Location of Churachandpur district in Manipur
|Elevation||914.4 m (3,000.0 ft)|
|• Density||59/km2 (150/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||969 females per 1000 males ♂/♀|
Churachandpur (Pron:/ˌtʃʊɹətʃændɹəˈpʊə/) is a district or zilā located in the south-western corner of the Indian state of Manipur. The largest district in India, it is the site of the eponymous district headquarters and covers an area of 4,750 kilometres (2,950 mi).
History and background
The district's terrain is mainly hilly, with narrow valleys that support cultivation of paddy rice. It is an important commercial and cultural center for highlanders living in the region. Originally, it was called Tuithaphai by its inhabitants but was renamed Churachandpur by the Meiteis after World War II era in honor of their king Raja Churachand Singh.
The population is made up of a number of communities including the Kukis, Mizos, Simte, Zous, Vaipheis, Paites and Hmars who are all descended from the Tibeto-Burman Zo ancestral group family. A significant number of Meiteis and other plains communities also live here. Because of their common ancestry, each and every tribe can understand the different dialects which, evolution suggests, must have been derived from a now-lost, root language.
Before World War II, the Churachandpur (or Tuithaphai) Valley was a tiny, mosquito-infested area on the west bank of the Tuitha or Khuga river. Indigenous tribes traditionally survived through jhum or slash-and-burn agriculture on the hills surrounding the valley and avoided the malaria-prone lowland until the introduction of wet-rice cultivation sometime during the inter-war period.
The shift from jhum to paddy cultivation in the 1930s was a local agricultural revolution. For the first time, surplus food led to the birth of specialised services to sustain the local tribal township. As a result, a new tribal middle class emerged consisting of merchants, shop-keepers, pharmacists, clerks, contractors, clergy, teachers, bankers and civil servants. The settlement subsequently expanded towards the west bank of the river, whose name "Tuitha" literally means "good river" in the local Hmar dialect. Malaria, dreaded as a "malignant spirit" in the past, was eliminated. In recent years, urban sprawl has put pressure on land, resulting in a rise in prices and the loss of agriculture land to housing to accommodate new urban settlers. This process has increased the area's dependence on outside supplies of food grains .
Expansion into Suangpi / Tuibuang
The post-war period saw the rapid growth of villages in Churachandpur, until it engulfed the entirety of Tuithaphai. Tuithaphai was originally a separate village located 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Suangpi. The western frontier of Lamka (Old Churachand) and the northern frontier of Suangpi had different origins until they recently merged.[clarification needed Meaning unclear] For a long time, Tuithaphai was regarded as more important than other villages in the area.(See Chinkhopau 1995; Neihsial 1996).
The Northern and the Southern Frontiers
By the 1970s, the commercial frontier of Lamka in the east and the missionary frontier of Songpi in the west had practically merged. Churachandpur became the administrative centre that houses the district's administrative headquarters, and served as India's administrative frontier. Meanwhile, New Lamka became the southern frontier of new urban settlers. In fact, New Lamka is the most densely populated area of the town and combines different historic personalities associated with the district. In recent years, Churachandpur loses much of its skilled population to other big cities. Even so, the town population keeps growing due to a continuous stream of rural migrants from interior villages. Like most Indian towns, the urban infrastructure of Churachandpur suffers from lack of investment, lack of urban planning, and poor management. As the town expands without upgrading its infrastructure, the ugly side of urban growth like solid waste, traffic congestion and air pollution are now at the doorstep of Churachandpur town.
|This section is outdated. (July 2014)|
The resumption of the Khuga Dam project kick-started a new economic process fuelled by construction and related activities. This project may also be partly responsible for Lamka's recent increase in demand for and consumption of cement and steel for private housing construction. The dam has already created an artificial lake at the southern tip of Lamka town near Mata village. This multi-purpose project irrigates 150 square kilometres (58 sq mi) of land within 20 kilometres (12 mi) of the dam site and will also supply five million imperial gallons (23,000 m³)[clarification needed Over what period: per second, per year?] of drinking water and 1.75 MW of electricity for the town. The dam project began in 1983 at an estimated cost of Rs. 150 million. It was due to be completed within four years but came to a standstill due to alleged financial irregularities. The ethnic conflict of 1997–98 also hampered further progress. When the project was resumed in 2002, the estimated cost had risen to over Rs. 2.80 billion. To date, the project remains the biggest investment made by the government of India in the Churachandpur district. The structure of the earthen dam has been completed, but some components remain unfinished. June 2007 is the revised dateline for the completion of the project. The project received negative media attention and a lot of resentment due to inefficient handling of land acquisition and compensatory payments to the displaced people around the dam site. The project's undue delay also complicates the problem of compensation.
Although Churachandpur is the second biggest town in Manipur, it has no urban status according to the latest official records. On 11 July 2006, A.K. Sinha, Deputy Commissioner-cum-Chairman of Autonomous District Council, CC Pur, declared some parts of the town as a "census town". The list of localities included in the town census are Tuibuang, Bijang, Sielmat, Zenhang Lamka, Rengkai, Luooa Veng, Nehru Marg, New Lamka, Salem Veng, Hill town, Hiangtam Lamka, Chapel Lane (a locality within Upper, or Hiangtam, Lamka), Headquarter Veng, Chiengkonpang, D Phailien, Bungmual, Pearsonmun, Thingkangphai, Nghathal, Kawnpui, Mualkot, Gangpimual, Mission Veng, Lhangnem, Gangte Veng, Zellang Veng, Pangzawl, and Lanva (28 localities in total). In the absence of any clear criteria for inclusion or exclusion, the whole exercise was arbitrary. There are certain localities at the very heart of the town which are excluded form the census town – such as Zomi Colony, Hmar Veng, Simveng, Hiangzou, and Zoveng.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Churachandpur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the three districts in Manipur currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Churachandpur town is well-serviced by telephone companies including BSNL Airtel and Aircel in addition to BSNL, which formerly monopolised the telecom service. Services from other private companies such as TATA Indicom, Vodafone, and Idea Peitecell are also available.
Churachandpur town is connected to the state capital, Imphal city, by the Tedim Road to Burma, which was constructed by the British during World War II as a military supply route. The town is just over a one hour drive from Imphal airport ~(65 kilometres (40 mi)). National Highway No. 150, also known as Tipaimukh Road, passes through the heart of the town on its way to Mizoram. Guite Road also connects the town with the neighboring state of Mizoram across the Khuga or Tuvai River.
As of the 2011 census[update], Churachandpur district had a population of 271,274, roughly equal to that of Barbados. This gives it a ranking of 575th in India (out of a total of 640 districts). The district has a population density of 59 inhabitants per square kilometre (150 /sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 19.03%. Churachandpur has a sex ratio of 969 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 84.29%.
The district is inhabited by several tribes, including the Paite, Hmar, Vaiphei, Zou and Thadou. In addition to these, there are also the Gangte, Simte and Mizo with a small number of Tedim, Milhiem/Miria, and some Manipuri Meiteis. There are also other non-Manipuri ethnic groups like Nepalese, Biharis, Marwaris, and Punjabis. While the Nepalese excel in the milk industry, the Marwaris are well known for their business acumen. Despite the commercial origins of Churachandpur town, the indigenous people have produced few entrepreneurs and people traditionally worked in the government sector. The town is over-represented in civil services at the national level.
|Area:||4,570 square kilometres (1,760 sq mi)||Rank 1/9|
|Literacy Rate (2001)||84.29%||Rank 2/9|
|Literacy by Gender||Male 88.34%||Female 80.13%|
|Population (2011 Census)||271,274||Rank 5/9|
|Population % to state population||9.97%||(2011 Census)|
|Sex ratio||969 (2011 Census)||993 (2001 Census), 1004 (1961 Census)|
|Temperature||41oC Maximum||0oC Minimum|
|Humidity||89% Maximum||20% Minimum|
|Altitude||914.4 metres||(District Hqrs.)|
|Population Density||50 (2001 Census)||Rank 6/9|
|Telephone Code||+ 3874|
|Postal Code||Churachandpur 795128||Chiengkonpang 795158|
|Digital Map of Churachandpur||http://www.mapmyindia.com/?cx=416826&cy=5710960&cz=8||MapmyIndia|
Languages spoken in the district are Hmar, Vaiphei, Zou, Gangte, Thadou, Tedim/Sukte, Simte, Mizo, Kom Paite and other tribal languages. Thadou is the lingua-franca language, as well as all dialects are roughly similar to each other. The area also includes fewer than 3,000 speakers of the Sino-Tibetan Aimol language, which is written using Latin script.
- "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals and Data Products – Census 2011: Manipur". "Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India". 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. "Barbados 286,705 July 2011 est."
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Aimol: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Census of India 2001: Manipur Series 14 (Provisional Population Totals), Imphal: Directorate of Census Operations, Manipur.
- Chinkhopau (1995) Churachandpur District, Churachandpur: Published by Author.
- District Statistical Handbook – Churachandpur: District Statistical Officer.
- Gangte, Thangzam (undated) Churachandpur Chanchin (An Account of Churachandpur)
- Ginsum, H (undated) Lamka Vangkhua (Lamka Town).
- Kamkhenthang, Dr. H (1995) "Lamka Town vis-a-vis Churachandpur", Shan (daily), 21 December.
- Kamkhenthang (1998) "Lamka (Churachandpur)" in B.D. Ray, A.K. Neog & H.K. Mazhari (eds.) Urban Development in North-East India : Potentiality and Problems, New Delhi: Vedams Books.
- Manipur State Archives, Imphal: Manipur State Durbar 1907–1947 – Papers related to the Court of the President of Manipur State Durbar, Hill Misc. Case No. 28 of 1945–46, Phungkhothang Chief of Hiangtam Lamka; also Misc Case No. 504 of 1934 Phungkhothang Chief of Hiangtam Lamka.
- Neihsial, Dr. Tualchin (1996) This is Lamka: A Historical Account of the Fastest Growing Town of Manipur Hills, Churachandpur, India: Zogam Book Centre & Library.
- Nengzachin (1974) "North East India General Mission Tanchin" in Jubilee Thusuah 1974, Churachandpur: Evangelical Convention Church; pp. 1–18.
||Cachar district, Assam||Tamenglong district||Bishnupur district
|Kolasib district, Mizoram||Chandel district|
|Champhai district, Mizoram||Myanmar|