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Location of Churachandpur district in Manipur
|Elevation||914.4 m (3,000.0 ft)|
|• Density||59/km2 (150/sq mi)|
|• Others||Thadou-Kuki(majority),Hmar, Zou, Vaiphei, Gangte, Simte, Thadou, Mizo, Kom and other tribal languages.|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||969 females per 1000 males ♂/♀|
- 1 History Origin of Churachandpur on the bank of Tuitha (Khuga)
- 2 Reclaiming the marshlands of Churachandpur
- 3 Expansion into Songpi / Tuibuong
- 4 The Northern and the Southern Frontiers
- 5 Geography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transport
- 8 Demographics
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
History Origin of Churachandpur on the bank of Tuitha (Khuga)
Churachandpur (CCPur), or Lamka, is the present administrative headquarter of the district that bears its name (Churachandpur District). Its location is the south-western corner of the Indian state of Manipur, and covers an area of 4570 km². It is the second-largest town of the state, after the state capital Imphal.
The district's terrain is mainly hilly, with narrow valleys that support wet rice cultivation. As the district headquarter, it is also a commercial center, and an important cultural hub for the highlanders living in the region. Originally, the name given by its inhabitants is Lamka. However, the Meiteis rename Lamka as "Churachandpur" from the post-World War II era in honor of their king Raja Churachand Singh. Lamka (CCPur) is called the "second town" of Manipur and remains the fastest growing habitation..
The town's population is made up of a number of communities living together. They call themselves Zomis, Kukis, Mizos,Hmars, etc., although descended from the same ancestral root called "Zo". These communities mainly belong to the Tibeto-Burman family. A significant number of Meiteis and other plain communities also live in the town. Being from the same ancestry, each and every tribe can understand the different dialects which, evolution suggests, must have been derived from a now-lost, root language.
Reclaiming the marshlands of Churachandpur
Before World War II, the Churachandpur valley (or Lamka valley) was a tiny, mosquito-infested village on the west bank of the Tuitha river. The indigenous tribes traditionally survived on jhum or shifting cultivation on the hills surrounding the Churachandpur valley. They simply avoided the malaria-prone valley till the introduction of wet-rice cultivation sometime during the inter-war period.
Here the shift from jhum to paddy cultivation in the 1930s was a local agricultural revolution. For the first time, the availability of surplus food led to the birth of specialised services which sustain a tribal township here. With this division of labour emerged a new tribal middle class – merchants, shop-keepers, pharmacists, clerks, contractors, clergy, teachers and bankers, even civil servants – who populate it provincial town. Since then this little hamlet called Churachandpur continuously expand towards the west bank of the Tuitha (Khuga) river. Note that "Tuitha" literally means "good river" in Paite dialect. Henceforth, the river valley ceases to be the haunt of killer malaria, dreaded as a "malignant spirit" in the past. In recent years, urban sprawl put pressure on land, resulting in price hike. It led to the loss of agriculture land to housing sites to accommodate new urban settlers. This process will increase the town's dependence for food grain on outside supply.
Expansion into Songpi / Tuibuong
The post-War period witnessed the rapid growth of villages in Churachandpur, until it engulfed the entirety of Lamka. Lamka was originally a village separated from Suongpi, located 15 km north of Lamka. The western frontier of Lamka (Old Churachand) and the northern frontier of Suongpi had different origins until they recently merged. For a long time, Lamka village was regarded as more important than other villages.(See Chinkhopau 1995; Neihsial 1996).
The Northern and the Southern Frontiers
By the 1970s, the commercial frontier of Lamka in the east and the missionary frontier of Songpi in the west had practically merged. Churachandpur became the administrative centre that houses the district's administrative headquarters, and served as India's administrative frontier. Meanwhile, New Lamka became the southern frontier of new urban settlers. In fact, New Lamka is the most densely populated area of the town and combines different historic personalities associated with the district. In recent years, Churachandpur loses much of its skilled population to other big cities. Even so, the town population keeps growing due to a continuous stream of rural migrants from interior villages. Like most Indian towns, the urban infrastructure of Churachandpur suffers from lack of investment, lack of urban planning, and poor management. As the town expands without upgrading its infrastructure, the ugly side of urban growth like solid waste, traffic congestion and air pollution are now at the doorstep of Churachandpur town.
Khuga Dam: Artificial fresh water lake
The resumption of the Khuga dam project kick-started a new economic process fuelled by construction and related activities. This project, it appears, is partly responsible for the recent increase for demand and consumption of cement and steel (partly an index of economic health) within Lamka town for private housing construction. The Khuga dam has already created a beautiful artificial lake at the southern tip of Lamka town near Mata village. This multi-purpose project irrigates 150 square kilometres of land within 20 km of the dam site and will also supply 5 million imperial gallons (23,000 m³) of drinking water and 1.75 MW of electricity for the town. The dam project began in 1983 with an estimated cost of Rs. 150 million. It was set to be completed within four years; however, the project came to a standstill due to alleged financial irregularities. The ethnic conflict of 1997–98 also hampered further progress. When the project was resumed in 2002, the estimated cost had risen to over Rs. 2.80 billion. Till date, this multi-purpose project remains the biggest investment made by the Govt. of India within Churachandpur district. The structure of the earthen dam has been completed, but some components of this multipurpose project remain incomplete. June 2007 is the revised dateline for the completion of the project. The project received negative media attention and a lot of resentment due to inefficient handling of land acquisition and compensatory payments to the displaced people around the dam site. The project's undue delay also complicates the problem of compensation.
Though Churachandpur is the second biggest town of Manipur, it has no urban status according to the latest official records. On 11 July 2006, A.K. Sinha, Deputy Commissioner-cum-Chairman of Autonomous District Council, CC Pur, declared some parts of the town as "census town". The list of localities included in the town census are Tuibuang, Bijang, Sielmat, Zenhang Lamka, Rengkai, Luooa Veng, Nehru Marg, New Lamka, Salem Veng, Hill town, Hiangtam Lamka, Chapel Lane(a locality within Upper, or Hiangtam, Lamka, Headquarter Veng, Chiengkonpang, D Phailien, Bungmual, Pearsonmun, Thingkangphai, Ngathal, Kawnpui, Mualkot, Gangpimual, Mission Veng, Lhangnem, Gangte Veng, Zellang Veng, Pangzawl, and Lanva (28 in total). In the absence of any clear criteria for inclusion or exclusion, the whole exercise was arbitrary. There are certain localities at the very heart of the town which are excluded form the census town – such as Zomi Colony, Hmar Veng, Simveng, Hiangzou, and Zoveng.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Churachandpur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the three districts in Manipur currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Churachandpur town is well-serviced by telephone companies like BSNL Airtel and Aircel in addition to BSNL, which formerly monopolised the telecom service. Now, more private companies like TATA Indicom, Vodafone, Idea peitecell etc. also available...
Churachandpur town is connected to the state capital Imphal city by Tedim road construct by the British during World War 2 for their supply route connected up to Tedim town Burma. The town is just over a 1 hour drive from Imphal airport (about 65 km). National Highway No. 150 also known as Tipaimukh Road passes through the heart of the town on its way to Mizoram. Tedim Road Connects the town with Imphal City, Guite Road also connects the town with the neighboring state Mizoram crossing the myth TUIVAI river.
According to the 2011 census Churachandpur district has a population of 271,274, roughly equal to the nation of Barbados. This gives it a ranking of 575th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 59 inhabitants per square kilometre (150 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 19.03%. Churachandpur has a sex ratio of 969 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 84.29%.
The district is inhabited by several tribes, such as Paite, Hmar, Vaiphei, Zou, Thadou, . Apart from these, there are the Gangte, Simte and Mizo with a small number of Tedim, Milhiem/Miria, and some Manipuri Meiteis.Among them, Thadou people constitute the largest group. There are also other non-Manipuri ethnic groups like Nepalese, Biharis, Malwaris, and Punjabis. While the Nepalese excel in the milk industry, the Malwaris are well known for their business acumen. Despite the commercial origin of Churachandpur town, the indigenous people have few entrepreneurs and traditionally worked in the government sector. In fact, the town has been over-represented in civil services at the national level.
|Area:||4570 km²||Rank 1/9|
|Literacy Rate (2001)||84.29%||Rank 2/9|
|Literacy by Gender||Male 88.34%||Female 80.13%|
|Population (2011 Census)||271,274||Rank 5/9|
|Population % to state population||9.97%||(2011 Census)|
|Sex ratio||969 (2011 Census)||993 (2001 Census), 1004 (1961 Census)|
|Temperature||41oC Maximum||0oC Minimum|
|Humidity||89% Maximum||20% Minimum|
|Altitude||914.4 metres||(District Hqrs.)|
|Population Density||50 (2001 Census)||Rank 6/9|
|Telephone Code||+ 3874|
|Postal Code||Churachandpur 795128||Chiengkonpang 795158|
|Digital Map of Churachandpur||http://www.mapmyindia.com/?cx=416826&cy=5710960&cz=8||MapmyIndia|
Languages spoken in the district are Paite, Hmar, Vaiphei, Zou, Gangte, Thadou, Tedim/Sukte, Simte, Mizo, Kom and other tribal languages. Ther is no Lingua-franca language for its inhabitant,as the dialect are overall similar to each others. Also includes Aimol, a Sino-Tibetan tongue with less than 3000 speakers, written in the Latin script.
- "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals and Data Products – Census 2011: Manipur". "Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India". 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. "Barbados 286,705 July 2011 est."
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Aimol: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Census of India 2001: Manipur Series 14 (Provisional Population Totals), Imphal: Directorate of Census Operations, Manipur.
- Chinkhopau (1995) Churachandpur District, Churachandpur: Published by Author.
- District Statistical Handbook – Churachandpur: District Statistical Officer.
- Gangte, Thangzam (undated) Churachandpur Chanchin (An Account of Churachandpur)
- Ginsum, H (undated) Lamka Vangkhua (Lamka Town).
- Kamkhenthang, Dr. H (1995) "Lamka Town vis-a-vis Churachandpur", Shan (daily), 21 December.
- Kamkhenthang (1998) "Lamka (Churachandpur)" in B.D. Ray, A.K. Neog & H.K. Mazhari (eds.) Urban Development in North-East India : Potentiality and Problems, New Delhi: Vedams Books.
- Manipur State Archives, Imphal: Manipur State Durbar 1907–1947 – Papers related to the Court of the President of Manipur State Durbar, Hill Misc. Case No. 28 of 1945–46, Phungkhothang Chief of Hiangtam Lamka; also Misc Case No. 504 of 1934 Phungkhothang Chief of Hiangtam Lamka.
- Neihsial, Dr. Tualchin (1996) This is Lamka: A Historical Account of the Fastest Growing Town of Manipur Hills, Churachandpur, India: Zogam Book Centre & Library.
- Nengzachin (1974) "North East India General Mission Tanchin" in Jubilee Thusuah 1974, Churachandpur: Evangelical Convention Church; pp. 1–18.
||Cachar district, Assam||Tamenglong district||Bishnupur district
|Kolasib district, Mizoram||Chandel district|
|Champhai district, Mizoram||Myanmar|