Chūō Shinkansen

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Chūō Shinkansen
Series L0.JPG
An L0 series maglev undergoing testing on the Yamanashi Maglev Test Line
Overview
Type Maglev
Status Under construction
Termini Tokyo
Shin-Osaka
Stations 9
Operation
Owner JR Central
Operator(s) JR Central
Rolling stock L0 series
Technical
Line length 286 km (178 mi)(Tokyo-Nagoya)
Operating speed 505 km/h (315 mph)
Route map
Chūō Shinkansen map.png

The Chuo Shinkansen (中央新幹線?) is a planned Japanese maglev line designed to ultimately connect Tokyo, Nagoya, and Osaka. Its initial planned route is between Shinagawa Station in Tokyo and Nagoya Station in Nagoya, with stations in Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Kofu, Yamanashi, and Nakatsugawa, Gifu, as well as an as-yet undetermined location in Nagano Prefecture.[1] The line is expected to connect Tokyo and Nagoya in the first stage in 40 minutes, and eventually Tokyo and Osaka in 67 minutes, running at a maximum speed of 505 km/h.[2]

The Chuo Shinkansen is the culmination of Japanese maglev development since the 1970s, a government-funded project initiated by Japan Airlines and the former Japanese National Railways (JNR). JR Central now operates the facilities and research. The line is intended to be built by extending and incorporating the existing Yamanashi test track (see below). The trainsets themselves are popularly known in Japan as Linear Motor Car (リニアモーターカー rinia mōtā kā?), though there have been many technical variations.

Government permission to proceed with construction was granted on May 27, 2011. Construction of the line, which is expected to cost over ¥9 trillion, is expected to commence in 2014.[3] JR Central aims to begin commercial service between Tokyo and Nagoya in 2027, with the Nagoya-Osaka section to be completed in 2045.[4] JR Central is considering opening demonstration service from a new station in Kōfu by the 2020 Summer Olympics so that tourists can ride on the experimental track through the Yamanashi mountains.[5]

Development overview[edit]

A maglev train on the Yamanashi Test Track, November 2005
Route of the Chuo Shinkansen

Miyazaki and Yamanashi Test Tracks[edit]

Yamanashi Test Track viaduct under construction in the city of Fuefuki in the Kofu Basin

Following the opening of the Tokaido Shinkansen between Tokyo and Osaka in 1964, Japanese National Railways (JNR) focused on the development of faster Maglev technology. In the 1970s, a 7-kilometre (4.3 mi) test track for Maglev research and development was built in Miyazaki Prefecture.[6] As desired results had been obtained at the – now former – Miyazaki test track, a new 18.4 kilometre test track with tunnels, bridges and slopes was built at a new site in Yamanashi Prefecture, between Ōtsuki and Tsuru (35°34′58″N 138°55′37″E / 35.5827°N 138.927°E / 35.5827; 138.927). Residents of Yamanashi Prefecture and government officials were eligible for free rides on the Yamanashi test track, and over 200,000 people took part. Trains on this test track have routinely achieved operating speeds of over 500 km/h (310 mph), making this an embryonic part of the future Chuo Shinkansen.

The track was extended a further 25 kilometres along the future route of the Chuo Shinkansen, to bring the combined track length up to 42.8 kilometres. Extension and upgrading work was completed by June 2013, allowing researchers to test sustained top speed over longer periods.[7][8] The first tests covering this longer track took place in August 2013.[9][10] JR Central intends to restart public train rides on the Yamanashi test track, this time for paying customers, likely on weekends and during the summer vacation period, from fiscal 2013 or later.[11]

Routing[edit]

The line's planned route passes through many sparsely-populated areas in the Japan Alps but is more direct than the current Tokaido Shinkansen route, and time saved through a more direct route was a more important criterion to JR Central than having stations at intermediate population centers. Also the more heavily populated Tokaido route is congested, and providing an alternative route if the Tokaido Shinkansen were to become blocked by earthquake damage was also a consideration.

The route between Nagoya and Osaka, as originally planned, included a stop in Nara. but in 2012 politicians and business leaders in Kyoto petitioned the central government and JR Central to change the route to pass through their city.[12] The governor of Nara Prefecture announced in November 2013 that he had re-confirmed the Transport Ministry's intention to route the segment through Nara.[13]

JR Central announced in July 2008 that the Chūō Shinkansen would most likely start at Tokyo's Shinagawa Station, citing difficulties in securing land at nearby Tokyo and Shinjuku stations for a maglev terminal, but the route has not been finalized.[14]

A JR Central report on the Chuo Shinkansen was approved by a Liberal Democratic Party panel in October 2008, which certified three proposed routes for the Maglev. According to a Japan Times news article, JR Central supports the more direct route, which would cost less money to build than the other two proposals, backed by Nagano Prefecture. The latter two plans have the line swinging up north between Kōfu and Nakatsugawa stations to serve areas within Nagano.[15] In June 2009, JR Central also announced research results comparing the three routes, estimating revenue and travel time, which showed the most favorable being the shortest Plan C, with long tunnels under the Japanese Alps (Akaishi Mountains).[16] The Council for Transport Policy for the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism concluded on October 20, 2010 that Plan C would be most cost-efficient.[17] JR Central announced that one station would be constructed in each of Yamanashi, Gifu, Nagano, and Kanagawa Prefectures.[2]

Three routes between Tokyo (Shinagawa) and Nagoya

Plan name Route between
Kofu - Nakatsugawa
Distance (km) Construction costs (JPY) Shortest journey time
Plan A via Kiso Valley 334 5.63 trillion 46 minutes
Plan B via Ina Valley (Chino, Ina, Iida) 346 5.74 trillion 47 minutes
Plan C under the Japanese Alps and Iida City 286 5.10 trillion 40 minutes

Between Tokyo (Shinagawa) - Osaka

Plan name Route between
Kofu - Nakatsugawa
Distance (km) Construction costs (JPY) Shortest journey time
Plan A via Kiso Valley 486 8.98 trillion 73 minutes
Plan B via Ina Valley (Chino, Ina, Iida) 498 9.09 trillion 74 minutes
Plan C under the Japanese Alps and Iida City 438 8.44 trillion 67 minutes

Construction schedule and costs[edit]

JR Central announced in December 2007 that it planned to raise funds for the construction of the Chuo Shinkansen on its own, without government financing. Total cost, originally estimated at 5.1 trillion yen in 2007.,[18] escalated to over 9 trillion yen by of 2011.[3] Nevertheless, the company has said it can make a pretax profit of around 70 billion yen in 2026, when the operating costs stabilize.[19] The primary reason for the project's huge expense is that it is planned to run in a tunnel for more than 60% of the entire line, and 40 m underground (deep underground) for a total of 100 km in the Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka areas.

The construction schedule as of 2013, which calls for the Tokyo-Nagoya segment to open in 2027 and the Nagoya-Osaka segment to open in 2045, is designed to keep JR Central's total debt burden below its approximate level at the time of privatization (around 5 trillion yen). The government of Osaka Prefecture, as well as local corporations such as Suntory and Nippon Life, have raised concerns about the impact of the delayed construction of the Nagoya-Osaka segment on the Osaka economy. Politicians from the Kansai region have called for expanded government assistance in order to expedite the line's construction.[13]

JR Central estimates that Chuo Shinkansen fares will be only slightly more expensive than Tokaido Shinkansen fares, with a difference of around 700 yen between Tokyo and Nagoya and around 1,000 yen between Tokyo and Osaka. The positive economic impact of the Chuo Shinkansen in reducing travel times between the cities has been estimated at anywhere between 5 and 17 trillion yen during the line's first fifty years of operation.[20]

Rolling stock[edit]

On December 2, 2003, MLX-01, a three-car train set a world record speed of 581 km/h (361 mph) in a manned vehicle run. On November 16, 2004, it also set a world record for two trains passing each other at a combined speed of 1,026 km/h (638 mph). On October 26, 2010, JR Central announced a new train type, the L0 series, for commercial operation at 505 km/h.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "中央新幹線(東京都・名古屋市間)計画段階環境配慮書の公表について". Central Japan Railway Company. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Kyodo News, "JR Tokai to list sites for maglev stations in June", The Japan Times, 2 June 2011, p. 9.
  3. ^ a b "Chuo maglev project endorsed". Railway Gazette International. 27 May 2011. 
  4. ^ "'Maglev launch to be delayed to 2027'". Asahi Shimbun. 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  5. ^ "リニア山梨県駅、東京五輪前に 体験乗車に道 JR東海が検討". 日本経済新聞. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  6. ^ Taniguchi, Mamoru (1993). "The Japanese Magnetic Levitation Trains". Built Environment 9 (3/4). Alexandrine Press. p. 235. Retrieved 2 October 2014.   – via JSTOR (subscription required)
  7. ^ "JR Central unveils L0 maglev". Railway Gazette International. 4 November 2010. 
  8. ^ 7月中にも最高時速500キロに 新型車両「L0系」 [New L0 series trains to reach 500 km/h during July]. Chunichi Web (in Japanese). Japan: The Chunichi Shimbun. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  9. ^ Hirokazu Tatematsu (29 August 2013). "Test runs get under way on 500 kph maglev Shinkansen". Asahi Shimbun. 
  10. ^ Hirokazu Tatematsu (30 August 2013). "Maglev train offers smooth ride inside, deafening noise outside". Asahi Shimbun. 
  11. ^ "'Maglev rides to return from 2013'". The Yomiuri Shimbun. 2010-11-26. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  12. ^ Johnston, Eric, "Economy, prestige at stake in Kyoto-Nara maglev battle", The Japan Times, 3 May 2012, p. 3.
  13. ^ a b "リニア「同時開業」綱引き 品川―名古屋―新大阪". 日本経済新聞. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  14. ^ "New Maglev Shinkansen line to start from Shinagawa Station in Tokyo". Mainichi Daily News. 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2008-07-03. [dead link]
  15. ^ "LDP OKs maglev line selections". The Japan Times. 2008-10-21. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  16. ^ "JR Tokai gives maglev estimates to LDP; in favor of shortest route". The Japan Times. 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  17. ^ "New maglev bullet train line to run through South Alps". The Mainichi Daily News. 2010-10-21. Retrieved 2010-10-26. 
  18. ^ JR東海、リニア新幹線建設を全額自己負担 総事業費5.1兆円, IB Times, December 26, 2007 (Japanese)
  19. ^ JR Tokai to build maglev system, The Japan Times, December 26, 2007
  20. ^ "東名阪経済圏が誕生? リニア新幹線で日本変わるか". Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  21. ^ http://www.mlit.go.jp/common/000145486.pdf

External links[edit]