Chudamani Vihara was a Buddhist vihara (monastery) in Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu, India. Chudamani Vihara was constructed in 1006 CE by the Srivijayan king Sri Vijaya Maravijayattungavarman with the patronage of Rajaraja Chola. The vihara building survived in dilapidated condition till 1867, when Jesuit missionaries demolished it. Since 1856, about 350 Buddha bronzes have been found at Nagapattinam, dating from the 11th to the 16th century.
The heritage of Nagapattinam is mentioned in the Burmese historical text of 3rd century B.C. which mentions of a Buddha Vihar built by the great Ashoka. The Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang also mentioned the vihar. Nagappattinam is mentioned as Padarithitha in the ancient Buddhist literature.
The Animangalam Copperplate of Kulothunga Chola I mentions that that Kasiba Thera (Buddhist Monk) renovated the Buddhist shrine in 6th century AD with the help of monks of "Naganadu" (Nagapattinam). The Pallava King Rajasimha (690–728) permitted a Chinese king to build Buddha vihar in Nagappattinam.
According to the copperplate record of Chola king Rajaraja, the Sailendra king, Sri Mara-vijayottunga-varman constructed the vihara with the support of Rajaraja.
It is written in PONNIYIN SELVAN by Kalki that the copperplate was moved to Leiden Museum (Holland).
One statue, now at John D. Rockefeller Collection of Asian Art in New York, has an inscription that mentions that this Buddha was created to be carried in a procession during the temple’s sacred festival. The inscription has been translated by Vidya Dehejia as:
- Well-being [and] prosperity. The nayakar [Buddha], of all of the eighteen countries, of the metalworkers. The procession image, for the sacred festival of the alvar temple, which was caused to be taken in procession by the respected one (utaiyar) endowed of the four gunas from Cirutavur; [in] the perum-palli (great place of worship or great vihara) of the metalworkers, [in] the perum-palli of Rajendra Chola.
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- Keay, John, India: A History, pp 222-223
- South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 12, ASI
- Asia Society: The Collection In Context
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- Buddha 14th century Formerly in the collection of Mrs. W. van Hoogstraten-Fetlaer, Netherlands.
- Bodhi's Tamil Afterglow Outlook India, July 7, 2004
- Nagapattinam Buddhas at the Chennai Museum
- Buddha Shakyamuni Norton Simon Museum
- Buddha Shakyamuni Art Institute of Chicago
- procession Buddha John D. Rockefeller Collection of Asian Art in New York
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- Tracing the Sri Lanka-Kerala link Hindustan Times March 23, 2006