Chrysophyllum

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Chrysophyllum
Starr 070111-3283 Chrysophyllum oliviforme.jpg
Chrysophyllum oliviforme
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Sapotaceae
Subfamily: Chrysophylloideae
Genus: Chrysophyllum
L.[1]
Synonyms[1]

Achrouteria Eyma
Austrogambeya Aubrév. & Pellegr.
Cainito Adans.
Chloroluma Baill.
Cornuella Pierre
Cynodendron Baehni
Dactimala Raf.
Donella Pierre ex Baill.
Fibocentrum Pierre ex Glaz., nom. inval.
Gambeya Pierre
Gambeyobotrys Aubrév.
Guersentia Raf.
Martiusella Pierre
Nycterisition Ruiz & Pav.
Nycteristion Ruiz & Pav.
Prieurella Pierre
Ragala Pierre
Villocuspis (A.DC.) Aubrév. & Pellegr.

Chrysophyllum is a group of trees in the Sapotaceae described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.[2][3]

The genus is native to tropical regions throughout the world, with the greatest number of species in northern South America. One species, C. oliviforme, extends north to southern Florida.[4]

Chrysophyllum members are usually tropical trees, often growing rapidly to 10–20 m or more in height. The leaves are oval, 3–15 cm long, green above, densely golden pubescent below, from which the genus is named.[5] The flowers are small (3–8 mm), purplish white and have a sweet fragrant smell; they are clustered several together, and are hermaphroditic (self fertile). The fruit is edible; round, usually purple skinned (sometimes greenish-white), often green around the calyx, with a star pattern in the pulp; the flattened seeds are light brown and hard. The fruit skin is chewy like gum, and contrary to some reports, is edible.[citation needed][6][7]

Species[4]
  1. Chrysophyllum acreanum - Brazil (Acre, Amazonas)
  2. Chrysophyllum africanum - W + C Africa
  3. Chrysophyllum akusae - Ivory Coast
  4. Chrysophyllum albidum - W + C Africa
  5. Chrysophyllum albipilum - Peru (San Martín)
  6. Chrysophyllum amazonicum - Amazon Basin
  7. Chrysophyllum ambrense - Madagascar
  8. Chrysophyllum analalavense - Madagascar
  9. Chrysophyllum arenarium - E Brazil
  10. Chrysophyllum argenteum - West Indies, Central America, N South America
  11. Chrysophyllum asraoi - Maharashtra
  12. Chrysophyllum aulacocarpum - Miranda
  13. Chrysophyllum azaguieanum - Ivory Coast, Ghana, Liberia
  14. Chrysophyllum bangweolense - Zaire, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia
  15. Chrysophyllum beguei - W + C Africa
  16. Chrysophyllum boivinianum - Madagascar
  17. Chrysophyllum bombycinum - Loreto, Amazonas
  18. Chrysophyllum boukokoense - C Africa
  19. Chrysophyllum brenesii - Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama
  20. Chrysophyllum cainito - Belize, Jamaica, Cayman Is
  21. Chrysophyllum calophyllum - Príncipe
  22. Chrysophyllum capuronii - Madagascar
  23. Chrysophyllum colombianum - Central America, NW South America
  24. Chrysophyllum contumacense - Peru
  25. Chrysophyllum cuneifolium - N South America
  26. Chrysophyllum delphinense - Toliara
  27. Chrysophyllum durifructum - Amazonas
  28. Chrysophyllum euryphyllum - Colombia
  29. Chrysophyllum eximium - Suriname, N. Brazil
  30. Chrysophyllum fenerivense - Madagascar
  31. Chrysophyllum flexuosum - Brazil
  32. Chrysophyllum giganteum - W + C Africa
  33. Chrysophyllum gonocarpum - Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay, N Argentina
  34. Chrysophyllum gorungosanum - trop Africa
  35. Chrysophyllum guerelianum - Madagascar
  36. Chrysophyllum hirsutum - Panama, Costa Rica
  37. Chrysophyllum imperiale - E Brazil
  38. Chrysophyllum inornatum - S Brazil
  39. Chrysophyllum januariense - Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro
  40. Chrysophyllum lacourtianum - C Africa
  41. Chrysophyllum lanatum - Colombia
  42. Chrysophyllum longifolium - Zaïre
  43. Chrysophyllum lucentifolium - Panama, Costa Rica, South America
  44. Chrysophyllum lungi - Zaïre, Congo Republic
  45. Chrysophyllum manabiense - Ecuador
  46. Chrysophyllum manaosense - N South America
  47. Chrysophyllum marginatum - South America
  48. Chrysophyllum masoalense - Madagascar
  49. Chrysophyllum mexicanum - Mexico, Central America
  50. Chrysophyllum muerense - Zaïre, Uganda, South Sudan
  51. Chrysophyllum novoguineense - New Guinea
  52. Chrysophyllum ogowense - Gabon
  53. Chrysophyllum oliviforme - Florida, West Indies
  54. Chrysophyllum ovale - Peru, Bolivia, Acre
  55. Chrysophyllum papuanicum - Papua New Guinea
  56. Chrysophyllum paranaense - São Paulo, Paraná
  57. Chrysophyllum parvulum - Colombia, Venezuela
  58. Chrysophyllum pauciflorum - Puerto Rico to Virgin Islands
  59. Chrysophyllum perpulchrum - W + C Africa
  60. Chrysophyllum perrieri - Madagascar
  61. Chrysophyllum pomiferum - trop South America
  62. Chrysophyllum prieurii - Panama, trop South America
  63. Chrysophyllum pruniforme - Nigeria, Bioko
  64. Chrysophyllum reitzianum Santa Catarina
  65. Chrysophyllum revolutum - Peru
  66. Chrysophyllum roxburghii - SE Asia, New Guinea, Australia, S China, India, Madagascar
  67. Chrysophyllum rufum - E Brazil
  68. Chrysophyllum sanguinolentum - trop South America
  69. Chrysophyllum sapini - Zaïre
  70. Chrysophyllum scalare - Peru, Venezuela
  71. Chrysophyllum sparsiflorum - Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil, Bolivia
  72. Chrysophyllum splendens - E Brazil
  73. Chrysophyllum striatum - Panama
  74. Chrysophyllum subnudum - trop Africa
  75. Chrysophyllum subspinosum - Bahia
  76. Chrysophyllum superbum - Amazonas
  77. Chrysophyllum taiense - Ivory Coast
  78. Chrysophyllum tessmannii - Equatorial Guinea
  79. Chrysophyllum ubangiense - W + C Africa
  80. Chrysophyllum ucuquirana-branca - S Venezuela, N Brazil
  81. Chrysophyllum venezuelanense - trop South America, Central America, Mexico
  82. Chrysophyllum viride - Brazil
  83. Chrysophyllum viridifolium - E + SE Africa
  84. Chrysophyllum welwitschii - trop Africa
  85. Chrysophyllum wilsonii - Amazonas
  86. Chrysophyllum zimmermannii - Tanzania
Formerly included[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Chrysophyllum L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 192 in Latin
  3. ^ Tropicos, Chrysophyllum L.
  4. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ The generic name is derived from the Greek words χρυσός (chrysos), meaning "gold," and φυλλον (phyllos), meaning "leaf." See Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. I A-C. CRC Press. p. 534. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2. 
  6. ^ Flora of North America Vol. 8 Page 245 Cainito Chrysophyllum Linnaeus
  7. ^ Flora of China, Vol. 15 Page 208 金叶树属 jin ye shu shu Chrysophyllum Linnaeus