||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (May 2013)|
|Elevation||914.4 m (3,000.0 ft)|
|• Density||59/km2 (150/sq mi)|
|• Others||Thadou, Hmar, Zou, Vaiphei, Gangte, Simte, Mizo, Kom and other tribal languages.|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||969 females per 1000 males ♂/♀|
- 1 History Origin of Lamka (Churachandpur) on the bank of Tuitha (Khuga)
- 2 Reclaiming the marshlands of Churachandpur
- 3 Westward Expansion: Songpi(Old Churachand)
- 4 The Northern and the Southern Frontiers
- 5 Geography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transport
- 8 Demographics
- 9 References
- 10 External links
History Origin of Lamka (Churachandpur) on the bank of Tuitha (Khuga)
Lamka (Churachandpur), is the District Headquarters of Southern Manipur (Churachandpur District). It is located in the south western corner of Manipur and covers an area of 4570 km² and is the largest district within the state of Manipur. The terrain of the district is mainly hilly, with narrow valleys that support wet rice cultivation. Churachandpur town is the district headquarters. Originally the name, as called by the original settlers, is LAMKA. However the name Churachandpur is imposed from the name of Manipur Raja Churachand Singh by the Meiteis. It is the second-largest town of Manipur, after the state capital, Imphal. Lamka is called the "second town" of Manipur and remains the fastest growing town in the state..
The town's population is made up of a number of communities were living together they called themselves Mizo-Zomi-kuki-Chin. These communities mainly belong to the Tibeto-Burman family. A significant number of Meitei and other plain communities also live in the town. Though each and every tribe can understand the different dialects,thadou is the most popular language in the district.
Reclaiming the marshlands of Churachandpur
Before World War II, the Churachandpur valley (or Lamka valley) was a tiny, mosquito-infested village on the west bank of the Tuitha river. The indigenous tribes traditionally survived on jhum or shifting cultivation on the hills surrounding the Churachandpur valley. They simply avoided the malaria-prone Churachandpur valley till the introduction of wet rice cultivation sometime during the inter-War period.
Here the shift from jhum hoe to paddy plough in the 1930s was nothing less than an agricultural revolution. For the first time, the availability of surplus food led to the birth of specialised services which sustain a tribal township in Southern Manipur. With this division of labour emerges a new tribal middle class – merchants, shop-keepers, pharmacists, clerks, contractors, civil servants, clergy, teachers and bankers – who populate the provincial town of Churachandpur. Since then this little hamlet called Churachandpur expanded towards the west bank of the Tuitha (Khuga) river. Note that "Tuitha" literally means "good river" in Hmar kuki dialect. Henceforth, the river valley ceases to be the haunt of killer malaria, dreaded as a "malignant spirit" in the past. In recent years, urban sprawl put pressure on land, resulting in price hike. It led to the loss of agriculture land to housing sites to accommodate new urban settlers. This process will increase CCpur's dependence for food grain on outside supply.
Westward Expansion: Songpi(Old Churachand)
The post-War period witnessed the rapid growth of villages in Churachandpur, until it engulfed the old village of Songpi (also known as Old Churachand or Mission Compound under the chieftain-ship of Paite) further west. The western village of Songpi was originally a separate village, 15 km west of Lamka village. The western frontier of Songpi (Old Churachand) and the eastern frontier of Lamka had different origins until they recently merged. For a long time, Songpi village was regarded as more important than Lamka village. When the Manipur hill areas were reorganised in 1919, Songpi was made one of the four sub-divisional headquarters. The following year, B.C. Gesper was posted at Songpi as the first SDO of the new administrative area. (See Chinkhopau 1995; Neihsial 1996).
In 1921, a lambu (colonial interpreter) renamed Songpi village as Churachandpur in honour of a Meitei prince from the Imphal valley. Mahajara Churachand visited Songpi village during a feast thrown for returning war veterans who had served in the Labour Corps[disambiguation needed] in France during World War I. Later, Christian missionaries (NEIG Mission) set up their headquarters at Songpi village in 1930 (Nengzachin 1974:11). Thus, Songpi became Mission Compound or Old Churachand.
The Northern and the Southern Frontiers
By the 1970s, the commercial frontier of Lamka in the east and the missionary frontier of Songpi in the west had practically merged. The next possible direction for urban expansion was in the north and the south. Tuibuang in the north sprang up as the administrative frontier that houses most of the district headquarters apart from Headquarter Veng which served as an administrative frontier in the West of Lamka town. Meanwhile, New Lamka became the southern frontier of new urban settlers. In fact, New Lamka is a miniature CCpur town that combines different historic personalities associated with Lamka bazaars, Songpi mission and Tuibuang offices. Churachandpur town, therefore, consists of at least four distinct layers of settlement histories. Though Lamka loses much of its skilled population to other big cities, the town population keeps growing due to a continuous stream of rural migrants from interior villages. Like most Indian towns, the urban infrastructure of Lamka suffers from lack of investment, lack of urban planning, and poor management. As the town expands without upgrading its infrastructure, the ugly side of urban growth like solid waste, traffic congestion and air pollution are now at the doorstep of Lamka town.
Khuga Dam: Artificial fresh water lake
The resumption of the Khuga dam project kick-started a new economic process fuelled by construction and related activities. This project, it appears, is partly responsible for the recent increase for demand and consumption of cement and steel (partly an index of economic health) within Lamka town for private housing construction. The Khuga dam has already created a beautiful artificial lake at the southern tip of Lamka town near Mata village. This multi-purpose project irrigates 150 square kilometres of land within 20 km of the dam site and will also supply 5 million imperial gallons (23,000 m³) of drinking water and 1.75 MW of electricity for the town. The dam project began in 1983 with an estimated cost of Rs. 150 million. It was set to be completed within four years; however, the project came to a standstill due to alleged financial irregularities. The ethnic conflict of 1997–98 also hampered further progress. When the project was resumed in 2002, the estimated cost had risen to over Rs. 2.80 billion. Till date, this multi-purpose project remains the biggest investment made by the Govt. of India within Churachandpur district. The structure of the earthen dam has been completed, but some components of this multipurpose project remain incomplete. June 2007 is the revised dateline for the completion of the project. The project received negative media attention and a lot of resentment due to inefficient handling of land acquisition and compensatory payments to the displaced people around the dam site. The project's undue delay also complicates the problem of compensation.
Though Churachandpur is the second biggest town of Manipur, it has no urban status according to the latest official records. On 11 July 2006, A.K. Sinha, Deputy Commissioner-cum-Chairman of Autonomous District Council, CC Pur, declared some parts of the town as "census town". The list of localities included in the town census are Tuibuang, Bijang, Sielmat, Zenhang Lamka, Rengkai, Luooa Veng, Nehru Marg, New Lamka, Salem Veng, Hill town, Upper Lamka (Hiangtam Lamka), Chapel Lane(a locality within Upper Lamka (Hiangtam Lamka), Headquarter Veng, Chiengkonpang, D Phailien, Bungmual, Pearsonmun, Thingkangphai, Ngathal, Kawnpui, Mualkot, Gangpimual, Mission Veng, Lhangnem, Gangte Veng, Zellang Veng, Pangzawl, and Lanva (28 in total). In the absence of any clear criteria for inclusion or exclusion, the whole exercise was arbitrary. There are certain localities at the very heart of the town which are excluded form the census town – such as Zomi Colony, Hmar Veng, Simveng, Hiangzou, and Zoveng.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Churachandpur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the three districts in Manipur currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Churachandpur town is well-served by telephone companies like kukinet Airtel and Aircel in addition to BSNL, which formerly monopolised the telecom service. Now, more private companies like TATA Indicom, Vodafone, Idea peitecell etc. also available...
Churachandpur town is connected to the state capital Imphal city by Tedim road construct by the British during World War 2 for their supply route connected up to Tedim town Burma. The town is just over a 1 hour drive from Imphal airport (about 65 km). National Highway No. 150 also known as Tipaimukh Road passes through the heart of the town on its way to Mizoram. Tedim Road Connects the town with Imphal City, Guite Road also connects the town with the neighboring state Mizoram crossing the myth TUIVAI river.
According to the 2011 census Churachandpur district has a population of 271,274, roughly equal to the nation of Barbados. This gives it a ranking of 575th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 59 inhabitants per square kilometre (150 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 19.03%. Churachandpur has a sex ratio of 969 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 84.29%.
The district is inhabited by several tribes, such as Paite, Hmar, Vaiphei, Zou and Thadou. Apart from these, there are the Gangte, Simte, Mizo, Tedim, Milhiem/Miria, and some Manipuri Meiteis. There are also other non-Manipuri ethnic groups like Nepalese, Biharis, Malwaris, and Punjabis. While the Nepalese excel in the milk industry, the Malwaris are well known for their business acumen. Despite the commercial origin of Churachandpur town, the indigenous people have few entrepreneurs and traditionally worked in the government sector. In fact, the town has been over-represented in civil services at the national level.
|Area:||4570 km²||Rank 1/9|
|Literacy Rate (2001)||84.29%||Rank 2/9|
|Literacy by Gender||Male 88.34%||Female 80.13%|
|Population (2011 Census)||271,274||Rank 5/9|
|Population % to state population||9.97%||(2011 Census)|
|Sex ratio||969 (2011 Census)||993 (2001 Census), 1004 (1961 Census)|
|Temperature||41oC Maximum||0oC Minimum|
|Humidity||89% Maximum||20% Minimum|
|Altitude||914.4 metres||(District Hqrs.)|
|Population Density||50 (2001 Census)||Rank 6/9|
|Telephone Code||+ 3874|
|Postal Code||Churachandpur 795128||Chiengkonpang 795158|
|Digital Map of Churachandpur||http://www.mapmyindia.com/?cx=416826&cy=5710960&cz=8||MapmyIndia|
Languages spoken in the district are Chin-Kuki-Mizo/Zomi tribes like Paite, Thadou, Hmar, Vaiphei,zou, Gangte, Simte, Mizo, Kom and other tribal languages. Paite, used as the link language in Southern Manipur's lone FM Station – All India Radio Churachandpur (Lamka), serves as the lingua franca for the different tribal communities in the District (MS. Prabharaka: "Ferment In Manipur" Frontline, 7–20 January 1989, p. 38). Also includes Aimol, a Sino-Tibetan tongue with less than 3000 speakers, written in the Latin script.
- "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals and Data Products – Census 2011: Manipur". "Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India". 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. "Barbados 286,705 July 2011 est."
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Aimol: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Census of India 2001: Manipur Series 14 (Provisional Population Totals), Imphal: Directorate of Census Operations, Manipur.
- Chinkhopau (1995) Churachandpur District, Churachandpur: Published by Author.
- District Statistical Handbook – Churachandpur: District Statistical Officer.
- Gangte, Thangzam (undated) Churachandpur Chanchin (An Account of Churachandpur)
- Ginsum, H (undated) Lamka Vangkhua (Lamka Town).
- Kamkhenthang, Dr. H (1995) "Lamka Town vis-a-vis Churachandpur", Shan (daily), 21 December.
- Kamkhenthang (1998) "Lamka (Churachandpur)" in B.D. Ray, A.K. Neog & H.K. Mazhari (eds.) Urban Development in North-East India : Potentiality and Problems, New Delhi: Vedams Books.
- Manipur State Archives, Imphal: Manipur State Durbar 1907–1947 – Papers related to the Court of the President of Manipur State Durbar, Hill Misc. Case No. 28 of 1945–46, Phungkhothang Chief of Hiangtam Lamka; also Misc Case No. 504 of 1934 Phungkhothang Chief of Hiangtam Lamka.
- Neihsial, Dr. Tualchin (1996) This is Lamka: A Historical Account of the Fastest Growing Town of Manipur Hills, Churachandpur, India: Zogam Book Centre & Library.
- Nengzachin (1974) "North East India General Mission Tanchin" in Jubilee Thusuah 1974, Churachandpur: Evangelical Convention Church; pp. 1–18.
||Cachar district, Assam||Tamenglong district||Bishnupur district
|Kolasib district, Mizoram||Chandel district|
|Champhai district, Mizoram||Myanmar|