Timeline of the Turkish War of Independence

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Turkish War of Independence

This chronology of the Turkish War of Independence is a timeline of events during the Turkish War of Independence (May 19, 1919– October 29, 1923). The timeline also includes the background events starting with the end of the First World War. The events are classified according to the campaigns and parties involved. Pictures are included for the significant events.

Legend[edit]

Legend
Groups Members Main Article
Nationals Turkish Revolutionaries Establishment
Mustafa Kemal
Central Powers Ottoman Empire Kuva-i Inzibatiye
Joint actions by Allies of World War I Britain Chanak Crisis
Greece Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)
Armenia Turkish-Armenian War
France Franco-Turkish War
Italy

1918[edit]

Date Occurrence
1918, Oct 30 Signing of the Armistice of Mudros,
i) opening up the Straits,
ii) guaranteeing access to the Black Sea,
iii) providing for Allied occupation of the fortresses along the Dardanelles and Bosphorus,
iv) foreseeing immediate demobilisation of Turkish troops, except where necessary to preserve order,
v) placing Allies in control of all the railroads,
vi) Article VII: giving the Allies "the right to occupy any strategic points in the event of any situation arising which threatens the security of the Allies".
1918, Oct 31 Mustafa Kemal Pasha takes over the command of the Yildirim Army Group (Syrian front) from Otto Liman von Sanders.
1918, Nov 01 Last congress of the Committee of Union and Progress gathers in Istanbul
1918, Nov 02 Enver Pasha, Talat Pasha, Cemal Pasha and others leading names of the Committee of Union and Progress leave Istanbul.
1918, Nov 07 British troops occupy Musul.[1]
1918, Nov 08 Grand vizier Ahmed İzzet Pasha and his government demissions.
1918, Nov 09 British troops occupy İskenderun and the two sides of the Dardanelles.
1918, Nov 11 A new Ottoman government is formed under the Grand vizier Ahmed Tevfik Pasha.
1918, Nov 12 A French brigade enters Istanbul to begin the Allied occupation of the city and its immediate dependencies (the two opposite peninsulas). A fleet consisting of British, French, Italian and Greek ships embarks additional troops the next day.
1918, Nov 13 Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrived at Haydarpasha Station from Adana.
1918, Nov 14 Joint French-Greek troops cross the Meriç River and occupy the town of Uzunköprü in Eastern Thrace as well as the railway axis till the train station of Hadımköy near Çatalca on the outskirts of Istanbul.
1918, Nov 14 First Kars Congress organized by representatives of the Turkish-Muslim majority population in Kars region te define actions to be taken in view of the retreat of Ottoman forces.
1918, Nov 15 Ottoman troops withdraw from Baku, which will be occupied by British troops in the following days, and also evacuate Musul occupied by the British after the armistice.
1918, Nov 18 Ottoman troops withdraw from Tabriz (Tebriz).
1918, Nov 28 Kâzım Karabekir Pasha arrives to Istanbul from Kars.
1918, Nov 30 Second Kars Congress .
1918, Dec 1 The first "Association for Defense of National Rights (Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti)" -of Muslim subjects of the Ottoman Empire in view of the peace treaty to come- is founded in İzmir, to be followed by similar associations for Thrace and the Eastern Provinces in the following days.
1918, Dec 06 British troops based in Syria occupy Kilis,
1918, Dec 07 French troops occupy Antakya.
1918, Dec 17 French navy embark troops in Mersin which will occupy the important port city.
1918, Dec 19 French troops occupy Tarsus and Ceyhan and face the first exchanges of fire in Dörtyol in one of the opening acts of what will later be termed the Cilicia War.
1918, Dec 20 French troops occupy Adana, Çukurova's largest city with central importance for southern Turkey.
1918, Dec 21 Closure of the Ottoman Parliament by the sultan Mehmed VI Vahideddin putting an end to its third term that was dominated by the Committee of Union and Progress under a single party regime.
1918, Dec 21 "Adana Association for Defense of National Rights" is founded.
1918, Dec 23 French troops occupy Osmaniye and Islahiye in a move that will extend till Pozantı in Gülek Pass (Cilicia Gates) on December 27, thus acquiring control over Çukurova. In the same days, British troops occupy Batum.
1918, Dec 30 Following a visit to Paris in November to present Greece's territorial claims to the Peace Conference to be opened, Venizelos reasserts these claims in a memorandum addressed to the British Premier, Lloyd George and covering all of Western Anatolia, from opposite Rhodes (or Castellorizo) to the Sea of Marmara.

1919[edit]

Date Occurrence
1919, Jan 03 British troops based in Syria occupy Jerablus.
1919, Jan 09 End of the successive First and Second Ardahan Congresses (opened January 3).
1919, Jan 12 The first cabinet of the Grand vizier Ahmed Tevfik Pasha demissions, and Ahmed Tevfik Pasha presents a new government the next day.
1919, Jan 15 British troops based in Syria occupy Antep. The British occupation forces will be replaced by French occupation forces towards the end of the year.
1919, Jan 18 End of the Great Kars Congress (131 delegates) and the declaration of the founding of Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus.
1919, Jan 19 Paris Peace Conference opens.
1919, Jan 22 Ottoman troops start withdrawing from Batum.
1919, Feb 02 British troops based in Syria occupy Maraş. The British occupation forces will be replaced by French occupation forces towards the end of the year.
1919, Feb 08 French general Franchet d'Esperey ("desperate Frankey" as nicknamed among the British), commander-in-chief of allied occupation forces in Turkey arrives to Istanbul.
1919, Feb 12 "Association for Defense of National Rights (Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti)" is founded in Trabzon, to be followed a parallel association in Samsun and these two associations come together in a congress organized in Trabzon on February 23.
1919, Feb 21 Oltu Congress by the Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus
1919, Feb 23 A number of Pontic Greek notables gather in Trabzon in parallel to the movements among the Turkish populations and take the decision to work towards the establishment of a Pontian Greek Republic in the vilayet of Trabzon. The first issue of the newspaper Pontos, a step in that direction, is published in Trabzon on March 4. Chrysanthos of Trebizonde, the Metropolitan of the Greek Orthodox populations of the region, goes to Paris on March 27 and presents a report to the Conference on May. 2
Date Occurrence
1919, Feb 27 British troops based in Syria occupy Birecik. The British occupation forces will be replaced by French occupation forces towards the end of the year.
1919, Mar 03 The Grand vizier Ahmed Tevfik Pasha and his second government resigns.
1919, Mar 04 Damat Ferid Pasha is appointed as grand vizier and forms his first government.
1919, Mar 04 The representatives of Britain, the US, France and Italy open the discussions at the Paris Peace Conference on the envisaged mandates for Syria, Cilicia and Armenia.
1919, Mar 13 Kazım Karabekir Pasha is assigned to the command of the XV Corps based in Erzurum.
1919, Mar 18 Two French gunboats embark respective troops to the Black Sea ports of Zonguldak and Karadeniz Ereğli commanding Turkey's coal mining region.
1919, Mar 22 Known to be inclined to armed resistance to any occupation attempt and in view of the projected landing of Greek troops, Nureddin Pasha is relieved from his posts as interim governor of İzmir and from the command of XVII Corps based in that city.
1919, Mar 24 British troops based in Syria occupy Urfa. The British occupation forces will be replaced by French occupation forces towards the end of the year.
Date Occurrence
1919, Apr 12 The flagship of the Greek Navy, the cruiser Georgios Averof docks in the port of İzmir in a show of force for Greece. .
1919, Apr 24 The Italian delegation, angry about the possibility of the Greek occupation of Western Anatolia, leaves Paris Peace Conference does not return to Paris until May. 5 Although Italy sends a warship to İzmir on April 30 as a show of force to prevent Greek occupation, the absence of the Italian delegation from the Conference ends up by facilitating Lloyd George's efforts to persuade France and the United States in Greece's favour.
1919, Apr 29 A large[citation needed] Italian force occupies Antalya, the region around which will remain comparatively calm throughout the war.
1919, Apr 230 Mustafa Kemal Pasha was appointed the Inspector of the Ninth Army Troops.
1919, May 6 Largely as a result of British diplomacy, Paris Peace Conference authorizes Greek forces to land on Turkish territory.
1919, May 8 Greek troops based in Thessaloniki are ordered to sail toward İzmir in view of occupation.
1919, May 11 Small Italian contingents occupy (rather symbolically, since the Ottoman administration is allowed to function intact) Fethiye, Bodrum and Marmaris and the surrounding regions.
1919, May 12 Admiral Arthur Calthorpe, signatory to the Armistice of Mudros on behalf of Britain, arrives in İzmir, in his title of British High Commissioner, to supervise the imminent Greek occupation of the city.
1919, May 15 Greek forces land in İzmir and Greece launches its occupation of Western Anatolia. For the city's Turkish population, the day is marked by the "first bullet" fired by Hasan Tahsin at the standard bearer at the head of the troops, the murder by bayonet coups of Colonel Fethi Bey for refusing to shout "Zito Venizelos" and the killing and wounding of unarmed Turkish soldiers in the city's principal casern, as well as of 300-400 civilians.
1919, May 16 Mustafa Kemal Pasha departs from Istanbul on board the ship Bandırma heading for Samsun where he was appointed as Inspector of the Ninth Army Troops.
1919, May 16 Greek troops occupy the towns along Karaburun peninsula west of İzmir (Urla, Çeşme, Seferihisar and Karaburun)
1919, May 18 Greek troops occupy Söke, situated a hundred kilometers south of İzmir at a key location that commands the fertile Menderes River valley.
1919, May 19 Mustafa Kemal Pasha sets foot in Samsun.
1919, May 21 Greek troops occupy Menemen and Torbalı, towards the north and the southeast at proximity of İzmir.
1919, May 23 In line with a wave of demonstrations around Turkey to protest against Greece's occupation of İzmir, the largest of these public meetings is held in Sultanahmet Square in Istanbul.
1919, May 23 Greek troops occupy Selçuk to the south, Bayındır to the east and Foça to the north of İzmir.
1919, May 23 Aristidis Stergiadis, the Greek High Commissioner for Ionia, who had arrived in İzmir on May 21, authorises orders for the occupation of Aydın, Manisa and Turgutlu.
1919, May 25 Greek troops occupy Manisa.
1919, May 27 Greek troops occupy Aydın. Although Menderes (Meander) valley was not, strictly speaking, mandated for an occupation by Greek troops, Italian Navy's movements off the coast of Kuşadası orient the Greek high command towards becoming the first power to establish an influence in this region. A feel-pulse nature prevails during these first Greek advances.
1919, May 29 Greek troops occupy Kasaba (Turgutlu), Tire and Ayvalık where the Turkish side fires the "first bullets" by regular troops. Forces under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel (later minister) Ali Çetinkaya check their enemy before retreating.
1919, Jun 01 Greek troops occupy Ödemiş after a six-hour exchange of fire in the Circassian village of Hacıilyas, ten kilometers west of Ödemiş, which prides itself for being the spot where the "first bullets" by irregular forces, soon to form into militias, were fired. The village, burned in whole by the Greek army after the fighting is named İlkkurşun since ("first bullet" in Turkish).
1919, Jun 03 Greek troops occupy Nazilli, that they evacuate on June 19 following a number of raids on Greek positions by Turkish irregulars and subsequent Greek reprisals.
1919, Jun 05 A small Greek expeditionary force acting beyond orders occupies the inland city of Akhisar, clearly outside the mandated region, leading to public protests and a telegramme from the regional Turkish army command stationed in Balıkesir to the Allied representatives. The commander Yusuf İzzet Pasha also puts his troops in movement against the overspreading Greeks.
Date Occurrence
1919, Jun 09 Called back by the High Commissioner Stergiadis, Greek troops evacuate Akhisar, and the commanding officer will be imprisoned for twenty days for undisciplinary action.
1919, Jun 12 Greek troops occupy Bergama.
1919, Jun 14 Ambushed in Bergama by Yusuf İzzet Pasha's troops and the locally organized Turkish Revolutionaries, Greek forces retreat in disorder to Menemen.
1919, Jun 17 Menemen massacre following the killing of the prefect Kemal Bey and the six Turkish gendarmes accompanying him the day before. Different sources cite 200 to 1000 Turkish deaths in this single day, with the exact figure re-confirmed as being closer to the latter estimate, with no wounded among either the Greek troops or the Greek minority of Menemen.
1919, Jun 19 Greek troops evacuate Nazilli in the south, while they take back Bergama in the north.
1919, Jun 21 Amasya Circular issued after a meeting in Amasya by the commanders Mustafa Kemal, Rauf Orbay, Ali Fuat Cebesoy and Refet Bele calling for a national movement to against the occupying powers.
1919, Jun 27 The fight around Aydın. The Greek troops carrying out reconnaissance patrols around Aydın and burning villages, are repulsed by irregular forces under Yörük Ali, in an ambush at Malgaç train station and the efe pursue the Greek troops till the outskirts of the city.
1919, Jun 28 In Balıkesir, the first of five congresses to be held in that city unites in a large forum the representatives of the Turkish revolutionaries of western Turkey to define the actions to be taken against the occupation. A larger meeting is decided to be organized in Alaşehir.
1919, Jun 29 Battle of Aydın. Fires break out in one of the Turkish quarters of the city (Cuma quarter) and a massacre of civilians ensues, machine-gunned for no reason by the Greek troops. The Greek troops evacuate the city which will be controlled for four days by the efe under the leadership of Yörük Ali. The Greek quarter is burned in its turn and some among the Aydın Greek minority were killed or robbed during these four days while others survived thanks to the protection of Colonel Şefik Bey. Efe retreat back to the mountains after reportedly several thousands of casualties for each side.
1919, Jul 4 Reinforced Greek forces take back control of Aydın, burning another Turkish quarter in reprisal.
1919, Jul 15 Grand vizier ad interim and Sheikh ul-Islam Ürgüplü Mustafa Sabri Efendi sends a telegram to Paris Peace Conference formally accusing the Greeks to have committed atrocities in İzmir and its surroundings and requesting the Conference to send a commission of inquiry to the region, since "The Council was not without responsibility, seeing that it had sent the Greeks to İzmir."
1919, Jul 21 Erzurum Congress uniting representatives from Turkey's Eastern Anatolia provinces in Erzurum under the chairmanship of Mustafa Kemal and Kazım Karabekir. The Congress lasts till August 7, 1919.
1919, Aug 16 A large-scale eight-day congress of Turkish revolutionaries of western Turkey is held in Alaşehir which defines further actions to be taken against the occupation and elects the representatives to be sent to Sivas for the national congress in preparation.
1919, Sep 04 Sivas Congress unites representatives from all over Turkey in Sivas. The congress lasts 8 days and calls for national unity. Concurrent to the congress, Ali Galip Incident in Malatya poses a momentary threat for the national cause and the danger will be avoided thanks to prompt arrival of forces from Diyarbakır.
1919, Sep 30 Damat Ferid Pasha is removed from office by the sultan Mehmed VI Vahideddin, putting an end to his first period of vizierate.
1919, Sep 06 A new Ottoman government is formed under the new grand vizier Ali Rıza Pasha.
1919, Oct 22 Amasya Protocole between the Delegation of Representatives (Heyet-i Temsiliye) assigned by Sivas Congress and headed by Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Minister of Marine (later grand vizier himself) Hulusi Salih Pasha, representing the short-lived Ottoman government of Ali Rıza Pasha, in an effort to seek ways for preserving independence through joint efforts.
1919, Oct 29 French troops occupy Maraş and replace the British troops stationed in the city, despite manifest opposition to the replacement by the city's inhabitants.
1919, Oct 30 French troops occupy Urfa and replace the British troops stationed in the city triggering almost immediate resistance and starting the Battle of Urfa.
1919, Oct 31 Sütçü İmam Incident in Maraş. Two days after the French forces take the city's control, the incident, termed after the defender of three Turkish women who were being harassed and molested in the street by French Armenian Legion auxiliaries, and who shoots one of the molesters in the skirmish. The incident triggers a series of events that will lead the Turkish majority of Maraş to rise against the occupation forces with wholescale urban warfare to be launched in two months' time with the Battle of Maraş.
1919, Nov 05 French troops occupy Antep and replace the British troops stationed in the city.
1919, Nov 07 Crossing Nestos River, Greek troops start taking over the city and the region of Xanthi (İskeçe) from Bulgaria, in the framework of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine.
1919, Nov 21 French troops tentatively occupy Mardin for one day and retreat from the city towards the evening of the same day, faced with prospects of a potentially bitter resistance by the population to a full occupation attempt.
1919, Dec 27 Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrives to Ankara.

1920[edit]

Date Occurrence
1920, Jan 12 The newly elected members of the Ottoman Parliament, composed in their sweeping majority of candidates of "Association for Defense of National Rights for Anatolia and Roumelia (Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti)", headed by Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who himself remained in Ankara, open the fourth (and last) term of the Parliament.
1920, Jan 20 Mehmet Kamil Incident shakes the city of Antep and the Battle of Antep starts with ambushes on French forces along the roads Antep-Maraş and Antep-Kilis hindering French troop movements. The battle will last a year and take place simultaneously between opposite forces holding different quarters in the city or those stationed along the roads, where additional French troops will try to force their way into the city.
1920, Jan 21 Start of wholescale urban warfare in Maraş (Battle of Maraş) with the Turkish Revolutionaries facing French troops, French Colonial Forces units and the French Armenian Legion auxiliaries. The battle will earn Maraş the title of "Kahraman" - heroic (Kahramanmaraş meaning "Maraş the Heroic")
1920, Jan 28 The Ottoman Parliament, gathered in a secret session, ratifies the decisions adopted in Erzurum Congress and Sivas Congress and the publishes the Misak-ı Milli (National Oath) document constituting the basis of principle of Turkey's frontiers.
1920, Feb 12 French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Maraş faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1920, Mar 03 Grand vizier Ali Rıza Pasha demissions.
1920, Mar 08 The new Ottoman government is formed under grand vizier Hulusi Salih Pasha.
1920, Mar 16 Officialization of the Occupation of Constantinople. The premises of the Ottoman Parliament is raided by the Allied forces, as well as other key locations across Istanbul in a large-scale military operation. A number of deputies and other key personalities are arrested the same day or in the following days, and sent to exile in Malta (Malta exiles).
1920, Mar 18 Last session of the last Ottoman Parliament, with the arrested deputies missing, a black cloth covering the pulpit in a gesture to remind of their forced absence. Many of the remaining members soon leave for Ankara to constitute the core of the new assembly.
1920, Mar 19 Declaration by Mustafa Kemal Pasha in view of convening a national assembly with extraordinary powers in Ankara, stressing the need to undertake elections at the latest within fifteen days to constitute the members of the new assembly, with members of the dispersed Ottoman Parliament free to join.
1920, Apr 02 Grand vizier Hulusi Salih Pasha demissions.
1920, Apr 05 The sultan Mehmed VI Vahideddin, under pressure from the Allies, closes the Ottoman Parliament officially, and Damat Ferid Pasha, deeply hostile to the Turkish revolutionaries, is appointed once again grand vizier.
1920, Apr 10 Sheikh ul-Islam Dürrizade Abdullah edicts a fatwa which qualifies the Turkish Revolutionaries as infidels, calling for the death of its leaders.
1920, Apr 10 A counter fatwa prepared by the mufti of Ankara, Rifat Börekçi, and signed by hundreds of clergy members across Anatolia declares the sheik ul-Islam's edict as null and void.
1921, Apr 11 French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Urfa faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1920, Apr 13 An uprising against Turkish Revolutionaries is sparked in Düzce on April 13, as a direct consequence of the sheik ul-Islam's fatwa.
1920, Apr 18 The revolt in Düzce, in opposition to the constitution of a new government in Ankara, extends to Bolu, and on April 20, to Gerede. The movement englobed an important part of northwestern Anatolia for about a month and is generally termed the Caliphate Army (Hilafet Ordusu or Kuva-i İnzibatiye) revolt (for Ankara) or movement (for the Ottoman government). The Ottoman government had accorded semi-official status to the Caliphate Army for a brief period and Ahmet Anzavur held an important role in the uprising.
1920, Apr 23 The Turkish Grand National Assembly, established on the basis of national sovereignty, holds the opening session of its first term and elects Mustafa Kemal Pasha as president of the assembly. Some 100 members of the dissolved Ottoman Parliament, including its president Celaleddin Arif, had been able to escape the Allied roundup and joined the 190 deputies elected around the country.
1920, Apr 26 Starting April 19, San Remo conference determines the allocation of mandates for administration to be imposed on the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East by the victorious powers.
1920, Apr 26 Mustafa Kemal Pasha writes a letter to Lenin, seeking Soviet aid. The letter will be answered officially and favorably by Chicherin on June 3.
1920, Apr 26 A Turkish delegation which had already departed for Moscow on May 11 approaches the destination.
1920, April 30 The Caliphate Army revolt/movement, after having taken control of Safranbolu on April 25, reaches the limit of its extension by the adhesion of the town of Çerkeş to the movement, directly to the north of Ankara. For a time, the new-born Ankara government's fortunes seem in their thinnest.
1920, May 11 Mustafa Kemal Pasha and five other prominent names of the national movement are condemned in absentia to death sentence by a military tribunal in Istanbul. The other five condemned are Ali Fuat Pasha, Kara Vasıf -head of intelligence-, Ahmed Rüstem Bilinsky -former Ottoman ambassador in the U.S.; name due to Polish father-, Dr. Adnan Adıvar and his wife Halide Edip.
1920, May 27 Greek troops start taking over the city and the region of Komotini (Gümülcine) from Bulgaria, in the framework of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine.
1920, May 27 A victory of consequence by the Turkish Revolutionaries in Karboğazı Pass between Tarsus and Pozantı, where 530 soldiers of the occupation troops are made prisoner.
1920, Jun 02 French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Kozan faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1921, Jun 04 French occupation troops are forced to evacuate the entire region of Urfa, east of Euphrates.
1920, Jun 08 The French retire their troops from Karadeniz Ereğli where they were embarked since a year depart, but pursue their occupation on Zonguldak, where they concentrate by occupying the city as a whole and officially on June 18.
1920, Jun 22 Greek troops occupy Akhisar.
1920, Jun 23 Greek army launches a wide offensive across western Anatolia, from the southern shores of the Sea of Marmara to the Menderes River valley, plausibly timed in order to apply pressure on the Ottoman government for the signature of the treaty drafted by the Allies.
1920, Jun 24 Greek troops occupy Salihli and the lignite mining region of Soma-Kırkağaç.
1920, Jun 25 Abolition of the Caliphate Army by the Ottoman government after the successive defeats this movement suffered faced to regular troops loyal to Ankara government.
1920, Jun 25 Greek troops occupy Alaşehir.
1920, Jun 28 Greek troops occupy Kula.
1920, Jun 30 Greek troops occupy Balıkesir.
1920, Jul 01 Greek troops occupy Edremit, last Aegean port held by the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1920, Jul 02 Greek troops occupy the Sea of Marmara ports of Bandırma and Biga.
1920, Jul 05 Immediately after his arrival in Ankara, Colonel Behiç Erkin, who had already distinguished himself as a railroads manager during World War I, takes over with full powers the management of Anatolian Railways ("Anadolu Şimendiferleri"), section under Ankara's control of the Ottoman railways consisting of a single line along Ankara-Polatlı-Eskişehir-Bilecik-Kütahya-Çay-Akşehir. (see History of rail transport in Turkey)
1920, Jul 08 Greek troops occupy Bursa, a former Ottoman capital of central importance for the region along the southern shores of the Sea of Marmara.
1920, Jul 10 Kaç Kaç event in Çukurova.
1920, Jul 11 Greek troops occupy İznik.
1920, Jul 11 In the south, French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Birecik faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1920, Jul 20 Greek troops skip to the northern shores of the Sea of Marmara and occupy Tekirdağ, Marmara Ereğli and Çorlu in Eastern Thrace.
1920, Aug 04 Greek troops occupy Gelibolu, on the Dardanelles.
1920, Aug 10 In Sèvres, the grand vizier Damat Ferid Pasha and three other Ottoman personalities (see photo) sign the stillborn Treaty of Sèvres. In the absence of the Ottoman Parliament forced to close down in April, the sultan Mehmed VI Vahideddin will not ratify the text.
The four signatories of the Treaty of Sèvres. (From left to right, Rıza Tevfik, the grand vizier Damat Ferid Pasha, ambassador Hadi Pasha, the Minister of Education Reşad Halis.)
Date Occurrence
1920, Aug 19 Turkish Grand National Assembly proclaims not recognizing the treaty signed in Sèvres and declares having stripped the signatories of their citizenship. Indeed, all four will be included among the 150 personae non gratae of Turkey after the war.
1920, Aug 28 Greek troops occupy Uşak and Afyonkarahisar, the key cities of the western Anatolian inland.
1920, Oct 22 In the south, French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Saimbeyli faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1920, Oct 25 In Athens, Alexander of Greece dies, after having been bitten by a pet monkey.
1920, Nov 18 In Athens, Prime Minister Venizelos, architect of Greece's advance into Anatolia, loses the elections, to be replaced by a series of cabinets of lesser stature, and also paving the way for more royal involvement into politics.
1920, Dec 02 Signature of the Treaty of Alexandropol (Gyumri), between Turkey, as represented by the Turkish Grand National Assembly, and Armenia.

1921[edit]

Date Occurrence
1921, Jan 09 First Battle of İnönü between Turkish and Greek forces. The battle lasts three days and ends with a victory for the Turkish troops under İsmet Pasha's command (later İsmet İnönü in reference to the two battles).
1921, Jan 25 Allies gather in Paris and decide to convene Greek and Turkish (both Ottoman and Ankara governments) representatives to a conference in London to discuss possible modifications of clauses of the Treaty of Sèvres.
1921, Feb 08 Antep surrenders to French forces after 384 days of fighting. The same day, the Turkish Grand National Assembly will rename the city Gaziantep.
1921, Feb 21 The conference on a revisal of the Treaty of Sèvres opens in London. It will last until March 12. The Ottoman grand vizier Ahmed Tevfik Pasha leaves the right to speak to the representatives from Ankara. The proposals of the conference will not be accepted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
1921, Mar 02 Agreement between France and the nationalists after the Alemdar (ship) event. Although a minor agreement first between the nationalists and an important Allied power.
1921, Mar 07 French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Kadirli faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1921, Mar 16 Signature of the Treaty of Moscow, a friendship agreement between Soviet Union and Turkey, as represented by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
1921, Mar 07 In the south, French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Feke faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1921, Mar 26 Second Battle of İnönü between Turkish and Greek forces. The battle lasts five days and ends with a victory for the Turkish troops under İsmet Pasha's command (later İsmet İnönü in reference to the two battles).
1921, Mar 07 In the south, French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Düziçi and Bahçe faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish revolutionaries.
1921, Mar 09 Signature of the Cilicia Peace Treaty in London between the Turkish (Ankara government) foreign minister Bekir Sami Kunduh and the French Prime Minister Aristide Briand. The French agree to evacuate Cilicia and announce their decision in the region, starting a mass movement of the Armenian minority, this time outwards. The treaty will be replaced by the Accord of Ankara, adopting the same principles but differing on technicalities.
1921, Apr 01 French occupation troops are forced to evacuate Karaisalı faced to the resistance and assaults of the Turkish Revolutionaries.
1921, Jun 09 Former minister of France, Henry Franklin-Bouillon, arrives in Ankara, in quality of unofficial but direct representative of the French Prime Minister Aristide Briand, to discuss on possible issues from the stalemate of the Cilicia War.
1921, Jun 21 In İnebolu, battleship Kilkis and destroyer Panthir of the Hellenic Navy bomb the port and the warehouses. Shelling will be repeated, less intensely, on August 30. Mustafa Kemal Pasha's words, "My eyes are on the Sakarya and my ears in İnebolu!", summarize İnebolu's importance for the Turkish war effort, as center for the forwarding of arms and supplies into inner Anatolia. İnebolu will become one of the two cities in Turkey to receive the Turkish Medal of Independence after the war (the other city is Kahramanmaraş).
1921, Jun 21 the French troops depart from Zonguldak for good, and the foreign occupation or control of the coal mining region of the western Black Sea coasts of Turkey comes to an end, to the relief of Ankara.
1921, Aug 04 Mustafa Kemal Pasha is made Commander-in-Chief by vote of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
1921, Aug 23 Battle of Sakarya between Turkish and Greek forces. The battle lasts till September 13 and ends with a Turkish victory.
1921, Oct 13 Signature of the Treaty of Kars, between the three republics of the Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia) and Turkey, as represented by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
1921, Oct 20 Signature of Accord of Ankara between France and Turkey, as represented by the Turkish Grand National Assembly, putting an end to the Cilicia War and preparing the ground for the evacuation of French troops from the southern front.
1921, Nov 15 French troops evacuate Islahiye.
1921, Dec 07 The British troops evacuate Kilis that had been under British administration since three years.
1921, Dec 25 French troops evacuate Gaziantep.
1921, Dec 27 French troops evacuate Tarsus.

1922[edit]

Date Occurrence
1922, Jan 03 French troops evacuate Mersin.
1922, Jan 05 French troops evacuate Adana, Ceyhan and Tarsus.
1922, Jan 07 French troops evacuate Osmaniye.
1922, Jan 03 French troops evacuate Dörtyol which will be the frontier with the Republic of Hatay for 17 years, until its addition to Turkey in 1939 to form the present-day Hatay Province.
1922, Aug 26 Battle of Dumlupınar between Turkish and Greek forces. The next day, Turkish troops re-capture Afyonkarahisar while in the north, İznik is captured for the second time and definitely. The battle lasts till August 30 ends with a Turkish victory. A rapid retreat and evacuation by the Greek army across the Western Anatolian inland begins, while the Turkish armies spring forward in a blitz.
Date Occurrence
1922, Aug 30 Turkish troops re-capture Kütahya.
1922, Sep 01 Turkish troops re-capture Uşak.
1922, Sep 02 Turkish troops re-capture Eskişehir.
1922, Sep 03 Turkish troops re-capture Eşme and Ödemiş accessing Aegean Sea basin.
1922, Sep 04 Turkish troops re-capture Bilecik, the Ottoman cradles of Söğüt and Bozüyük, the towns along the Gediz River valley such as Simav, Kula and Tire.
1922, Sep 05 Turkish troops re-capture towns along the Menderes River valley such as Nazilli, Sultanhisar and Kuyucak, as well as Alaşehir.
1922, Sep 06 Turkish troops re-capture Balıkesir, İnegöl, Akhisar and Söke corresponding to four separate sallies.
1922, Sep 07 Turkish troops re-capture Aydın, its surrounding towns, Kuşadası on the shore, and Kasaba (Turgutlu) and Torbalı towards İzmir. In Athens, Petros Protopapadakis government demissions.
1922, Sep 08 Turkish troops re-capture Manisa, Nif (Kemalpaşa), within view of İzmir, and the Gulf of Edremit towns of Edremit, Burhaniye and Havran.
1922, Sep 09 Turkish troops re-capture İzmir after nearly three and a half years.
1922, Sep 11 Turkish troops re-capture Bursa and Gemlik in the north, as well as Foça and Seferihisar around İzmir.
1922, Sep 13 Great Fire of Smyrna that lasts till the September 17.
1922, Sep 22 Turkish troops re-assume control of the city of Çanakkale and its depending towns after almost four years, and following several days of tension of international scale, known as Chanak Crisis.
1922, Oct 11 Signing of the Armistice of Mudanya putting an end to the war in the field.
1922, Nov 01 Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate.
1922, Nov 17 Departure of the last Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI Vahideddin from Istanbul.

1923[edit]

Date Occurrence
1923, Jan 30 In the Lausanne Conference assembled since November 20, 1922, signature between Greek and Turkish delegations of the agreement for a Population exchange between Greece and Turkey. The Conference will then be adjourned until April 23, 1923 due to disagreements on other points.
1923, Feb 17 Opening of İzmir Economic Congress, which will last till March 4, as a forum to determine the principles of economic policy to be conducted by the new state.
1923, Jul 24 Signing of the Lausanne Treaty.
1923, Aug 23 Allied forces start evacuating Istanbul in the frame of the Lausanne Treaty.
1923, Sep 09 Founding of the Republican People's Party (CHP).
1923, Sep 23 Last Allied troops depart from Istanbul.
1923, Oct 06 First Turkish troops enter Istanbul.
1923, Oct 29 Proclamation of the Republic of Turkey.

2000s[edit]

Date Occurrence
Jan 13, 2006 Turkish veteran of the war, Pvt. Ömer Küyük, dies at age 106.
Mar 25, 2007 Turkish veteran of the war, Pvt. Veysel Turan, dies at age 108.
Apr 2, 2008 Turkish veteran of the war and last Turkish veteran of World War I, Sgt. Yakup Satar, dies at age 110.
Nov 11, 2008 Last Turkish veteran of the war, Lt. Mustafa Şekip Birgöl, dies at age 105.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as President, in front of the National Assembly the on 7th anniversary (1930) of the foundation of the Turkish Republic (with, to his right, the PM İsmet İnönü, and behind him, Field Marshal Fevzi Çakmak)

Sources and references[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "The Encyclopedia of World History". Bartleby. 1918. Retrieved May 1, 2007. 

See also[edit]