiz Cortes—effectively a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz but could not raise effective armies because it was besieged by up to 70,000 French troops. The combined efforts of regular and irregular forces throughout the peninsula prevented Napoleon's marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces, and the war continued through years of stalemate.[1]

The final stages of the Peninsular War were fought on French soil, as the French army was pushed further back across the Pyrenees.

Table of events[edit]

Date Event Province/region (modern) Outcome Notes
12–18 October 1807 French troops enter Spain en route to Portugal Irun, Basque Country Manoeuvre (French) Junot crosses into Spain with 28,000 troops.[2] The Treaty of Fontainebleau, to be signed later that month, stipulates that three columns of Spanish troops numbering 25,500 men will support the Invasion of Portugal. Junot enters Portugal 19 November.
27 October 1807 Treaty of Fontainebleau signed by Charles IV of Spain and Napoleon I of France Fontainebleau Treaty The accord proposed the division of the Kingdom of Portugal and all Portuguese dominions between the signatories.
19–30 November 1807 Portugal (Invasion of) Portugal
29 November 1807 Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil The Royal Court of Portugal, headed by the Prince Regent, Prince John and his mother, Maria I of Portugal, set sail for Brazil, escorted by the British Royal Navy, led by Sir Sidney Smith and Sir Graham Moore (younger brother of Sir John Moore).
17−19 March 1808 Aranjuez (Mutiny of) Aranjuez, Madrid
19 March 1808 Abdication: Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favour of his son, Ferdinand VII[3] Aranjuez, Madrid
23 March 1808 Murat enters Madrid[3] Madrid Manoeuvre (French) In his letter to his brother Louis, dated 27 March 1808, offering him the throne of Spain, Napoleon stated that he had 100,000 troops in Spain, and that 40,000 of them had entered Madrid with Murat on 23 March 1808.[4]
24 March 1808 Ferdinand VII enters Madrid[3] Madrid Manoeuvre (French)
2 May 1808 Dos de Mayo Uprising Madrid Uprising: French victory Following the fighting at the Royal Palace, rebellion spread to other parts of the city, with street fighting in different areas including heavy fighting around the Puerta del Sol, the Puerta de Toledo and at the barracks of Monteleón. Martial law was imposed on the city. Hundreds of people died in the fighting, including around 150 French soldiers. The uprising was depicted by the Spanish artist Goya in The Second of May 1808 (The Charge of the Mamelukes) and The Third of May 1808.
24 May 1808 Dupont marches from Toledo ToledoCórdoba Manoeuvre (French) After having originally received orders from Murat to head for Cádiz, and countermanded by Napoleon, thinking that his troops might be needed in Madrid, Dupont finally leaves Toledo with 18,000 second-line troops, originally raised as provisional or reserve formations, intended either for internal police services or garrison duty.
5 June 1808 Despeñaperros Jaén, Andalusia Spanish victory (guerrillas) Two squadrons of French dragoons were attacked by insurgents at the northern entrance to the pass of Despenaperros, a steep gorge (defile) in the Sierra Morena, that separates Castile-La Mancha (including Madrid) and Andalusia, and forced to retreat to the nearby town of Almuradiel.
5 June 1808 Santa Cruz de Mudela (Uprising of) Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha Uprising: Spanish victory The 700 French troops stationed in the village of Santa Cruz de Mudela are attacked by the population. 109 French soldiers are killed and 113 taken prisoner, while the rest flee back in the direction of Madrid, to Valdepeñas.
6 June 1808 Porto (Uprising of) Porto (Portugal) Uprising: Spanish victory On hearing of the rebellion in Spain, Spanish General Belesta, having participated in the Invasion of Portugal, and stationed in Porto with 6,000 Spanish troops, captures the French General of Division Quesnel, and marches to Coruña to join the fight against the French troops, sparking off a series of uprisings throughout the north of Portugal.
6 June 1808 Valdepeñas (Uprising of) Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha Uprising: Spanish victory Following the previous day's uprising in Santa Cruz de Mudela, Ligier-Belair and Roize, at the head of some 800 troops, together with some 300 soldiers that had escaped from the Santa Cruz uprising prepare to march through the town of Valdepeñas. The population attack the leading column and Ligier-Belair sends in the dragoons, who are also forced to retreat. The resulting truce stipulates that the French troops will not pass through the village in return for a day's worth of food supplies. The guerrilla actions at Santa Cruz and Valdepeñas, together with more isolated actions in the Sierra Morena itself, effectively cut French military communications between Madrid and Andalusia for around a month.
6 June 1808 Coronation of Joseph I Madrid Napoleon's elder brother, Joseph Bonaparte, proclaimed King of Spain.[5] His reign lasted until 11 December 1813, when he abdicated and returned to France after the French defeat at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813.
6 June 1808 Bruch (First battle of) Barcelona, Catalonia Spanish victory See also Bruch (Second battle of). Often grouped together as one battle, there were in fact two separate battles, separated by more than a week, with different armies and commanders involved: of the 12 French regiments that participated, only one of them fought at both battles.
7 June 1808 Alcolea Bridge (Battle of) Córdoba, Andalusia French victory At Alcolea, 10 km from Córdoba, Dupont's troops are engaged in their first battle in Andalusia against 3,000 regular troops under Pedro Agustín de Echávarri who try to protect the bridge over the Guadalquivir. The same day, Dupont captures Córdoba.
7 June 1808 Córdoba Córdoba, Andalusia French victory On their way to Seville, and ultimately to Cádiz, Dupont's 18,000 troops capture Córdoba, ransacking the city over four days. However, damaging guerrilla actions force Dupont to withdraw towards Madrid to meet up with Gobert's division, that had set out from Madrid on July 2 to reinforce Dupont. Only one brigade of this division ultimately reached Dupont, the rest being needed to hold the road north (to Madrid) against the guerrillas.
9 June 1808 – 14 June 1808 Rosily Squadron (Capture of) Cádiz, Andalusia Spanish victory
19 June 1808 Vedel marches from Toledo ToledoLa Carolina Manoeuvre (French) Vedel, with the 6,000 men, 700 horse, and 12 guns of the 2nd Division, sets out south from Toledo to force a passage over the Sierra Morena, hold the mountains from the guerrillas, and link up with Dupont, pacifying Castile-La Mancha along the way. Vedel is joined during the march by small detachments under Roize and Ligier-Belair.
26 June 1808 Puerta del Rey (mountain pass) Jaén, Andalusia French victory Vedel's column face Lieutenant-Colonel Valdecaños' detachment of Spanish regulars and guerrillas with six guns blocking the mountain pass. The following day, Vedel meets up with Dupont at La Carolina, reestablishing military communications with Madrid after a month of disruption. With the reinforcements from Vedel and Gobert, Dupont now has 20,000 men, albeit short of supplies.[6]
12 June 1808 Cabezón (Battle of) Valladolid, Castile and León French victory
14 June 1808 Bruch (Second battle of) Barcelona, Catalonia Spanish victory See also Bruch (First battle of)
15 June 1808 — 14 August 1808 Zaragoza (First siege of) Zaragoza, Aragón Spanish victory
20 and 21 June 1808 Gerona (Battle of) Girona, Catalonia Spanish victory
24 June – 26 June 1808 Valencia (Battle of) Valencia, Valencia Spanish victory
27 June 1808 Gijón: Arrival of British officers Asturias Delegation In response to the Junta General of Asturias' request to London, the Portland administration sent three British Army officers, led by a lieutenant colonel, to Gijón to assess the state of affairs. Following the Spanish victory at Bailén the following month, the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, Viscount Castlereagh sent a second delegation, led by General Sir James Leith, who arrived in Gijón on 30 August 1808 charged with seeing how the north of Spain could be reinforced to prevent Napoleon sending in more troops through Irun, and isolating him in Madrid or Burgos. Leith would join Baird's forces in November 1808.[7]
14 July 1808 Medina de Rioseco (Battle of) Valladolid, Castile and León French victory Also known as the Battle of Moclín, from the name of a nearby hill held by Spanish infantry.
16 July 1808 – 19 July 1808 Bailén (Battle of) Jaén, Andalusia Spanish victory (decisive) Having lost some 2,000 men on the battlefield, together with some 800 Swiss troops that had gone over to Reding's Swiss regiment, Dupont called for a truce, formally surrendered his remaining 17,600 men on 23 July. Under the terms of surrender, Dupont, Vedel and their troops were to be repatriated to France. However, with the exception of the most senior officers, most of the French rank and file were confined on hulks in Cádiz, before being transported to the uninhabited island of Cabrera, where half of the 7,000 men starved to death.[8]
24 July 1808 – 16 August 1808 Gerona (Second siege of) Girona, Catalonia Spanish victory
29 July 1808 Évora (Battle of) Alentejo (Portugal) French victory The following day, the French General Loison massacred the men, women, and children, of Évora, marking the future of the relationships between the different nations.
7 August 1808 – 11 October 1808 Evacuation of the La Romana Division Denmark–Spain by sea Manoeuvre (Spanish) Some 9,000 men stationed in Denmark, belonging to the 15,000-strong Division of the North, comprising Spanish troops commanded by Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of la Romana, defected from the armies of the First French Empire under the leadership of Marshal Bernadotte. Transported aboard British navy ships, on reaching Santander, they reinforced Blake's Army of Galicia. Entering into battle at Valmaseda, on 5 November 1808, they defeated Victor's army, only to be defeated by the same forces a few days later at the Battle of Espinosa.
17 August 1808 Roliça (Battle of) Leiria (Portugal) Anglo-Portuguese victory, tactical French retreat The first battle fought by the British army during the Peninsular War.
21 August 1808 Vimeiro (Battle of) Lisbon (Portugal) Anglo-Portuguese victory Led to the signing of the Convention of Sintra on 30 August 1808, putting an end to Napoleon's invasion of Portugal.
30 August 1808 Sintra (Convention of) Lisbon (Portugal) French troops abandon Portugal Following his victory at the Battle of Vimeiro (21 August) Sir Arthur Wellesley, against his wishes, was ordered by his immediate superiors, Sir Harry Burrard and Sir Hew Dalrymple, to sign the preliminary Armistice. The subsequent convention, agreed between Dalrymple and Kellerman, and despite the protests of the Portuguese commander, Freire,[9] allowed the evacuation of Junot's 20,900 troops from Portugal to France with all their equipment and 'personal property' (mostly loot) aboard Royal Navy ships. The public outcry in Britain led to an inquiry, held 14 November to 27 December 1808, which cleared all three British officers. Shortly after, George Woodward would caricature Wellesley in The Convention of Cintra, a Portuguese Gambol for the amusement of Iohn Bull, London, 1809[9]
31 October 1808 Pancorbo (Battle of) Biscay, Basque Country Indecisive Although a tactical victory for the French, it was considered a strategic blunder
5 November 1808 Valmaseda (Battle of) Biscay, Basque Country Spanish victory
7 November – 5 December 1808 Roses (Siege of) Girona, Catalonia French victory
10 and 11 November 1808 Espinosa (Battle of) Burgos, Castile and León French victory
23 November 1808 Tudela (Battle of) Tudela, Navarre French-Polish victory
30 November 1808 Somosierra (Battle of) Mountain pass 60 miles north of Madrid separating the provinces of Madrid and Segovia French victory Famous for the Polish light cavalry uphill charge, in columns of four, against Spanish artillery positions. The heavily outnumbered Spanish detachment of conscripts and artillery were unable to stop the Grande Armée's advance on Madrid, and Napoleon entered the capital of Spain on 4 December, a month after entering the country.[5]
4 December 1808 Napoleon enters Madrid with 80,000 troops.[10] Madrid French victory Napoleon turns his troops against Moore's British forces, who are forced to retreat back towards Galicia three weeks later and, after a last stand at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809, withdraw from Spain.
20 December 1808 – 20 February 1809 Zaragoza (Second siege of) Zaragoza, Aragón French victory
16 December 1808 Cardadeu (Battle of) Barcelona, Catalonia French victory
21 December 1808 Molins de Rey (Battle of) Barcelona, Catalonia French victory
21 December 1808 Sahagún (Battle of) León, Castile and León British victory
25 December 1808 Retreat to Corunna British retreat John Moore starts a 250-mile (400 km) retreat and reaches La Coruña on 14 January
30 December 1808 Mansilla (Battle of) León, Castile and León French victory
1 January 1809 Castellón (Battle of) Girona, Catalonia Spanish victory This Castellón refers to Castelló d'Empúries, in Catalonia, not the town or province in Valencia.
3 January 1809 Cacabelo (Battle of) León, Castile and León British victory
13 January 1809 Uclés (Battle of) Cuenca, Castile-La Mancha French victory
14 January 1809 Treaty between Great Britain and Spain London Treaty "Treaty of peace, friendship, and alliance" by which Britain recognises Fernando as King of Spain.[11]
16 January 1809 Corunna (Battle of) A Coruña, Galicia Different analyses:

British tactical victory[12][13][14]
French strategic victory[15][16][17]

The British troops were able complete their embarkation, but left the port cities of Corunna and Ferrol, as well as the whole of northern Spain, to be captured and occupied by the French. During the battle, Sir John Moore, the British commander, was mortally wounded
18 January 1809 Corunna (Surrender of) A Coruña, Galicia French victory Alcedo, whose garrison of two Spanish regiments had protected Sir John Moore's troops during the embarkation, surrendered to Marshal Soult, who was able to refit with the ample military stores available. A week later Soult's forces also captured Ferrol, a major Spanish naval base with an even greater arsenal than that of Corunna, and taking eight ships of the line.
25 February 1809 Valls (Battle of) Tarragona, Catalonia French victory
7 March 1809 British General William Beresford appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army.
10 to 12 March 1809 Chaves (First siege of) Norte (Portugal) French victory Francisco da Silveira would later recapture the town at the Second Siege of Chaves, from 21 to 25 March 1809.
17 March 1809 Villafranca (Battle of) León, Castile and León Spanish victory
20 March 1809 Braga (Battle of) Braga (Portugal) French victory Also known as the Battle of Póvoa de Lanhoso or Battle of Carvalho d'Este.
21 to 25 March 1809 Chaves (Second siege of) Norte (Portugal) Portuguese victory
24 March 1809 Yevenes (Battle of) Toledo, Castile-La Mancha Spanish victory
27 March 1809 Ciudad Real (Battle of) Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha French-Polish victory
28 March 1809 Porto (First battle of) Porto (Portugal) French victory
22 April 1809 Creation of Anglo-Portuguese Army Wellesley, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army and integrated the two armies into mixed British-Portuguese divisions, normally on a basis of two British and one Portuguese brigades.
6 May - 12 December  1809 Gerona (Third siege of) Girona, Catalonia French victory Depicted in The Great Day of Girona, by Ramon Martí Alsina.
10 May 1809 – 11 May 1809 Grijó (Battle of) Porto (Portugal) Anglo-Portuguese victory
12 May 1809 Porto (Second battle of) Porto (Portugal) Anglo-Portuguese victory (decisive) Also known as the Battle of the Douro.
14 May 1809 Alcantara (Battle of) Cáceres, Extremadura French victory
23 May 1809 Alcañiz (Battle of) Teruel, Aragón Spanish victory
15 June 1809 María (Battle of) Zaragoza, Aragón French victory
7 June 1809 – 9 June 1809 Puente Sanpayo (Battle of) Pontevedra, Galicia Spanish victory
18 June 1809 Belchite (Battle of) Zaragoza, Aragón French victory
27–28 July 1809 Talavera (Battle of) Toledo, Castile-La Mancha Pyrrhic Anglo-Spanish victory
Strategic French victory
8 August 1809 Arzobispo (Battle of) Toledo, Castile-La Mancha French victory
11 August 1809 Almonacid (Battle of) Toledo, Castile–La Mancha French victory
12 August 1809 Puerto de Baños (Battle of) Cáceres, Extremadura Anglo-Allied victory Mountain pass
9 October 1809 Astorga (Combat of) León, Castile and León Spanish victory Apparently unaware that the town had recently been heavily garrisoned, Kellerman sent Carrié with 1,200 infantry and two regiments of dragoons to attack the town.[18]
18 October 1809 Tamames (Battle of) Salamanca, Castile and León Spanish victory
20 October 1809 Torres Vedras (Wellington orders construction of the Lines of) Lisbon, Portugal Fortification (Anglo-Portuguese) Wellington orders construction of the Lines. Under the direction of Sir Richard Fletcher, the first line was finished one year later, around the time of the Battle of Sobral.
11 November 1809 Ocaña (Combat of) Toledo, Castile-La Mancha French victory Ocaña is a small town 65 km from Madrid, defended by five regiments of Milhaud’s dragoons and Sebastiani’s division (six battalions) of Polish infantry. Aréizaga sent his cavalry force, 5,700 strong, which outnumbered the French cavalry by three-to-one, and forced them to retreat behind the Polish infantry. After attempting to attack the squares, Areizaga realised that they would have to wait for Zayas' infantry to arrive and attack the following day. The French, however, retreated overnight to Aranjuez. Aréizaga entered the town the following day.[19]
19 November 1809 Ocaña (Battle of) Toledo, Castile-La Mancha French victory 65 km from Madrid
23 November 1809 Carpio (Battle of) Valladolid, Castile and León Spanish victory El Carpio, some 20 km southwest of the town of Medina del Campo, is about 4 km from Fresno el Viejo. Both villages border the province of Salamanca at the southwestern tip of the province of Valladolid. The village, including its strategic 10th century fortress was completely destroyed by the French troops on 25 November.
26 November 1809 Alba de Tormes (Battle of) Salamanca, Castile and León French victory
21 January 1810 Mollet Barcelona, Catalonia Spanish victory
5 February 1810 – 24 August 1812 Cádiz (Siege of) Cádiz, Andalusia Spanish victory The reconstituted national government of Spain, known as the Cádiz Cortes—effectively a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz, besieged by 70,000 French troops.
20 February 1810 Vich (Battle of) Barcelona, Catalonia French victory
21 March 1810 — 22 April 1810 Astorga (First siege of) León, Castile and León French victory
15 April 1810 Lérida: arrival of Suchet's troops Lérida, Catalonia Manoeuvre (French) Suchet's army of 13,000 French troops arrive in front of Lérida. The siege proper starts on 29 April.
23 April 1810 Margalef (Battle of) Tarragona, Catalonia French victory On 22 April, a Spanish force of 8,000 infantry and 600 cavalry,[20] incorporated into two divisions led by Ibarrola and Pirez, under O’Donnell,[21] descended the Monblanc defile of the Prades Mountains to relieve Lerida. They were surprised by Musnier's seven infantry battalions and 500 cuirassieres which, together with Harispe's three infantry battalions and two squadrons of hussars that had been stationed at Alcoletge, a bridgehead three miles from Lerida, forced them to retreat to the ruined village of Margalef, some 10 miles from Lérida.[20]
26 April 1810 – 9 July 1810 Ciudad Rodrigo (First siege of) Salamanca, Castile and León French victory
29 April – 13 May 1810 Lérida (Siege of) Lérida, Catalonia French victory
11 July 1810 Barquilla (Combat of) Salamanca, Castile and León French victory
24 July 1810 River Côa (Battle of the) Guarda, (Portugal) French victory After having blown up the Real Fuerte de la Concepción on 20 July, Craufurd, positioned his Light Brigade, comprising five battalions of infantry, two light cavalry regiments, and one horse artillery battery (about 4200 infantry, 800 cavalry, and 6 guns)[22] east of the Côa River (disobeying Wellington's orders), near Castelo de Almeida and near the only bridge of an otherwise unfordable river. On the morning of the battle, they were surprised by Marshal Ney's 20,000 troops, on their way to besiege Almeida. Craufurd was able to defend the bridge against several attacks, but finally retreated at midnight.

The Real Fuerte de la Concepción, in the province of Salamanca, was one of a series of star forts on the Spanish side of the border between Spain and Portugal. The Praça-forte de Almeida, 10 km away, in the Guarda District, was one of a series of Portuguese star forts.

25 July to 27 August 1810 Almeida (First siege of) Guarda, (Portugal) French victory
14 September 1810 La Bisbal (Battle of) Girona, Catalonia Anglo-Spanish victory
24 September 1810 Cádiz Cortes – opening session Cádiz, Andalusia The opening session of the Cortes was held eight months into the two-and-a-half-year Siege of Cádiz.
27 September 1810 Bussaco (Battle of) Aveiro District (Portugal) Anglo-Portuguese victory Serra do Bussaco mountain range
13–14 October 1810 Sobral (Battle of) Lisbon (Portugal) Anglo-Portuguese victory
15 October 1810 Fuengirola (Battle of) Málaga, Andalusia Polish-French victory
19 January – 22 January 1811 Olivenza (Siege of) Province of Badajoz, Extremadura French victory
15 January 1811 Pla (Battle of) Tarragona, Catalonia Spanish victory
26 January 1811 – 11 March 1811 Badajoz (First siege of) Badajoz, Extremadura French victory The Spanish fortress fell to the French forces under Marshal Soult.
19 February 1811 Gebora (Battle of) Badajoz, Extremadura French victory
11 March 1811 Pombal (Battle of) Leiria (Portugal) French victory
12 March 1811 Redinha (Battle of) Coimbra (Portugal) French victory
14 March 1811 Casal Novo (Battle of) French victory Coimbra (Portugal)
15 March 1811 – 21 March 1811 Campo Maior Castle (Siege of) Alentejo (Portugal) French victory 800 Portuguese militia and 50 old cannon held out against 4,500 troops belonging to the V Corps under Marshal Mortier.
25 March 1811 Campo Maior (Battle of) Alentejo (Portugal) Anglo-Portuguese victory
3 April 1811 Sabugal (Battle of) Guarda (Portugal) Anglo-Portuguese Victory
14 April – 10 May 1811 Almeida (Second siege of) Guarda, (Portugal) Anglo-Allied victory Also known as the Blockade of Almeida, since the Anglo-Portuguese Army had no heavy guns to breach the walls, they were forced to starve the garrison out. Because of this, it was technically a blockade rather than a siege. French troops abandoned the fort under cover of darkness and escaped. See Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro.
22 April – 12 May/18 May – 10 June 1811 Badajoz (Second siege of) Badajoz, Extremadura French victory The siege was briefly lifted while the Battle of Albuera was fought on 16 May.
3–6 May 1811 Fuentes de Oñoro (Battle of) Salamanca, Castile and León Tactically indecisive[23][24][25]
Strategic Anglo - Portuguese victory[26]
Spanish village on the border with Portugal. French failure to relieve Almeida. See Blockade of Almeida.
5 May 1811 – 29 June 1811 Tarragona (First siege of) Tarragona, Catalonia French victory
16 May 1811 Albuera (Battle of) Badajoz, Extremadura Allied victory Allied forces engaged the French Armée du Midi (Army of the South) some 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Badajoz.
25 May 1811 Arlabán (Battle of) Mountain pass between Gipuzkoa and Álava Spanish victory Guerrilla ambush led by Francisco Espoz y Mina. Also referred to as the First Surprise of Arlabán to distinguish it from the Second Surprise of Arlabán (April 1812).
25 May 1811 Usagre (Battle of) Badajoz, Extremadura Allied victory
29 July 1811 Montserrat (Battle of) Barcelona, Catalonia French victory
9 August 1811 Zujar (Battle of) Granada, Andalusia French victory
25 September 1811 El Bodón (Battle of) Salamanca, Castile and León French victory
4 to 14 October 1811 Cervera (Battle of) Lleida, Catalonia Spanish victory
25 October 1811 Saguntum (Battle of) Valencia, Valencia French victory
28 October 1811 Arroyo dos Molinos (Battle of) Cáceres, Extremadura Allied victory
3 November 1811 – 9 January 1812 Valencia (Siege of) Valencia, Valencia French victory
5 November 1811 Bornos (First battle of) Cádiz, Andalusia Spanish victory
7 January 1812 – 20 January 1812 Ciudad Rodrigo (Second siege of) Salamanca, Castile and León Allied victory
24 January 1812 Altafulla (Battle of) Tarragona, Catalonia French victory
9 April 1812 Arlabán (Battle of) Mountain pass between Gipuzkoa and Álava Spanish victory Also referred to as the Second Surprise of Arlabán to distinguish it from the First Surprise of Arlabán (May 1811).
31 May 1812 Bornos (Second battle of) Cádiz, Andalusia French victory
29 June – 19 August 1812 Astorga, Second siege of León, Castile-León Spanish victory Spanish troops liberate Astorga, in French hands since the first Siege of Astorga in 1810.
21 July 1812 Castalla (First battle of) Alicante, Valencia French victory
22 July 1812 Salamanca (Battle of) Salamanca, Castile and León Decisive Allied victory Also known as the Battle of Arapiles, for the name of the nearby village, Arapiles, which in turn takes its name from the two low, flat-topped hills, Arapil Chico (Lesser Arapile) and Arapil Grande (Greater Arapile), over and around which part of the battle took place.
23 July 1812 Garcia Hernandez (Battle of) Salamanca, Castile and León Anglo-German victory
19 September to 21 October 1812 Burgos (Siege of) Burgos, Castile and León French victory
23 October 1812 Venta del Pozo (Battle of) Palencia, Castile and León Indecisive;
French tactical victory
[27]
Also known as the Battle of Villodrigo.
25–29 October 1812 Tordesillas (Battle of) Valladolid, Castile and León French victory Also known as the Battle of Villamuriel or Battle of Palencia.
13 April 1813 Castalla (Second battle of) Alicante, Valencia Anglo-Spanish victory
3–11 June 1813 Tarragona (Second siege of) Tarragona, Catalonia French victory
18 June 1813 San Millan-Osma (Battle of) San Millan, BurgosCastile and León / Osma, ÁlavaBasque Country Anglo-Allied victory Mountain pass northwest of Miranda del Ebro, just off the BurgosBilbao road.
21 June 1813 Vitoria (Battle of) Álava, Basque Country Allied victory (decisive) Led to the abdication of Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain, 11 December 1813. Beethoven's Op. 91, "Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria", completed in the first week of October 1813, commemorates the victory. Originally composed for the panharmonicon, it was first performed with Beethoven himself conducting, together with the premiere of his Symphony No. 7.[28]
(7–25 July 1813) San Sebastián (First siege of) Province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country French victory Although referred to as one siege, there were in fact two separate sieges. See Second siege of San Sebastián below.
25 July 1813 Pyrenees (Battle of the) Allied victory The Battle of the Pyrenees was large-scale offensive, involving several battles, launched by Marshal Soult to relieve the French garrisons under siege at Pamplona and San Sebastián.
25 July 1813 Roncesvalles (Battle of) Roncevaux Pass, Spain French victory Mountain pass at 1,057 m (3,468 ft) on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees near the border with France. A battle included in the Battle of the Pyrenees.
25 July 1813 Maya (Battle of) Navarre French victory Mountain pass on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees near the border with France.
28 July – 1 August 1813 Sorauren (Battle of) Navarre Allied victory A battle included in the Battle of the Pyrenees.
(8 August - 8 September 1813) San Sebastián (Second siege of) Province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country Anglo-Portuguese victory Although referred to as one siege, there were in fact two separate sieges. See First siege of San Sebastián above.
7 October 1813 Bidassoa (Battle of the) Allied victory (tactical) Also known as the Battle of Larrun.
10 November 1813 Nivelle (Battle of) Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France Allied victory
11 December 1813 Abdication of Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain.
9 – 13 December 1813 Nive (Battle of the) Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France Allied victory
15 February 1814 Garris (Battle of) Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France Allied victory
27 February 1814 Orthez (Battle of) Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France Anglo-Portuguese victory

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chandler, David. The Art of Warfare on Land. p. 164. 
  2. ^ Hindley, Meredith (2010) "The Spanish Ulcer: Napoleon, Britain, and the Siege of Cádiz" in Humanities, January/February 2010, Volume 31, Number 1. National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Esdaile, Charles (2003). The Peninsular War: A New History. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-1-4039-6231-7. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Alison, Archibald (2011) History of Europe During the French Revolution, p.563. Cambridge University Press. At Google Books. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  5. ^ a b Fremont-Barnes, Gregory and Todd Fisher (2004) The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, pp. 15–16. Osprey Publishing At Google Books. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  6. ^ Scott, Walter (Sir) (1839) The Life of Napoleon, p. 386. E. L. Carey and A. Hart At Google Books. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  7. ^ Lastra Rodríguez, Alicia (1975) (Spanish) "Buscando a mi general: el periplo asturiano de Andrew Leith Hay en 1808" in Archivum, pp. 219–247. Universidad de Oviedo At Google Books. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  8. ^ Esdaile, Charles (2003) The Peninsular War: A New History, p. 83. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6231-7. At Google Books. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  9. ^ a b (Portuguese) [1] Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  10. ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory and Todd Fisher (2004) p. 205.
  11. ^ Chitty, Joseph (1824) A Treatise on the Laws of Commerce and Manufactures, and the Contracts Relating Thereto: With an Appendix of Treaties, Statutes, and Precedents, Volume 4, p. 84. A. Strahan At Google Books. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  12. ^ Haythornthwaite, p. 87.
  13. ^ Sandler, Stanley, Ground warfare: An International Encyclopedia, Vol.1, (ABC-CLIO, 2002), 214; "Costly British victory in the Peninsular War.... Corunna was a British victory only in the sense that Moore was able to prevent Soult form annihilating his men...".
  14. ^ Chandler, p. 657.
  15. ^ Fremont-Barnes, "Canning strenuously maintained... in the great British tradition of characterizing defeat as victory ...". p.80.
  16. ^ Esdaile, p. 155.
  17. ^ According to The Times, "The fact must not be disguised ... that we have suffered a shameful disaster": Hibbert, p. 188. Carl Cavanaugh Hodge, Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914 (Greenwood, 2007), p. lxxiii: "French Victory at the Battle of Corunna. Britain Forced to Evacuate Spain."
  18. ^ Rickard, J. (2008) "Combat of Astorga, 9 October 1809" Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  19. ^ Rickard, J (2008) "Combat of Ocaña, 11 November 1809" Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  20. ^ a b Napier, William (1842) History of the War in the Peninsula and in the South of France: From the Year 1807 to the Year 1814, Volume 2, p. 138. Carey and Hart. At Google Books. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  21. ^ Suchet, Louis-Gabriel (1829) (Spanish) Memorias del mariscal Suchet: duque de Albufera, sobre sus campańas en España, desde el año 1808 hasta el de 1814, Volume 1, p. 259. Bossange père At Google Books. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
  22. ^ Burnham, Robert "The Napoleon Series: Action on the River Coa" Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  23. ^ Both armies retained their positions. Brialmont p.381
  24. ^ Maxwell p.227
  25. ^ Currie p.126
  26. ^ Weller p.166
  27. ^ Gates, David. The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War, p. 473. Da Capo Press 2001. ISBN 0-306-81083-2
  28. ^ Rodman, Michael. "Wellington's Victory, for orchestra, Op. 91" Allmusic. Retrieved 6 September 2013.