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The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). Chūnfēn (pīnyīn) or Shunbun (rōmaji) (Chinese and Japanese: 春分; Korean: 춘분; Vietnamese: Xuân phân; literally: "vernal equinox") is the 4th solar term. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 0° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 15°. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 0°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 20 March and ends around 4 April (5 April East Asia time).
|辛巳||2001-03-20 13:30||2001-04-04 17:24|
|壬午||2002-03-20 19:16||2002-04-04 23:18|
|癸未||2003-03-21 00:59||2003-04-05 04:52|
|甲申||2004-03-20 06:48||2004-04-04 10:43|
|乙酉||2005-03-20 12:33||2005-04-04 16:34|
|丙戌||2006-03-20 18:25||2006-04-04 22:15|
|丁亥||2007-03-21 00:07||2007-04-05 04:04|
|戊子||2008-03-20 05:48||2008-04-04 09:45|
|己丑||2009-03-20 11:43||2009-04-04 15:33|
|庚寅||2010-03-20 17:32||2010-04-04 21:30|
|辛卯||2011-03-20 23:20||2011-04-05 03:11|
|壬辰||2012-03-20 05:14||2012-04-04 09:05|
|癸巳||2013-03-20 11:01||2013-04-04 15:02|
|甲午||2014-03-20 16:57||2014-04-04 20:46|
Each solar term can be divided into 3 pentads (候). They are: first pentad (初候), second pentad (次候) and last pentad (末候). Pentads in Chunfen include:
- First pentad: 玄鳥至, 'The dark birds arrive'. 'Dark bird' in this case refers to swallows, which are also making their northward migration.
- Second pentad: 雷乃發聲, 'Thunder sounds', referring to the onset of spring thunderstorms.
- Last pentad: 始電, 'Lightning begins'. This refers to thunderstorms as well, but also to the gradual lengthening of daytime, and the prevalence of sunlight.
- First pentad: 雀始巣
- Second pentad: 桜始開
- Last pentad: 雷乃発声