|24th United States Secretary of Defense|
February 27, 2013 – February 17, 2015
|Preceded by||Leon Panetta|
|Succeeded by||Ashton Carter|
|United States Senator
January 3, 1997 – January 3, 2009
|Preceded by||James Exon|
|Succeeded by||Mike Johanns|
|Born||Charles Timothy Hagel
October 4, 1946
North Platte, Nebraska, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Patricia Lloyd (1979–1982)
Lilibet Ziller (1985–present)
|Alma mater||Brown College
University of Nebraska, Omaha
|Awards||Purple Heart (2)
Army Commendation Medal
Vietnamese Gallantry Cross
Combat Infantryman Badge
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1967–1968|
|Unit||2nd Battalion, 47th Infantry Regiment
9th Infantry Division
|Battles/wars||Vietnam War (WIA)|
Charles Timothy "Chuck" Hagel (/ / CHUK HAY-gəl; born October 4, 1946) is an American politician who was the 24th United States Secretary of Defense for two years in the Obama administration. He previously served as United States Senator from Nebraska from 1997 to 2009.
A recipient of two Purple Hearts while an infantry squad leader in the Vietnam War, Hagel returned home to start careers in business and politics. He co-founded Vanguard Cellular, the primary source of his personal wealth, and served as president of the McCarthy Group, an investment banking firm, and CEO of American Information Systems Inc., a computerized voting machine manufacturer. A member of the Republican Party, Hagel was first elected to the United States Senate in 1996. He was reelected in 2002, but did not run in 2008.
On January 7, 2013, President Barack Obama nominated Hagel to serve as Secretary of Defense. On February 12, 2013, the Senate Armed Services Committee approved Hagel's nomination by a vote of 14-11. On February 14, 2013, Senate Republicans denied Democrats the 60 votes needed to end the debate on Hagel's nomination and proceed to a final vote, citing the need for further review. It was the first time in American history that a nominee for Secretary of Defense was filibustered, although candidates for other cabinet offices have been filibustered before. On February 26, 2013, the Senate voted for cloture on Hagel's nomination and confirmed his nomination by a vote of 58-41. He took office on February 27, 2013, as his predecessor Leon Panetta stepped down.
Hagel previously served as a professor at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, chairman of the Atlantic Council, and co-chairman of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board. Before his appointment as Secretary of Defense, Hagel served on a number of boards of directors, including that of Chevron Corporation.
- 1 Early life, education, military, and early political career
- 2 Business career (1982–1996)
- 3 U.S. Senate (1997–2009)
- 4 Hiatus from public service (2009–2013)
- 5 Secretary of Defense (2013-2015)
- 6 Awards and honors
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Electoral history
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Early life, education, military, and early political career
Hagel was born in North Platte, Nebraska, a son of Charles Dean Hagel, and his wife, Betty (née Dunn). His father was of German heritage, while his mother was of Polish and Irish descent. Growing up, Hagel lived across Nebraska; in Ainsworth, Rushville, Scottsbluff, Terrytown, York and Columbus, Nebraska. Hagel was the oldest of four brothers and two sisters. His father, a veteran of World War II, died suddenly on Christmas morning, 1962, at the age of 39, when Hagel was 16. He graduated from St. Bonaventure High School (now Scotus Central Catholic High School) in Columbus, Nebraska, in 1964, the Brown Institute for Radio and Television in 1966, and he earned a BA degree in history at the University of Nebraska at Omaha in 1971.
Hagel volunteered to be drafted into the United States Army during the Vietnam War, rejecting a draft board recommendation that he go to college instead. He served in the United States Army infantry in Vietnam from 1967 to 1968. As a Sergeant (E-5), he served as an infantry squad leader in the 9th Infantry Division. Hagel served in the same infantry squad as his younger brother Tom, and they are thought to be the only American brothers to have done so during the Vietnam War. They also saved each other's lives on separate occasions. Hagel received the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry, two Purple Hearts, the Army Commendation Medal, and the Combat Infantryman Badge.
In 1971, Hagel was hired as a staffer for Congressman John Y. McCollister (R-NE), serving until 1977. For the next four years, he worked as a lobbyist for Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, and in 1980, he served as an organizer for the successful presidential campaign of former California Governor Ronald Reagan.
After Reagan's inauguration as President, Hagel was named deputy administrator of the Veterans Administration. In 1982, however, he resigned his post over a disagreement with VA Administrator Robert P. Nimmo, who was intent on cutting funding for VA programs. Nimmo had referred to veterans groups as "greedy", and to Agent Orange as not much worse than a "little teenage acne."
Business career (1982–1996)
After leaving government employment, Hagel co-founded Vanguard Cellular, a mobile phone service carrier that made him a multi-millionaire. While working with Vanguard, he served as president and chief executive officer of the United Service Organizations and the Private Sector Council, as deputy director and chief operating officer of the 1990 G7 Summit, and on the board of directors or advisory committee of the American Red Cross, the Eisenhower World Affairs Institute, Bread for the World, and the Ripon Society. He also served as Chairman of the Agent Orange Settlement Fund and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
Although he was pressured by some to run for Governor of Virginia, where he had lived for 20 years, in 1992 Hagel moved back to Nebraska to become president of the McCarthy Group, LLC, an investment banking firm. He also served as a Chairman and was CEO of American Information Systems Inc. (AIS), later known as Election Systems & Software, a computerized voting machine manufacturer jointly owned by McCarthy Group, LLC and the Omaha World-Herald company. On March 15, 1995, Hagel resigned from the board of AIS as he intended to run for office. Michael McCarthy, the parent company’s founder, was Hagel’s campaign treasurer. Until at least 2003, he retained between $1 million and $5 million in stock in Election Systems & Software's parent company, the McCarthy Group.
U.S. Senate (1997–2009)
In 1996, Hagel ran for the open US Senate seat created by the retirement of Democrat J. James Exon. Hagel's opponent was Ben Nelson, then the sitting Governor of Nebraska. Hagel won and became the first Republican in twenty-four years to win a Senate seat in Nebraska. Six years later in 2002, Hagel overwhelmingly won re-election with over 83% of the vote, the largest margin of victory in any statewide race in Nebraska history (see below or link to: United States Senate election in Nebraska, 2002).
Senate voting record
According to David Boaz, of the Cato Institute, during the Bush administration, Hagel maintained a "traditionally Republican" voting record, receiving "a lifetime rating of 84 percent from the American Conservative Union and consistent A and B grades from the National Taxpayers Union." On the Issues describes Hagel as a "libertarian-leaning conservative." According to Boaz, among his most notable votes, Hagel:
After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Hagel voted in favor of Senate Joint Resolution 23, authorizing “necessary and appropriate U.S. Military force” in Afghanistan against those who planned or aided the September 11 attacks. During his tenure in the Senate, Hagel continued his support for NATO involvement, and funding in the War in Afghanistan. In a 2009 The Washington Post op-ed after being nominated as Chairman of President Obama’s Intelligence advisory board, Hagel said that “We cannot view U.S. involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan through a lens that sees only ‘winning’ or ‘losing,’ Iraq and Afghanistan are not America's to win or lose.” And that “We can help them buy time or develop, but we cannot control their fates.” In 2011, after he left office, Hagel stated that President Obama needs to start “looking for the exit in Afghanistan”, and that “We need to start winding this down.”
On October 11, 2002, Hagel, along with 76 other Senators, voted in favor of the Iraq Resolution. Hagel, a later critic of the war, commented on his vote authorizing the use of force against Iraq saying,
"How many of us really know and understand much about Iraq, the country, the history, the people, the role in the Arab world? I approach the issue of post-Saddam Iraq and the future of democracy and stability in the Middle East with more caution, realism, and a bit more humility."
In July 2007, Hagel was one of three Republican Senators who supported Democratic-proposed legislation requiring a troop withdrawal from Iraq to begin within 120 days. He told Robert D. Novak "This thing is really coming undone quickly, and [Prime Minister] Maliki's government is weaker by the day. The police are corrupt, top to bottom. The oil problem is a huge problem. They still can't get anything through the parliament—no hydrocarbon law, no de-Baathification law, no provincial elections." In 2008, along with then-Senator (and presumptive Democratic nominee for president) Barack Obama, and Senator Jack Reed (D-RI), Hagel visited Iraq in a congressional delegation trip, meeting with U.S. service members, General David Petraeus, and the Prime Minister of Iraq Nouri al-Maliki. While talking to reporters in Iraq, Hagel said, “Each one of us who has a responsibility of helping lead this country needs to reflect on what we think is in the interests of our country, not the interest of our party or our president.”
In his first term in the Senate, Hagel voted in favor of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Threat Reduction Act, establishing criminal penalties for possession of Chemical or Biological weapons, and he cosponsored the American Missile Protection Act, deploying an effective National Missile Defense system capable of defending the U.S. against limited ballistic missile attacks. Hagel voted to establish the United States Department of Homeland Security, and supported increasing Defense Department spending, voting in favor of the National Defense Authorization Act every year he served in the Senate. Hagel voted for spending increases in preventing HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria funding, and voting against caps on the U.S.’s Foreign aid budget.
In 2007, Hagel introduced Senate Amendment 2032, amending the Defense Authorization bill limiting the deployment of U.S. service members serving in Iraq 12 months. The amendment needed 60 votes in the Senate to pass, but was ultimately defeated in a 52-45 vote. In 2008, Hagel was a principal co-sponsor with two other veterans in the Senate of Senator Jim Webb's "21st Century GI Bill" which passed Congress as the Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008, expanding education assistance to veterans who served after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. During his tenure in the Senate, Hagel supported the military's "Don't ask, don't tell" policy, barring openly LGBT members of the armed forces from serving, but was later described as "pro-ending don’t ask, don’t tell."
In 2001, Hagel voted in favor of the Patriot Act. Although Hagel originally indicated a “nay” vote in reauthorizing expiring provisions of the Patriot Act in 2006, Hagel voted in favor of reauthorization. After calls from the Bush Administration for the House and Senate to reform FISA, the House introduced the Protect America Act of 2007, expanding provisions allowing electronic surveillance of foreigners outside of the U.S. with a warrant. In a 68-29 vote, the Protect America Act of 2007 passed the Senate, with Hagel voting to expand FISA’s provisions on warrantless surveillance.
Hagel voted in favor of Senate Amendment 2022, restoring habeas corpus, the right to due process, to American citizens detained at Guantanamo Bay detention camp, but voted against a similar resolution restoring it to all prisoners detained at Guantanamo. In response to the Bush Administration’s intentions to keep Guantanamo Bay open permanently, Hagel said the military prison is why the U.S. is “losing the image war around the world,” and that "It's identifiable with, for right or wrong, a part of America that people in the world believe is a power, an empire that pushes people around, we do it our way, we don't live up to our commitments to multilateral institutions."
Hagel co-sponsored the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006. He supported the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 and, with Senator Bob Menendez proposed an amendment to allow immigration authorities to consider family-unification petitions submitted by people for an additional two years, which would have allowed approximately estimated 833,000 additional individuals to seek permanent residency. The proposal received 51 votes but was defeated by a procedural maneuver. The bill failed to pass. Hagel voted in favor of the Secure Fence Act of 2006, which aimed to build a 700-mile (1,100 km) double fence along the Mexico–United States border and appropriated $1.2 billion for the fence and a systematic surveillance system.
- Committee on Foreign Relations
- Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
- Select Committee on Intelligence
- Committee on Rules and Administration
Criticism of Bush administration
On August 18, 2005, Hagel compared the Iraq War to Vietnam, and openly mocked Vice President Dick Cheney's assertion that the Iraqi insurgency was in its "last throes." In November 2005, Hagel defended his criticism of the Iraq war, stating "To question your government is not unpatriotic — to not question your government is unpatriotic." In December 2005, in reference to Bush, the Republican Party, and the Patriot Act, Hagel stated "I took an oath of office to the Constitution, I didn't take an oath of office to my party or my president."
In January 2006, Hagel took issue with Karl Rove's statement that the Democrat and Republican worldviews were "pre-9/11" and "post-9/11", respectively. Hagel stated, "I didn't like what Mr. Rove said, because it frames terrorism and the issue of terrorism and everything that goes with it, whether it's the renewal of the Patriot Act or the NSA wiretapping, in a political context."
In July 2006, Hagel criticized the Bush administration on its handling of the 2006 Lebanon War, saying "The sickening slaughter on both sides must end and it must end now. President Bush must call for an immediate cease-fire. This madness must stop." He also said "Our relationship with Israel is special and historic... But it need not and cannot be at the expense of our Arab and Muslim relationships. That is an irresponsible and dangerous false choice."
Following heavy Republican losses in the 2006 midterm election, Hagel penned an editorial in The Washington Post highly critical of military strategies both employed and proposed for Iraq. He wrote that "There will be no victory or defeat for the United States in Iraq," and called for a "phased troop withdrawal." According to a SurveyUSA poll, in August 2006 Hagel had a 10% higher approval rating among Nebraska Democrats than Republicans.
In January 2007, Hagel openly criticized President Bush's plan to send an additional 20,000 troops to Iraq. He called it "the most dangerous foreign policy blunder in this country since Vietnam, if it's carried out." Together with Democrats Joseph Biden and Carl Levin, he proposed a non-binding resolution to the Democratic-controlled Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which rejected Bush's policy as "not in the national interest" in a 12-9 vote. After an April 2007 visit to Iraq with U.S. Congressman Joe Sestak (D-PA), Hagel stated his belief that the occupation of Iraq should not continue indefinitely and expressed his intention to cooperate with Senate Democrats in voting for a bill that would set a timeline to get out of Iraq.
In November 2007, he rated the Bush administration "the lowest in capacity, in capability, in policy, in consensus—almost every area" of any presidency in the last forty years.
2008 Presidential election
In the 2008 Presidential election, Hagel was seen as a likely choice to hold a top cabinet position in a future John McCain or Barack Obama administration. In 2006, John McCain told the New York Times that he would be "honored to have Chuck with me in any capacity. He'd make a great Secretary of State."
Hagel was rumored to be a possible running mate for Vice President for then Senator Barack Obama, in his 2008 presidential campaign. On June 20, 2008, Hagel said he would consider running with Obama if offered the VP spot, though he added that he didn't believe that Obama would pick him for the position. At the time he also was mentioned as a potential United States Secretary of Defense to succeed incumbent Robert Gates in the Obama administration. Hagel said that he would consider serving if asked.
Hagel and Senator John McCain were close friends until 2007 when they diverged regarding Iraq policy; Hagel did not endorse McCain for President in the 2008 Republican primaries or in the general election. Explaining his reason for not endorsing John McCain in the 2008 election, Hagel told The New Yorker, "In good conscience, I could not enthusiastically—honestly—go out and endorse him, when we so fundamentally disagree on the future course of our foreign policy and our role in the world." In August 2008, Hagel indicated that he wouldn't endorse either candidate or get involved in their campaigns.
Retirement from U.S. Senate
During his first campaign, Hagel indicated that, were he to be elected, he would retire in 2008 after two terms in the Senate. In August 2004 Hagel acknowledged that he was considering a presidential campaign in 2008. In 2006 he cooperated with Charlyne Berens who wrote a biography entitled Chuck Hagel: Moving Forward. On September 10, 2007, Hagel announced that he would retire and not seek a third term. He also declined to run for president in 2008. He decided to go into academia.
Hiatus from public service (2009–2013)
America: Our Next Chapter
In Hagel's 2008 book, America: Our Next Chapter: Tough Questions, Straight Answers (with Peter Kaminsky), he suggests that the United States should adopt independent leadership and possibly another political party. He also believes that the Iraq War is one of the five biggest blunders in U.S. history. Hagel is critical of George W. Bush's foreign policy, calling it "reckless." He has been a major critic of the war since it started, and has stated that the United States should learn from its mistakes in the Vietnam War. He considered Bush's foreign policy a "ping pong game with American lives."
Service in academia and on boards of directors
Following Hagel's retirement from the Senate, in February 2009 he accepted a position as Distinguished Professor in National Governance at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He was chairman of the Atlantic Council, a foreign policy think tank; co-chairman of President Obama's Intelligence Advisory Board; a member of the Defense Department's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee and the Energy Departments Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future; a member of The Washington Center's board of directors; and a member of the Public Broadcasting Service's board of directors. In the private sector, he served on the board of directors of Chevron Corporation, Deutsche Bank's Americas Advisory Board, and the advisory board of Corsair Capital, and was a director of the Zurich Holding Company of America and a senior advisor to McCarthy Capital Corporation. In October 2012, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta asked Hagel to chair an advisory committee for the Vietnam War 50th anniversary commemoration. While a Senator, Hagel co-sponsored the bill creating the commemoration committee.
Hagel identifies with Ronald Reagan's nuclear disarmament policies and was an initial signatory to the Global Zero campaign which advocates the international elimination of nuclear weaponry. He also served on the board of the Ploughshares Fund, which pursues the elimination of weapons of mass destruction and seeks to prevent their use.
Endorsement of Senate candidates
In 2010, Hagel endorsed Democratic Pennsylvania Congressman Joe Sestak in his run for the United States Senate. In 2012 he endorsed Democrat Bob Kerrey in the race for an open U.S. Senate seat in Nebraska.
Secretary of Defense (2013-2015)
||The neutrality of this section is disputed. (February 2013)|
President Obama nominated Hagel to succeed Leon Panetta and serve as his second term Secretary of Defense on January 7, 2013. Hagel, who became, upon confirmation, the first former enlisted combat soldier to hold the office of Secretary of Defense, was interviewed by the Senate Armed Services Committee during a seven and a half hour hearing on January 31, 2013.
Criticism of the nomination
According to Jon Swaine writing in the Telegraph, Hagel has been accused of having "views [that] verged on anti-Semitic" due to his stating in a 2006 interview with Aaron David Miller that "[t]he Jewish lobby intimidates a lot of people [on Capitol Hill]", and "I’m not an Israeli senator. I’m a United States senator." Hagel later clarified these remarks saying he was referring to the Israel lobby. Hagel also has been criticized by the American Jewish Committee for an incident in 1999 where he was the only senator not to sign an open letter to Russian President Boris Yeltsin threatening to cut aid to Russia if it did not take action against rising anti-Semitism in the country. However, Hagel's refusal to sign the letter was consistent with his policy of never signing letters to foreign heads of state. Hagel, instead, wrote to Bill Clinton on this issue, saying "Anti-Semitism or any form of religious persecution should never be tolerated."
Hagel was criticized by the Christian Science Monitor and many Republicans, including senators like John McCain, for opposition to some sanctions against Iran, and for calling for direct negotiations with both Iran and with the Palestinian militant group Hamas, which both the U.S. and Israel refuse to engage directly.
Some of Hagel's policy positions became the subject of heated debate in the Senate, including support of defense cuts, opposition to preemptive action against Iran, and support of talks with Hamas and Hezbollah. However, U.S. News and World Report cited public opinion polls and foreign policy experts to suggest that Hagel's views were within the mainstream of American foreign policy thought. Opponents also complained of Hagel's 2011 call to have the Pentagon "pared down", saying that "[t]he Defense Department, I think in many ways, has been bloated."
The Human Rights Campaign criticized Hagel for having a “consistent anti-LGBT” voting record in the Senate and for opposing President Bill Clinton’s nomination of James Hormel as the U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg, stating that Hormel was "openly, aggressively gay." The group demanded that Hagel apologize for this 1998 remark. The Log Cabin Republicans ran full-page newspaper ads opposing Hagel's nomination. Hagel apologized to Hormel in December 2012. On January 24, 2013, Senator Jeanne Shaheen stated that Hagel will oppose restrictions on LGBT military family benefits. Shortly thereafter, on February 13, 2013, the Senate's first openly LGBT member, Tammy Baldwin (D-WI) stated that after meeting with Hagel, she would support his nomination.
Republican Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina predicted that Hagel would be "the most antagonistic Secretary of Defense toward the State of Israel in our nation's history" and called it an "in-your-face nomination."
The New York Times reported that the media campaign opposing Hagel’s appointment was financed by new groups including a conservative group, Americans for a Strong Defense and a gay rights group, Use Your Mandate. The donors of these groups were mostly anonymous and running advertisements on issues raised by critics. The Times described the campaign as "unmatched in the annals of modern presidential cabinet appointments".
Support for the nomination
In December 2012, nine former United States Ambassadors, including five former ambassadors to Israel, wrote a letter in support of nominating Hagel. Brent Scowcroft, Anthony Zinni and nine other retired senior military officers signed a separate letter of support. Robert Gates and Colin Powell also endorsed Hagel for the nomination, with Powell calling him "that kind of independent and bold leader who thinks in and out of the box" who can "deal with the strategic and resource challenges [the Department of Defense] will be facing over the next several years." Rabbi Aryeh Azriel, the senior rabbi at Temple Israel in Omaha, Nebraska since 1988, wrote in a CNN article that "[Hagel's] record shows strong support for Israel" and that Hagel understands "the Israeli people and their desire to live in peace and security." He added that "Recent efforts to smear Chuck...ultimately that hurts the long-term security of the state of Israel."
Defenses of Hagel have included opinion pieces by writers Amy Davidson, Thomas Friedman, and Robert Wright, with Wright objecting to what he called "McCarthyite" smears against Hagel. Jeremy Ben-Ami, President of the liberal lobby group J Street, said: “The notion that Chuck Hagel is anti-Israel is ludicrous. The notion that he is anti-Semitic is slanderous." Harvard University Professor Stephen Walt, co-author of a 2007 book critical of the Israeli lobby wrote in Foreign Policy that "The real meaning of the Hagel affair is what it says about the climate inside Washington. Simply put, the question is whether supine and reflexive support for all things Israeli remains a prerequisite for important policy positions here in the Land of the Free."
Commentators at The American Conservative and Pat Buchanan endorsed Hagel. Hagel's nomination received support from Antiwar.com founder Justin Raimondo and the libertarian think tank Cato Institute; Justin Logan, director of foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute, expressed the hope that Hagel's confirmation might "loosen the neoconservative stranglehold on the GOP."
Senate hearing and votes
During his Senate hearing opening statement Hagel said that he endorsed use of American military power, supported Israel and supported using special operations forces forces and unmanned combat aerial vehicles ("drones") on terrorist groups in Yemen, Somalia and North Africa. He stated "I believe, and always have, that America must engage — not retreat — in the world". During the hearing he explained his 2001 and 2002 votes against unilateral American sanctions on Iran as being for strategic reasons. He said he supported President Obama's drawing down troops in Afghanistan and said he would do "everything possible under current law" to support gay and women service members equal benefits and combat roles.
Hagel faced sharp questioning from Republicans. Senator John McCain berated him for refusing to give a yes or no answer to the question of whether the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 was a success. Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina demanded he “name one dumb thing we’ve been goaded into doing because of the pressure from the Israeli or Jewish lobby.” Hagel stated "I've already said I regret referencing the Jewish lobby, I should have said, 'pro-Israel lobby...The use of 'intimidation' -- I should have used 'influence.' I think that would have been more appropriate. I should not have said 'dumb' or 'stupid,' because I understand or appreciate there are other views on these things.". Senator Ted Cruz played video excerpts from a 2009 Al Jazeera interview, and asserted that Hagel had agreed with a caller who suggested that Israel had committed war crimes. Hagel denied he agreed with that view. After the hearing, Senator Cruz organized a letter from 25 Republican Senators saying they would not vote until Hagel gave them copies of speeches given to organizations and told them the amount he was paid and whether the organizations received money from foreign sources. Lindsay Graham said they wanted to know if he spoke for an “anti-Israel” groups. Senate Committee chair Carl Levin said the demands were unprecedented, asking “for information no prior nominee has been asked for,” and expressed confidence Hagel would be approved by the Senate.
Cloture and final vote
Despite the committee’s February 12, 2013, 14-to-11 vote to approve Hagel, committee member James Inhofe vowed to use procedural tactics to delay a full Senate confirmation vote. Inhofe told the National Review “Each day that goes by will make it more difficult for Democrats who say they are pro-Israel to hold out.” On February 14 Republicans refused to close debate on Hagel's nomination, which would require 60 votes, even though the nomination was assured the simple majority of votes needed to pass. Reasons given included a demand for more White House information about the 2012 Benghazi attack, remaining questions about Hagel's views on Iran and Israel, and assertions two weeks after the hearings was insufficient time. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid said the Republicans were politically motivated and that the vote would proceed after the recess.
Senate Republicans successfully filibustered his nomination after a cloture vote failed 58-40 with one present and one not voting. This filibuster marked the first time a cabinet nominee was successfully filibustered.
Criticism of the process
The hearings were criticized in the media. In Time magazine Brandon Friedman presented a chart showing that Israel was mentioned 106 times while Afghanistan was mentioned only 24 times; nuclear-armed Pakistan was barely mentioned. Friedman asked if the Senate committee was more concerned with Hagel’s “relationship with Israel than with the future of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the fate of U.S. troops engaged in both locations.” A Michael McGough Op-Ed in the Los Angeles Times was entitled “Hagel hearings: Is Israel more important than Afghanistan?” Gene Healy in Reason called the hearings “farcical” and wrote there was “plenty of bloviating, grandstanding and browbeating -- but, apparently, not enough time for serious deliberation over key policy questions facing any new Pentagon chief.”
Mark Mardell, the BBC News North America editor, criticized the "whole process, which has been used not to examine a candidate's fitness for high office, but to underline the rather obvious fact that the Obama administration does not share the world view of Republican senators, and they don't like their former colleague joining it." Mardell noted the senators repeatedly "insisted he gave a simple 'yes' or 'no' to complex questions. These are old men who hold themselves in high regard, but seem to see serious examination of difficult problems as a personal affront. They desperately want to play 'gotcha', but haven't the self-restraint to design effective questions." Mardell called Senator Hagel "equally unimpressive, almost unprepared, for a level of hostility that had been signalled long in advance. Neither smart, nor humble, his tactic seemed to be a kind of bumbling blandness." According to Mardell, only Senator Cruz was effective and well-prepared, as "he ripped into the nominee with all the skill honed as a Texas solicitor general."
Hagel was sworn in on February 27, 2013, taking over from Leon Panetta.
In May 2013, during a visit to Asian countries whose "main doubt" was American staying power in the region, Hagel called the decline of American military power a "good thing", because it forced American allies to share responsibilities.
On July 31, 2013, Hagel announced the results of his Strategic Choices and Management Review, undertaken in response to the budget sequestration in 2013. One of the options he highlighted was to reduce the navy's Aircraft carrier groups down from 11 to as little as eight.
Speaking at the Halifax International Security Forum in November 2013, Hagel announced the Pentagon's new Arctic strategy emphasizing the commitment of the United States "to detect, deter, prevent and defeat threats to the United States, and continue to exercise US sovereignty in and around Alaska". He also called for more international cooperation to protect the Arctic’s environment and to keep the region "peaceful, stable and free of conflict".
In December 2013, after the suspension of an Association Agreement with the EU by the Ukrainian Government of President Victor Yanukovych in November 2013 had led to massive protests, Hagel in a phone call warned the Ukrainian Minister of Defense Pavlo Lebedyev "not to use the armed forces of Ukraine against the civilian population in any fashion". After Yanukovych's impeachment and the beginning of the Crimean crisis in February 2014, Hagel warned Russia against military maneuvers "that could be misinterpreted, or lead to miscalculation during a very delicate time". In several phone calls with the Russian Minister of Defense Sergey Shoygu Hagel expressed deep concerns about Russian military activities near the Ukrainian border and called for an end of any "destabilizing influence inside Ukraine". He was assured by Shoygu that the Russian army would not invade Ukraine.
In May 2014, speaking at the Wilson Center on the future of the NATO, Hagel focused on the alliance’s imbalance in defense spending and called for "renewed financial commitments from all NATO members". According to Hagel, the alliance "should expect Russia to test our alliance's purpose, stamina and commitment".
On November 24, 2014, The New York Times reported that Hagel would be resigning from his position as Secretary of Defense under pressure from the Obama administration. Later that day, President Obama announced Hagel's resignation and thanked him for his service. Hagel said in a statement, "You should know I did not make this decision lightly. But after much discussion, the President and I agreed that now was the right time for new leadership here at the Pentagon."
Hagel did not refute rumors that Obama asked for his resignation, but he explicitly contends that it was a "mutual decision" between him and President Obama. Senator John McCain offered his own insight: Hagel was frustrated with the White House decision-making process, national security policy, and "excessive micromanagement" within the White House.
Awards and honors
In 2001, Hagel was awarded the Horatio Alger Award for Distinguished Americans. He was also granted the title of Nebraska Admiral by Nebraska's Governor, an honorary title, considering Nebraska is a landlocked state.
On June 7, 2001, Hagel gave the commencement address for North Central College and was given an honorary L.L.D. He was the keynote speaker at the College of William & Mary's Charter Day in 2007, at which he was awarded an honorary degree of Public Service. On March 3, 2008, he led a town meeting on domestic and foreign policy issues at the University of Maryland, at which the Center for American Politics and Citizenship (CAPC) gave him the Millard Tydings Award for Courage and Leadership in American Politics. Hagel served as the 2010 Clifford P. Case Professor of Public Affairs at Rutgers University's Eagleton Institute of Politics, speaking at public programs in New Brunswick and Newark, New Jersey.
Hagel has two younger brothers: Thomas is a professor at the University of Dayton School of Law, and Michael, an artist resident in Omaha, Nebraska. Hagel's third brother, James, died in an automobile accident at the age of 16.
In 1979, Hagel married Patricia Lloyd. The couple separated in 1981 and divorced a year later. He married his second wife, Lilibet Ziller, in April 1985. The couple live with their daughter, Allyn, and son, Ziller, in McLean, Virginia.
While a Senator, Hagel had a tradition of wearing costumes to work on Halloween, usually masquerading as one of his colleagues or other notable political figures, including Joe Biden, John McCain, Colin Powell, and Pat Roberts in past years. He gave back a portion of his salary for the 2013 fiscal year in solidarity with his department’s workers who are facing 14 days of furloughs.
|Republican United States Senatorial Primary Election in Nebraska, 1996|
|United States Senate election in Nebraska, 1996|
|Natural Law||Bill Dunn||4,806||0.71%|
|Republican gain from Democratic||Swing|
|Republican United States Senatorial Primary Election in Nebraska, 2002|
|Republican||Chuck Hagel (inc.)||144,160||100.00%|
|United States Senate election in Nebraska, 2002|
|Republican||Chuck Hagel (inc.)||397,438||82.76%||+25.36%|
|Democratic||Charlie A. Matulka||70,290||14.64%||-27.96%|
|Libertarian||John J. Graziano||7,423||1.55%|
- Hagel was raised in the Roman Catholic faith; see cached excerpt from Charlyne Berens' biography, Chuck Hagel, which refers to Hagel's parents as "pillars of their Catholic church"; Hagel's father; Charles Hagel had converted to the Catholic faith of his wife. Page 17 of the same work refers to Hagel as "now an Episcopalian."
- "Charles Timothy Hagel: Digital Collection: Veterans History Project (Library of Congress)". Lcweb2.loc.gov. 2011-10-26. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- "Pronounce - Browse all names for U.S.". VOA News. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
- Biographical information on ex-Sen. Chuck Hagel, The Associated Press, published in The News-Times, December 17, 2012.
- Londoño, Ernesto (February 12, 2013). "Senate committee advances Hagel nomination for defense secretary". Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "Senate Republicans block Hagel nomination for Defense secretary". The Hill. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
- "Jamie Dupree's Washington Insider Entries for Sunday, February 10, 2013 | www.ajc.com". Blogs.ajc.com. 2013-02-10. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- "www.defense.gov Senate Confirms Hagel as Defense Secretary". Defense.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- Memoli, Michael A. (February 26, 2013). "Senate confirms Chuck Hagel as new Defense secretary". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Panetta Bids Farewell to Defense Department Team". Defense.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- Stewart, Phil; Holland, Steve (November 24, 2014). "Hagel, under pressure, resigns as U.S. defense secretary". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 25, 2014.
- Lelyveld, Joseph. . The New York Times Magazine, online edition, The Heartland Dissident, February 12, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- Dufour, Jeff. Glenn Close and Chuck Norris push pet projects. The Hill, online edition, Under The Dome, May 11, 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- David Hendee (January 13, 2012). "Chuck Hagel's lifetime lessons from battlefield". omaha.com. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Susan Cornwell (January 31, 2013). "Republican maverick Hagel forged bond with Obama over Iraq". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- "Text of Chuck Hagel’s Opening Remarks". nytimes.com. January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- The Associated Press (October 4, 1946). "Biographical information on ex-Sen. Chuck Hagel". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- Berens, Charlyne (2006). Chuck Hagel: Moving Forward. Lincoln [u.a.]: Univ. of Nebraska Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8032-1075-2.
- Experiencing War, Stories from the Veterans History Project, Charles Timothy Hagel, Library of Congress, accessed December 12, 2012.
- "The private war of Chuck and Tom Hagel" by Myra MacPherson, Salon, April 30, 2007.
- Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 110th Congress, Government Printing Office, October 2, 2008, Remarks by Senator Harry Reid,p. 692.
- Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, United States Congress, accessed December 17, 2012.
- Loren Thompson, Why Republicans Should Welcome Chuck Hagel To The Pentagon's Top Job, m Forbes, January 7, 2012.
- Berens, Charlyne (2006). Chuck Hagel: Moving Forward. Lincoln [u.a.]: Univ. of Nebraska Press. pp. 52–54. ISBN 978-0-8032-1075-2.
- MacPherson, Myra (2001). Long Time Passing: Vietnam and the Haunted Generation. Indiana University Press. p. xxxvi.
- "Seven things you need to know about Chuck Hagel". washingtonpost.com. December 20, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Chuck Hagel". acus.org. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Lelyveld, Joseph (December 14, 2012). "The Heartland Dissident". nytimes.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "The Heartland Dissident". The New York Times. December 14, 2012. Archived from the original on December 23, 2012.
- Fitrakis, Bob and Harvey Wasserman (March 5, 2004). "Diebold's Political Machine". Mother Jones. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- Collier, Victoria. "How to Rig an Election". Harper's. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Bolton, Alexander (January 29, 2003). "Hagel’s ethics filings pose disclosure issue". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 1, 2003. Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- Boaz, David (December 27, 2010) Is Chuck Hagel a Republican?, Cato Institute
- Chuck Hagel profile, On the Issues, accessed December 19, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress - 1st Session".
- "HR 1836 - ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAX RELIEF RECONCILIATION ACT, 2001 - VOTING RECORD". votesmart.org. May 26, 2001. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 108th Congress - 1st Session". senate.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress - 1st Session". senate.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home - Votes - Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- "HR 2356 - CAMPAIGN REFORM ACT OF 2001 - VOTING RECORD". votesmart.org. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "S.Con.Res. 21 (106th): Kosovo resolution". govtrack.us. March 3, 1999. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress - 1st Session". senate.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Charles 'chuck' t. hagel's voting records - defense". votesmart.org. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Hagel, Chuck (September 3, 2009). "Why Going It Alone No Longer Works". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Chuck Hagel says time to wind down in Afghanistan". journalstar.com. May 3, 2011. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress - 2nd Session". senate.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Lelyveld, Joseph (February 11, 2006). "Tilting at the Republican windmill Conservative from the U.S. heartland is a party maverick". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Bob Novak, Hagel's Stand, The Washington Post, April 30, 2007.
- Oppel Jr, Richard A.; Rubin, Alissa J. (July 22, 2008). "Obama Meets Iraqi Prime Minister in Baghdad". nytimes.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Hagel chides candidates on Iraq". usatoday.com. July 24, 2008. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 105th Congress - 1st Session". senate.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Bill Text 105th Congress (1997-1998) S.1873.RS". thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress - 2nd Session". senate.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "HR 5501 - FUNDING TO COMBAT AIDS, MALARIA, AND TUBERCULOSIS - KEY VOTE". votesmart.org. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Chuck Hagel on Foreign Policy". ontheissues.org. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Bill Summary & Status 110th Congress (2007 - 2008) S.AMDT.2032". thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Achieving a Post-9/11 GI Bill for Our New Greatest Generation, Senator Jim Webb site, p. 4, accessed December 18, 2012.
- Chuck Hagel Leads 50th Anniversary Advisory Group, Vietnam Magazine, published at History.net November 29, 2012.
- "The Chuck Hagel I Know: A Staunch Defender of Gay Rights". theatlantic.com. December 21, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress - 1st Session". senate.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Babington, Charles (December 21, 2005). "4 GOP Senators Hold Firm Against Patriot Act Renewal". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "H.R. 3199 (109th): USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (On the Conference Report)b". govtrack.us. March 2, 2006. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "S. 1927 (110th): Protect America Act of 2007 (On Passage of the Bill)". govtrack.us. Aug 3, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "S amdt 2022 - habeas corpus for detainees of the united states - key vote". votesmart.org. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "S AMDT 2022 - HABEAS CORPUS FOR DETAINEES OF THE UNITED STATES - KEY VOTE". votesmart.org. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Kaufman, Marc (June 13, 2005). "Cheney: U.S. Not Aiming To Close Guantanamo". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Bill Summary & Status, 109th Congress (2005 - 2006), S.2611, THOMAS database, Library of Congress, accessed December 18, 2012.
- Bill Cahir, Senate immigration bill a study in complexities and contention, The Patriot-News, June 8, 2007.
- Marre, Klaus (June 28, 2007). "46-53, immigration bill goes down in defeat". The Hill. Capitol Hill Publishing Corp., a subsidiary of News Communications, Inc. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 109th Congress - 2nd Session". senate.gov. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Hagel: Iraq growing more like Vietnam; Republican Senator says Bush should meet with protesting mom". Politics. CNN, online edition, August 18, 2005. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- Glenn Kessler, Hagel Defends Criticisms of Iraq Policy, Washington Post, November 16, 2005.
- Babington, Charles. "4 GOP Senators Hold Firm Against Patriot Act Renewal More Safeguards Needed, They Say". Washington Post, online edition, December 21, 2005, p. A04. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- UPI. "Hagel takes issue with Rove". United Press International, online edition, January 30, 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- "Key Republican breaks with Bush on Mideast; Nebraska's Sen. Hagel calls for immediate cease-fire", CNN, online edition, July 31, 2006, accessed December 20, 2012.
- "Leaving Iraq, Honorably". Washington Post, Opinion by Senator C. Hagel, p. B07, online edition. November 26, 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- News Poll #9977. SurveyUSA. August 15, 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- Profile Nebraska Senator Chuck Hagel (Republican Jr Senator). On the Issues, Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- Barrett, Ted. "GOP senator: Bush plan could match Vietnam blunder", CNN, online edition, January 11, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- BBC. "US Senate panel rejects Iraq plan". BBC News, online edition, Americas, January 24, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2007
- Barrett, Ted. "Dems Plan Senate All-nighter". CNN, Political Ticker blog, July 16, 2007. Retrieved July 16, 2007.
- Haass, Richard N., interviewer (November 28, 2007). "A Conversation with Chuck Hagel (Federal News Service FNS rush transcript)". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved March 23, 2008.
- Joseph Lelyveld (February 12, 2006). "The Heartland Dissident". New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- Josh Rogin (December 27, 2012). "Republican senators were for Hagel, before they were against him". foreignpolicy.com. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- Josh Avlon (January 31, 2013). "A reality check for Chuck Hagel bashers". CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- Jan Crawford (July 17, 2008). "Rules Stacked Against Bi-Partisan Ticket". abcnews.go.com.
- Rachel Weiner (July 28, 2008). "Chuck Hagel: Obama's Vice President?". huffingtonpost.com.
- Scott Conroy (July 20, 2008). "Hagel Says He'd Consider An Obama VP Offer". cbsnews.com.
- Anna Jo Bratton, "Hagel says he'd consider VP offer from Obama", Associated Press, via The Arizona Republic online, June 20, 2008.
- Madden, Mike (June 17, 2008). "And Obama's veep is ... a Republican?". Salon. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
- Who will be Obama's running mate, Senators section, CNN, June 4, 2008, accessed December 18, 2012
- "Republican ready to serve as Obama's vice-president". Breaking News. June 25, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
- Connie Bruck (November 3, 2008). "THE POLITICAL SCENE ODD MAN OUTChuck Hagel’s Republican exile.". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Elisabeth Bumiller, "Veterans and Senate Buddies, Until Another War Split Them," New York Times," Jan. 12, 2013
- Kevin Spark (October 28, 2008). "Foreign Policy Drove Wedge Between Hagel, McCain FELLOW GOP SENATORS AND VIETNAM VETS 'FUNDAMENTALLY DISAGREE' ON KEY ISSUES". The New Yorker / newser.com. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Mark Memmott and Jill Lawrence, "Sen. Hagel won't be endorsing a presidential candidate", August 12, 2008, USA Today's On Politics blog.
- "A Hagel Hint?". The Hotline (National Journal Group). March 9, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2008.
- Linda Feldmann, A search for GOP's heirs apparent, Christian Science Monitor, September 1, 2004.
- Berens, Charlyne. "Chuck Hagel: Moving Forward". University of Nebraska Press, 2006.
- Bratton, Anna Jo (September 10, 2007). "Sen. Hagel leaving Congress after '08". ABC News, via USA Today. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- "AFP: Anti-war Republican and presidential hopeful Hagel to retire". AFP. September 10, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- Rucker, Philip (February 3, 2009). "Hagel To Teach at Georgetown". Washington Post. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Grieve, Tim (January 24, 2007). "A ping-pong game with American lives". Salon. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "Senator Hagel joins The Walsh School of Foreign Service". Mortara Center for International Studies, Georgetown University. March 18, 2009. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Chuck Hagel". Atlantic Council. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "Hagel: Reagan wouldn't identify with today's GOP". Thecable.foreignpolicy.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- Posted: 01/22/2013 3:51 pm EST (2013-01-22). "Chuck Hagel Would Be 'Excellent' Defense Secretary On Nuclear Weapons: Ellen Tauscher". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- "Ploughshares Fund". Ploughshares.org. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- Shira Toeplitz:Sestak gets nod from Hagel Politico, August 23, 2010
- Kevin Robillard, Report: Chuck Hagel to endorse Bob Kerrey, Politico, November 1, 2012.
- Humberto Sanchez, Nebraska: Bob Kerrey Nabs Chuck Hagel Endorsement, Roll Call, November 1, 2012.
- Scott Wilson and William Branigin, "Obama nominates Chuck Hagel for Defense, John Brennan for CIA", January 7, 2013, Washington Post
- Elizabether Bumiller,Hagel Has Rough Outing Before Ex-Colleagues, New York Times, January 31, 2013.
- Jon Swaine (January 6, 2013), Chuck Hagel 'to face questions' over Israel views ahead of defence secretary nomination The Daily Telegraph
- Yitzhak Benhorin, US: Hagel nomination irks pro-Israel conservatives, Ynetnews, December 18, 2012.
- Rachael Weiner (January 31, 2013), Hagel regrets words on Jewish lobby Washington Post
- "Prospect of Hagel nomination sets off alarm bells for some U.S. Jews". Haaretz. December 19, 2012. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- "Why Chuck Hagel Didn't Sign That 1999 Letter Against Russian Anti-Semitism". January 7, 2013.
- Gold, Matea (January 6, 2013). "Critics slam Chuck Hagel's likely nomination as Defense secretary". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- Anna Mulrine, Chuck Hagel: why his candidacy for Defense post is losing altitude, Christian Science Monitor, December 27, 2012.
- Chuck Hagel's opponents switched gears by Shashank Bengali, Los Angeles Times, January 14, 2013.
- Chuck Hagel and Israel in context: A guide to his controversial statements by Glenn Kessler, Washington Post, January 8, 2013.
- *Heather Hurlburt, Chuck Hagel Is Mainstream Enough To Be Secretary of Defense, U.S. News & World Report, December 20, 2012. *HBO History Makers with Chuck Hagel Council on Foreign Relations June 14, 2012
- Stephanie Kirchgaessne (December 19, 2012), FT interview with Chuck Hagel Financial Times
- "Gay rights group challenges Hagel comments". huffingtonpost.com. December 20, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "Log Cabin Republicans Slam Chuck Hagel in Full-Page Ad". advocate.com. December 28, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- Natalie Jennings (January 7, 2013),Log Cabin Republicans run another anti-Hagel ad Washington Post Post Politics blog.
- "Hormel questions sincerity of Hagel apology". politico.com. December 22, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
- "SHAHEEN ANNOUNCES SUPPORT FOR HAGEL NOMINATION". www.shaheen.senate.gov. January 24, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- "Sen. Shaheen backs Hagel for Secretary of Defense". New Hampshire Union Leader. Jan 24, 2013. Retrieved Jan 26, 2013.
- "Tammy Baldwin Supports Chuck Hagel as Defense Secretary". The Advocate. February 13, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Jim Rutenberg (January 26, 2013). "Secret Donors Finance Fight Against Hagel". New York Times. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Kevin Bacon, Former ambassadors open letter, Foreign Policy, December 20, 2012.
- Friends of Chuck: the case for Hagel begins Foreign Policy December 20, 2012
- December 21, 2012 letter in support of Chuck Hagel, reprinted in Politico, accessed January 10, 2013.
- Baron, Kevin (January 7, 2013). "Gates, Powell endorse Hagel". Foreign Policy.
- Chuck Hagel is a friend to Israel by Aryeh Azriel, Special to CNN, January 14, 2013.
- Behind the Ugly Attacks on Chuck Hagel, The New Yorker, December 23, 2012.
- Thomas Friedman, Give Chuck a chance, New York Times, December 25, 2012.
- Robert Wright, Chuck Hagel Gets His Second Wind, December 26, 2012
- Stephen Walt, What's at stake in the Hagel affair, Foreign Policy, December 26, 2012.
- Daniel Larison (December 19, 2012), The Attempted Borking of Chuck Hagel The American Conservative
- W. James Antle III (December 24, 2012), Somehow a Republican The American Conservative
- Scott McConnell (January 7, 2013), Hagel in History’s Cockpit The American Conservative
- Pat Buchanan (December 28, 2012), Why the War Party Fears Hagel buchanan.org
- Christopher A. Preble (December 13, 2012), Chuck Hagel Would Be an Excellent Secretary of Defense cato.org
- Justin Logan (January 7, 2013), Why Americans Should Care about the Hagel Nomination cato.org
- Transcript: Hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee on the Nomination of Chuck Hagel to be Secretary of Defense, submitted by Robert Naiman on February 1, 2013 at Justforeignpolicy.org, accessed February 10, 2013.
- In hearings, Chuck Hagel expands on ‘Jewish lobby’ apology, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), January 31, 2013.
- Laura Litvan, Levin Says Committee Will Vote on Hagel as Soon as Possible, Bloomberg L.P., February 7, 2013.
- Jeremy Herb , Levin: Hagel demands unprecedented, The Hill, February 7, 2013.
- Jeremy W. Peters, Hagel Nomination Clears Panel After Combative Debate, New York Times, February 12, 2013.
- "Congress: Hagel committee vote set". NBC News. February 12, 2013.
- Patricia Zengerle, Democrats decry delay in vote for Hagel as defense chief, Reuters, February 14, 2013.
- Susan Davis and David Jackson, Senate blocks Hagel nomination - for now, USA Today, February 14, 2013.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 113th Congress - 1st Session".
- "Senate Allows Nomination Of Chuck Hagel To Move Forward". NPR. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Senate Roll Call". Senate.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- "Chuck Hagel confirmed as US defence secretary by Senate". BBC. February 27, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Senate Roll Call". Senate.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- Brandon Friedman, Just Who Do They Represent: At Hagel Hearing, Concern for Israel Tops U.S. Troops in Combat, Time magazine, February 4, 2013.
- Michael McGough, Hagel hearings: Is Israel more important than Afghanistan?, Los Angeles Times, February 7, 2013.
- Gene Healy, Gene Healy: Chuck Hagel's farcical hearings, Reason, February 4, 2013.
- Mardell, Mark (January 31, 2013). "Chuck Hagel's hectoring aimed at Obama". BBC News. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- Ten, Daniel. "Hagel Set for Vietnam Embrace as Wary Asia Eyes Rising China". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- Ernesto Londoño (2013-05-31). "Hagel visits Asia to reassure allies". M.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- "Statement on Strategic Choices and Management Review."
- CAVAS, CHRISTOPHER P. (26 January 2014). "Carrier Cut Could Be Back on Table". www.defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "US ready to launch Syria strike, says Chuck Hagel". BBC. August 27, 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- Bentz, Leslie (November 1, 2013). "Hagel directs National Guard to press forward with same-sex benefits". CNN. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Secretary of Defense Speech". U.S. Department of Defense. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Karen Parrish (22 November 2013). "Hagel Announces DOD's Arctic Strategy". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Lolita C. Baldor (23 November 2013). "Hagel says nations must avoid conflict in Arctic". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Jane Taber (22 November 2013). "U.S. sounds alarm over melting Arctic at Halifax security forum". The Globa and Mail. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Paul D. Shinkman (22 November 2013). "Climate Change Forces New Pentagon Plan". U.S. News & World Reprt. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "Hagel Warns Ukraine Not to Use Military Against Protestors". U.S. Department of Defense. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- James G. Neuger and Gopal Ratnam (27 February 2014). "Hagel Warns Russia on Ukraine Miscalculation Amid Crimea Unrest". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Obama, Hagel Contact Top Russian Officials on Ukraine". U.S. Department of Defense. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Brendan Cullerton (20 March 2014). "Hagel Demands Answers on Russian Troop Buildup at Ukraine Border". ABC News. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Spencer Ackerman (20 March 2014). "Hagel assured by Russian minister Moscow will not push beyond Crimea". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Moscow assures Pentagon it will not invade". The Telegraph. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis highlights NATO defense spending problem: Hagel". Reuters. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Helene Cooper, Hagel Resigns Under Pressure as Global Crises Test Pentagon, The New York Times, Nov. 24, 2014
- Miklaszewski, JIm (November 24, 2014). "'Greatest Privilege of My Life': Chuck Hagel Resigns as Defense Secretary". NBCNews.com. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- "US defence secretary Chuck Hagel resigns". BBC News. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- "Chuck Hagel forced to step down as US defense secretary". Guardian. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Shinkman, Paul. "Chuck Hagel Explains Why He Resigned as Secretary of Defense". U.S. News. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Starr, Barbara. "Hagel refused to hold off resignation announcement in spite of White House wishes". CNN. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "Chuck Hagel Former United States Senator District of Columbia Class Year: 2001". Horatio Alger Association.
- "North Central College 2006-2007 Highlights". Naperville, IL: NCC. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Zagursky, Erin (January 9, 2007). "U.S. Sen. Chuck Hagel to speak at William and Mary’s Charter Day". The College of William & Mary. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- Neil Tickner (February 28, 2008). "Sen. Chuck Hagel Town Mtg. with Youth Voters at UM". University Communications Newsdesk. University of Maryland. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Eagleton Institute Report, 2009-2010 PDF, Eagleton Institute, p. 4, accessed December 18, 2012.
- "Alum Notes". The Nebraska Transcript (The University of Nebraska College of Law): 44. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "Veterans Memorial Museum Unveils Original Oil Painting, "Red Tails Strike Again", in Honor of Tuskegee Airmen". Veterans Memorial Museum of Branson. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- Pierce, Charles P. (June 26, 2007). "'Before this is over, you might see calls for his impeachment.'". Esquire. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- Charlyne Berens, Chuck Hagel: Moving Forward, University of Nebraska Press (2006), p. 53.
- Robert G. Kaiser. "The Political Veteran: He Survived Vietnam and Won the Senate. Could Chuck Hagel Take the White House?". The Washington Post, Monday, November 15, 2004; p. C01. Retrieved July 10, 2007.
- Kornreich, Lauren (October 31, 2007). "Will the real Joe Biden please stand up?". Political Ticker (CNN). Retrieved March 23, 2008.
- "Chuck Hagel to give back some of his salary to DOD - Stephanie Gaskell". Politico.Com. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- "Federal Elections 96: 1996 U.S. Senate Results by State". Fec.gov. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- "96 PRESIDENTIAL and CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION STATISTICS". Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- "2002 ELECTION STATISTICS". Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chuck Hagel.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Chuck Hagel|
- Documentaries, topic pages and databases
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Selected speeches
- Speech on U.S.-Iran Relations, Senate Speeches, U.S. Government, February 22, 2007
- Selected news articles
- Josh Rogin, Chuck Hagel does not like sanctions, Foreign Policy, December 17, 2012e
- Connie Bruck, "Odd Man Out: Chuck Hagel's Republican Exile" The New Yorker 84/35 (November 3, 2008) : 52-63
- Sen. Chuck Hagel Interview (video), The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, March 31, 2008
- Hagel low on cash on hand, raising retirement issue, The Hill, January 30, 2007
- Joseph Lelyveld, "The Heartland Dissident", New York Times Magazine, February 12, 2006
- Chuck Hagel: A Christmas Present, and Past, Washington Post, December 22, 2005
- Interview C-SPAN Q&A, November 13, 2005
- Hagel’s ethics filings pose disclosure issue at the Wayback Machine (archived June 6, 2004), The Hill, January 29, 2003
|Party political offices|
|Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Nebraska
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Nebraska
Served alongside: Bob Kerrey, Ben Nelson
|Chairperson of the Atlantic Council
|Chairperson of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board
Served alongside: David Boren
|Chairperson of the Intelligence Oversight Board
|United States Secretary of Defense