Vasily Chuikov

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Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov
Cujkov.jpg
Lieutenant General Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov
(prior to 1943)
Native name Василий Иванович Чуйков
Nickname(s) "The Man of Iron Will"
"The Stone"
Born 12 February 1900
Serebryanye Prudy, Tula Governorate, Russian Empire
Died 18 March 1982(1982-03-18) (aged 82)
Moscow, Soviet Union
Place of burial Mamayev Kurgan, Volgograd, Russia
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Years of service 1917–1972
Rank Marshal of the Soviet Union
Commands held 4th Army
62nd Army
8th Guards Army
Group of Soviet Forces in Germany
Kiev Military District
Battles/wars

Russian Civil War
World War II


Winter War
Second Sino-Japanese War
Awards

Hero of the Soviet Union Hero of the Soviet Union Order of Lenin (9)

Other work 1961 until his death, he was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Russian: Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в; 12 February 1900 – 18 March 1982) was a Soviet lieutenant general in the Red Army during World War II, commander of the 62nd Army during the Battle of Stalingrad, twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), and after the war a Marshal of the Soviet Union.

Early life[edit]

Born into a peasant family in the village of Serebryanye Prudy in the Tula region south of Moscow, he was the eighth of twelve children and the fifth of eight sons. Chuikov and all his brothers became soldiers and fought in the Russian Civil War.[1] At the age of twelve, he left school and his family home to earn his living in a factory in St. Petersburg, turning out spurs for cavalry officers.[2]

The Russian Revolution and Civil War[edit]

During the turmoil of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Chuikov became unemployed. Later the same year, an older brother arranged for Chuikov to be recruited into the Red Guards. The year after, in 1918, he joined the Red Army.[2]

In October 1918, Chuikov saw active service when he was sent to the Southern Front as a deputy company commander to fight against the White Army. In the spring of 1919, he became commander of the 40th Regiment (later renamed the 43rd), part of the 5th Army under Tukhachevsky facing the White Army at Kolchak in Siberia.[3]

Chuikov's record of service during the Civil War was distinguished. In the fighting from 1919 to 1920 he received two awards of the Order of the Red Banner for bravery and heroism. He was wounded four times—one, in Poland in 1920, left a fragment in his left arm that could not be operated on. It led to partial paralysis and caused him to lose temporary use of his arm. Chuikov carried this war wound for the rest of his life, and it eventually led to septicaemia breaking out in 1981, causing a nine-month illness and finally his death.[4]

Inter-war period[edit]

He left his regiment in 1921 to continue his studies at the Frunze Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1925.[4]

Early Second World War, Finnish War and China (1939 to 1942)[edit]

Chuikov commanded the 4th Army in the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939. He commanded the 9th Army in the Russo-Finnish War of 1940. His army was defeated by the Finns at Suomussalmi and Raate Road. He was then sent to China as an adviser to Chiang Kai-shek. In May 1942, the USSR recalled him. According to Chuikov's memoirs, his recall was due to Nationalist China claiming that the USSR was providing military aid as part of an attempt to draw the USSR into the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Stalingrad (1942 to 1943)[edit]

On returning to Moscow, Chuikov was placed in command of the 64th Army (later 7th Guards), on the west bank of the Don River. The 64th Army took part in the fighting withdrawal to Stalingrad, and shortly before the Battle of Stalingrad itself began, Chuikov was made commanding general of the more important weak 62nd Army, which was to hold Stalingrad itself, with the 64th on its southern flank.

It was at Stalingrad that Chuikov developed the important tactic of “hugging the enemy”, Guerrilla warfare, by which under-armed Soviet soldiers kept the German army so close to them as to minimize the superior firepower enjoyed by the Wehrmacht. Chuikov had witnessed firsthand the blitzkrieg tactics the Nazis had used to sweep across the Russian steppe, so he used the Germans' carpet-bombing of the city to draw panzer units into the rubble and chaos, where their progress was impeded. Here they could be destroyed with Molotov cocktails and Russian artillery operating at close range. This tactic also rendered the German Luftwaffe ineffective, since Stuka dive-bombers could not attack Red Army positions without endangering their own forces.[5][6]

Later Second World War (Poland and Germany 1943 to 1945)[edit]

After the victory at Stalingrad, the 62nd Army was redesignated the Soviet 8th Guards Army. Chuikov then commanded the 8th Guards as part of 1st Belorussian Front and led its advance through Poland, finally heading the Soviet offensive which conquered Berlin with the Allied forces wiping out what was left in Southern and Western Germany. in April/May 1945.

Chuikov's advance through Poland was characterized by massive advances across difficult terrain (on several occasions, the 8th Guards Army advanced over 40 miles in a single day). On 1 May 1945, Chuikov, who commanded his army operating in central Berlin, was the first Allied officer to learn about Adolf Hitler's suicide, being informed by General Hans Krebs who had come to Chuikov's headquarters under a white flag. He accepted the surrender of Berlin's forces from General Helmuth Weidling.

Chuikov appeared in the documentary film Berlin (1945), directed by Yuli Raizman.

Later life[edit]

After the war, Chuikov stayed in Germany, later serving as Commander-in-Chief of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany from 1949 until 1953, when he was made the Commanding General of the Kiev Military District. While serving at that post, on 11 March 1955 he was promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union. From 1960 to 1964, he was the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Army's Ground Forces. He also served as the Chief of the Civil Defense from 1961 until his retirement in 1972. From 1961 until his death, he was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

He was a major consultant for the design of the Stalingrad battle memorial on Mamayev Kurgan, and was buried there after his death at the age of 82.

The tombstone of Marshal Vasily Chuikov

Memoirs in translation[edit]

  • The Beginning of the Road: The Story of the Battle for Stalingrad, London, 1963.[7]
  • Chuikov, Vasili; David P. Barrett (translator) (2003). Mission to China: Memoirs of a Soviet Military Adviser to Chiang Kaishek. Eastbridge. ISBN 978-1-891936-10-4. 
  • Chuikov, Vasili (1978). The end of the Third Reich. Moscow: Progress. ISBN 978-0-8285-0453-9. 

In popular culture[edit]

Honours and awards[edit]

Soviet Union
Hero of the Soviet Union medal.pngHero of the Soviet Union medal.png Hero of the Soviet Union, twice (19 March 1944, 6 April 1945)
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order of Lenin, nine times (26 October 1943, 19 March 1944, 21 February 1945, 11 February 1950, 11 February 1960, 12 February 1970, 11 February 1975, 21 February 1978, 11 February 1980)
Order october revolution rib.png Order of the October Revolution (22 February 1968)
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of the Red Banner, four times (1920, 1925, 1944, 1948)
Order suvorov1 rib.png Order of Suvorov, 1st class, three times (28 January 1943, 23 August 1944, 29 May 1945)
Order redstar rib.png Order of the Red Star (1940)
Defstalingrad.png Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"
Ribbon Medal For The Liberation Of Warsaw.png Medal "For the Liberation of Warsaw"
Caputureberlin rib.png Medal "For the Capture of Berlin"
MilitaryVeteranRibbon.png Medal "Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
OrderStGeorge4cl rib.png Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
20 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945"
30 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945"
20 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"
30 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy"
40 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
50 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
60 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
100 lenin rib.png Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary since the Birth of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin"
Именная шашка.png Honorary weapon – sword inscribed with golden national emblem of the Soviet Union (22 February 1968)


Foreign
Patriotic Order of Merit GDR ribbon bar gold.png Patriotic Order of Merit in gold, twice (East Germany)
GDR Star of Friendship of Nations - Grand Star (formal ribbon) BAR.png Grand Star of the Star of People's Friendship (East Germany)
OrdenSuheBator.png Order of Sukhbaatar (Mongolian People's Republic)
Medal for victory over japan rib.PNG Medal "For Victory over Japan" (Mongolian People's Republic)
Med 30th anniversary of victory over japan.PNG Medal "30 year anniversary of the Victory over Japan" (Mongolian People's Republic)
Med XXXth anniversary of chalkin gol victory rib.PNG Medal "30 year anniversary of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol" (Mongolian People's Republic)
Med 40 year chalkin gol victory rib.PNG Medal "40 year anniversary of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol" (Mongolian People's Republic)
50 Years Anniversary of the Mongolian Revolution rib.PNG Medal "50 years of the Mongolian People's Republic" (Mongolian People's Republic)
Med 50th anniversary of mongolian people's army rib.PNG Medal "50 years of the Mongolian People's Army" (Mongolian People's Republic)
POL Order Krzyża Grunwaldu 2 Klasy BAR.svg Cross of Grunwald, 2nd class (Poland)
POL Virtuti Militari Złoty BAR.svg Grand Cross of the Virtuti Militari (Poland)
POL Polonia Restituta Komandorski BAR.svg Commander's Cross of the Polonia Restituta, (Poland)
POL Za Warszawę 1939-1945 BAR.svg Medal "For Warsaw 1939–1945" (Poland, 1946)
POL Medal za Odrę Nysę i Bałtyk BAR.svg Medal "For Oder, Neisse and the Baltic" (Poland, 1946)
Sino Soviet Friendship Rib.png Medal "Sino-Soviet friendship" (China)
Distinguished Service Cross ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Cross (United States)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jones, p. 72
  2. ^ a b Jones, p. 73
  3. ^ Jones, p. 74
  4. ^ a b Jones, p. 75
  5. ^ Craig, William (1973). Enemy at the Gates: the Battle for Stalingrad. New York: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-200000-0, pp. 90, 91
  6. ^ Beevor, Antony (1998). Stalingrad. New York: Viking, ISBN 0-14-024985-0, pp. 128, 129
  7. ^ Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-fighting World War Two (Barbara Frum lecture series), Vintage Canada, Toronto, 1995. Republished by Vintage Books, New York, 1996, p. 121

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]