Church Army Chapel, Blackheath
|Church Army Chapel, Blackheath|
Drawing by E.T. Spashett
|Town or city||Greenwich, Greater London|
|Cost||£250,000 (whole site)|
|Structural system||Saddle roof and sectional aluminium spire|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Ernest Trevor Spashett ARIBA
|Structural engineer||Woodgate (Blackheath) Ltd, Montpelier-vale, Blackheath|
The Church Army Chapel at Vanbrugh Park, Blackheath, Greater London, designed by Austin Vernon & Partners, opened in 1965 by Princess Alexandra and consecrated by Michael Ramsey, is a locally listed building of outstanding architectural significance, and is notable for originally having had the tallest sectional aluminium spire of its time, and for being one of the earliest 20th-century chapels of modern design to have been conceived with a central altar. It is now part of Blackheath High School.
Local listing description
At Greenwich Council building conservation department it is locally listed as a building of outstanding architectural significance, under the name of the Wilson Carlile Training College Chapel at 27 Vanbrugh Park, Blackheath, London, by architect E.T. Spashett. It is described as: "An interesting modern building of unusual design featuring a striking gull wing upper roof swept to ground level on one side; grey brick with tall, narrow window lights". Local listings have no reference number. By the time Greenwich Council planning department assessed it in the 1980s, the spire was down and lying alongside the building. The building could not be upgraded to national status by The Department for Culture, Media and Sport, representing English Heritage in April 1999, as the spire was gone so the massiveness of the roof structure could no longer be understood by the assessors who were puzzled to find it "overscaled". When opened complete with spire in 1965, the South East London Mercury described the chapel as "a showpiece of modern architecture and building technique".
See images here and here and here. The Church Army does not normally have a chapel as it does outreach work, but in the 1960s an exception was made for its headquarters at Blackheath, possibly as the chapel could be considered part of the training college.
The concept for the building is embodied in the spire, which was a very tall, slim, hollow aluminium cone at least twice the height of the building again, chosen for its lightness and strength as proved in the aeroplane construction industry - the architect being ex-Royal Air Force. It was made up of a series of overlapping hollow sections decreasing in size up to the final cone-section at the top, like a Victorian hand-held brass telescope, but with the overlaps of the expanding sections reversed. A small cross-piece through the top cone section doubled as the hilt of a sword, representing the Church Army in the context of such Biblical expressions as "good soldier of Christ". The cross-shaped top was also reminiscent of the capping-crosses of medieval spires like the one on Salisbury Cathedral (see image, below). A slightly similar type of aluminium spire had been added to the top of the Chrysler Building in 1929, allegedly as a surprise in that it created, temporarily, New York's tallest building. St. Michael's Parish Church, Linlithgow has a controversial "crown of thorns" aluminium spire of sectional construction, erected in 1964.
The spire had a flanged base, mounted on a round plate, then a rectangular plate.
In the official programme for the 1965 opening the building is described as follows:
"The chapel is of special interest: it has been planned to suit modern conceptions of worship, with the faithful gathered round the communion table and the celebrant normally facing the people. Its shell roof is in the shape of a hyperbolic paraboloid, and is constructed of three thin skins of timber laid in different directions, glued and spiked, being supported entirely by its two buttresses. The slit windows which run from floor to roof are separated by concrete pillars faced outside with a white mosaic tile finish and inside with white leather-cloth. The furnishings and doors are of American black walnut and the floor is a grey-green terrazzo."
The columns between the windows do not appear to meet the roof when viewed from below: this gives a floating-roof effect. Although the tops of the white brick walls on the east and west elevations are fixed to the roof to stabilise it, the floating-roof effect is continued with a top row of dark blue engineering bricks with dark pointing. Viewed from below, this row can look like a gap between wall and roof. This row is clearly shown in a photograph in the Blackheath Reporter.
One inspiration for the building was Le Corbusier and his Modular Man proportions and saddle roofs. By 1963 when the building was at the design stage it was known that the prefabricated shell-roof version, constructed of thin, cast, reinforced concrete, was subject to being lifted bodily from buildings by high winds and that some shapes such as this one could create a drainage problem. Drainage could compromise the smooth appearance with guttering and pipes, or it could encourage chronic leakage over time if holes had to be made in the structure.
The roof is a saddle roof, meaning that it is in the shape of a hyperbolic paraboloid, and thus the curved shape can be constructed with straight beams; a previous example was a 1956 Kansas house.
The cross-shaped blue glass window on the east side was intended to double as a symbolic sword-shape, like the original spire. This is because the first inspiration for the building was The Vigil by John Pettie, 1884. In the painting, a squire holds his vigil by praying overnight before his knighting ceremony, hoping that he and his equipment might be purified beforehand. As the design of the spire was inspired by the vertical position of the squire's sword, which symbolises the cross, so the natural lighting inside the chapel is inspired by this painting. In The Vigil, the dawn light falls from the east window above the altar onto the squire and his sword, and the purification is symbolised by the glow of the white surplice. A shadow below the squire's arm crosses a crease in the surplice, giving the effect of a shadowy cross on his torso. In the Blackheath chapel, a blue celestial light is designed to fall in the shape of a cross or sword across the central altar of the basilica-shaped interior from the east side.
The tall, rectangular windows of the building were inspired by the gallery of shadowy pillars in the background of the painting. There is a theory that medieval pillars and fan vaulting had some connection with the appearance of an avenue of trees.
The foundation stone was laid in March 1964. The chapel was part of the Church Army Wilson Carlile Training College designed by the same architect, and was opened by Princess Alexandra at 2.45pm on 6 May 1965, the opening being commemorated on a marble stone in a cloakroom off the entrance lobby to the chapel. The late R.G.D. (Russell) Vernon MBE, head of Austin Vernon & Partners under whose banner the chapel was designed, was invited to the opening at which the Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey was to consecrate the chapel.
Pews and west-end altar in chapel, 1965
Owners of the chapel and college
The first owner was the Church Army, who needed the buildings for their Wilson Carlile Training College in 1965. The training college moved to Sheffield in 1991-92. The premises were sold by the Church Army in 1994 to Blackheath High School, which between 1999 and 2009 was using the chapel as a music room and dance studio.
Wilson Carlile Training College site 1965
The chapel was part of a larger build in 1965, and was designed to form part of the south side of an open, central quadrangle (see image of architectural model). The east side consisted of older buildings, and the west side was open, so the only other major new build was the large dormitory block on the north side. This was an international style building of white brick with metal-framed windows and black slate panels between the windows and covering the sills. Only two staircases and the upper part of the west end of this block remain in original condition, as there has been much development on the site since 1965. The description of the site in the May 1965 opening day programme is as follows:
"The new College has accommodation for seventy-two students and in addition three flats are provided nearby for married students and their families. Staff are accommodated either in the College or in adjoining houses, provision has been made for four lecture rooms, library, common rooms etc., and the grounds which cover two acres include spacious lawns and an asphalt area for tennis and netball."
RIBA archives holdings
Five black and white photographs dated 1975 are held in the RIBA Archives as part of their Press Office collection and described as follows:
- London: Church Army's Chapel, Blackheath: ext view showing double-curved roof (archts Austin Vernon & Partners, 1965) (BM/ECCL/40/A) (photo G. Hana Ltd 28978)
- London: Church Army's Chapel, Blackheath: ext view (archts Austin Vernon & Partners, 1965) (BM/ECCL/40/B) (photo G. Hana Ltd 28976)
- London: Church Army's Chapel, Blackheath: ext view showing double-curved roof (archts Austin Vernon & Partners, 1965) (BM/ECCL/40/C) (photo G. Hana Ltd 28977)
- London: Church Army's Chapel, Blackheath: int view (archts Austin Vernon & Partners, 1965) (BM/ECCL/40/D) (photo G. Hana Ltd 28975)
- London: Church Army's Chapel, Blackheath: int view (archts Austin Vernon & Partners, 1965) (BM/ECCL/40/E) (photo G. Hana Ltd 28974)
- Unknown journalist (7 May 1965). "Charlton royal visit". Blackheath Reporter: 1.
- Unknown journalist (14 May 1965). "The princess was late for tea: royal time-table "forgotten": Church Army College Opening". South East London Mercury: 7. Check date values in:
- "Greenwich Council". Planning and Building department. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- "Buildings of Local Architectural or Historic Interest Borough of Greenwich". Vanbrugh Park, SE3 Wilson Carlisle Training College Chapel (Spashett's name incorrectly spelled as of November 2010, but Council has agreed to correct it). Greenwich Council. Compiled 1983; updated 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010. Check date values in:
- "English Heritage". Public archive (National Monuments Record). Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Buildings, Monuments and Sites; Duncan Galbraith (12 April 1999). Letter: Planning (listed buildings and conservation areas)Act 1990; Buildings of special architectural or historic interest; Blackheath School for Girls, 27 Vanbrugh Park, Greenwich; Ref HSD/5012/274/SL1455-98.
- "Church Army Online". FAQs: General Questions:What is Church Army?. Retrieved 2009-07-16.[dead link]
- "Pilotfriend". Aviation, the first 100 years: Handley Page Halifax. The Ailerons on a Halifax are aluminium. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Such a telescope was the first inspiration for the construction of the spire: information from architect, 1964.
- "Center for church music, songs and hymns". Onward Christian Soldiers. 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
- Pierpoint, Claudia Roth (18 November 2002). "The New Yorker Archive". The Silver Spire, p.74. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
- "Scran". Photograph of Crown of Thorns spire on Linlithgow Church. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
- Church Army (1965). Programme: The Opening by her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra. Church Army Press, Cowley, Oxford. pp. 1–10.
- The explanation of "modern conceptions of worship" may imply a central altar as in Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral. However the Church Army unexpectedly installed pews and a west-end altar, as seen in a photo in Church Army Review, Editor Vera Burtt, June 1965, page 8. The interior white leather-cloth is now missing. The terrazzo floor is covered with a sprung wooden floor, which may also possibly serve to protect the original floor, however the terrazzo is still visible in the chapel lobby.
- Unknown journalist (30 April 1965). "Princess Alexandra will love this new college". Blackheath Reporter: 7.
- The same Blackheath Reporter 30 April 1965 p.7 article contains a large photo of the chapel being built, with the mosaicist at work on the window columns.
- George L. Hersey (2000). Architecture and Geometry in the Age of the Baroque. University of Chicago Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-226-32783-9.
- Bussagli, Marco (2005). Understanding Architecture. I.B. Tauris. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-84511-089-5.
- "SSQ". Kalzip helps the RAF go bold in the cold, 2006: description of drainage and roof flashing challenge of paraboloid roof. Retrieved 2009-07-16.[dead link]
- "Building Talk". Waterproofing for hyperbolic paraboloid roof. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
- "Imagazine". Contractors of the year: winner. 18 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
- "Capital Roofing". The roof repairers. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- Martin, Sarah; Tom Harper (May–June 2007). "Kansas Preservation Vol 29, no.3". House of Tomorrow. pp. 12–15. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- In 2009 this was blocked on the outside so appears black from the inside. See photographs on article page.
- "Tate Online". The Vigil by John Pettie, 1884. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
- Mitchell, Esther (2002). "Essortment". Medieval History: The Vigil of Arms. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- T. Leman Hare, ed. (1934). The World's Greatest Paintings: one hundred selected masterpieces of famous art galleries. Long Acre, London WC2: Odhams Press Ltd. pp. Alphabetical by painters; not numbered.
- Scott, Sir Walter. Essay on Chivalry.
- i.e. the early meeting-room form
- Paterson, Allen (2003). Trees For Your Garden. frances lincoln ltd. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7112-2084-3.
- Unknown journalist (6 March 1964). "Well and truly laid". The Mercury: 16. Check date values in:
- The Times; Court Circular; "Thatched House Lodge, Richmond Park, May 6", page 16. 7 May 1965.
- "The Times". Today's Arrangements: p.15, col.1. 6 May 1965.
- "The Edward Alleyn Club". Death of former club president (RGD (Russell) Vernon, MBE). 9 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-16.[dead link]
- Church Army editor Vera Burtt (June 1965). "Image: "The College Chapel"". Church Army Review: 8.
- "Church Army Online". Some Key Dates: "1965 Wilson Carlile Training College opened in Blackheath". 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-17.[dead link]
- "Sheffield Directory". Wilson Carlile College Of Evangelism: Information from college. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Blackheath High School GDST". History (citing 1994 move to Vanburgh Park). Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- The programme incorrectly names Russell Vernon as architect: Spashett designed the build for Austin Vernon & Partners, of which Vernon was the director.
- "RIBA archives catalogue". Views of modern buildings: churches (1975). Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- Youtube video panorama of interior of chapel
- Advisory Board for Redundant Churches: Criteria for determining heritage values and the scope for change in closed Anglican churches
- Greenwich Heritage Centre: local archives covering Blackheath area.
- Church Army online
- Blackheath High School: virtual tour and videos
- Greenwich Council: planning and building department
- 20th Century Society: society for preservation of modern buildings
- RIBA archives
- An earlier 1950s building with hyperbolic paraboloid roof by Sam Scorer This was originally supported at the two lower points only (shown here), as is the Church Army Chapel.
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