|Alternative name(s)||Chatney, Chatni|
|Place of origin||Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh|
|Region or state||South Asia|
|Main ingredient(s)||Seasonings such as salt, spices/herbs, and vegetables/fruits such as chilis, Damsons, plums, tomatoes, apple, pear, onion, garlic, fig, etc.|
Chutney (also transliterated chatney or chatni) is a family of condiments mainly associated with South Asian cuisine that usually contain some mixture of spice(s), vegetable(s), and/or fruit(s). There are many varieties of chutney.
Chutneys may be either wet or dry, and can have a coarse to a fine texture. The Indian word refers to fresh and pickled preparations indiscriminately, with preserves often sweetened. Several Indian languages use the word for fresh preparations only. A different word achār (Hindi: अचार) applies to preserves that often contain oil and are rarely sweet. Vinegar, citrus, tamarind, or lemon juice may be added as natural preservatives, or fermentation in the presence of salt may be used to create acid.
The name "chutney" covers a wide variety of foodstuffs. The common element which makes them all "chutneys" is that they are added to meals to add flavour; the best English "translation" of "chutney" is "relish". As such, they can be, and are, eaten with a wide variety of foods.
Traditionally, chutneys are ground with a mortar and pestle made of stone or an ammikkal (Tamil). Spices are added and ground, usually in a particular order; the wet paste thus made is sautéed in vegetable oil, usually gingelly (sesame) or groundnut (peanut) oil. Electric blenders or food processors can be used as labor-saving alternatives to stone grinding.
Chutneys can be made from almost any combination of vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices. Chutneys are usually grouped into sweet or hot forms; both forms usually contain spices, including chili, but differ by their main flavours. Chutney types and their preparations vary widely across Pakistan and India.
Types of chutneys:
- Coriander (cilantro) chutney
- capsicum chutney
- Mint chutney (coriander and mint chutneys are often called hari chutney, where hari is Hindi for "green")
- Tamarind chutney or Imli chutney (often called meethi chutney, as meethi in Hindi means "sweet")
- Sooth (or saunth) chutney, made with dates and ginger
- Coconut chutney
- Onion chutney
- Prune chutney
- Tomato chutney
- Red chili chutney
- Green chili chutney
- Mango chutney (made from raw, green mango)
- Lime chutney (made from whole, unripe limes)
- Garlic chutney (made from fresh garlic, coconut and groundnut)
- Dahi chutney
- Green tomato chutney (common English recipes use up unripe tomatoes)
- Dhaniya pudina chutney (cilantro and mint leaves chutney)
- Peanut chutney (shengdana chutney in Marathi)
- Ginger chutney (mostly used in Tamil cuisine and Udupi cuisine to be eaten with dosa)
- Yogurt chutney, may be as simple as mixing yogurt, red chili powder, and salt, eaten with a variety of foods
- Tomato onion chutney
- Cilantro mint coconut chutney
- Blatjang, used in South African cuisine, is a sweet chutney usually made with apricots.
- Major Grey's Chutney is a type of sweet and spicy chutney popular in the United Kingdom and the United States. The recipe was reputedly created by a 19th-century British Army officer of the same name (likely apocryphal) who presumably lived in Colonial India. Its characteristic ingredients are mango, raisins, vinegar, lime juice, onion, tamarind extract, sweetening and spices. Several companies produce a Major Grey's Chutney, in the UK, the US, and India.
The word "chutney" is derived from the Sanskrit word caṭnī, meaning to lick. The first chutneys in India would have been sticky fruit based preserves. Sugar, although available in India, was not widely cultivated and honey would have been used to sweeten dishes, this leading to the chutneys being used as more of a dipping sauce rather than a condiment. It is written differently in several Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages (Gujarati: ચટણી, Bengali: চাটনী, Marathi: चटणी, Punjabi: ਚਟਣੀ, Tamil: சட்டினி chaṭṭiṉi, காரத் துவையல் karathuvaiyal, Kannada: ಚಟ್ನಿ, Hindi: चटनी, Urdu: چٹنی, Sindhi: چٽڻي, Malayalam: ചട്ടിണി, chattin̩i, ചമ്മന്തി, Telugu: పచ్చడి(Pacchadi), as written in Telugu script here, refers specifically to pickled fruits, whilst chutney refers to minced foods, usually made out of coconuts.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
Similar in preparation and usage to a pickle, simple spiced chutneys can be dated as far back as 500 BC. Originating in Northern Europe, this method of preserving food was subsequently adopted by the Romans and later British empires, who then started exporting this to the colonies, Australia and America.
As greater imports of foreign and varied foods increasing into Northern Europe the chutney fell out of favour. This combined with a greater ability to refrigerate fresh foods and an increasing amount of glasshouses meant chutney and pickle were relegated to military and colonial use. Chutney also appeared in India around the 1780s as a popular appetizer
Diego Álvarez Chanca brought back chili peppers from the Americas. After discovering their medicinal properties, Chanca developed a chutney to administer them. This coincided with the British Royal Navy's use of a lime pickle or chutney to ward off scurvy on journeys to the new world.
In the early 17th century, British colonization of the Indian subcontinent relied on preserved food stuffs such as lime pickles, chutneys and marmalades. (Marmalades proving unpopular due to their sweetness and a lack of available sugar.)
Beginning in the 17th century, fruit chutneys were shipped to European countries like England and France as luxury goods. These imitations were called "mangoed" fruits or vegetables, the word 'chutney' still being associated with the lower working classes.
Generally these chutneys are fruit, vinegar, and sugar cooked down to a reduction.
The tradition of chutney-making spread through the English-speaking world, especially in the Caribbean and American South, where chutney is still a popular condiment for ham, pork, and fish.
By Indian region
- Assam: coriander, spinach, tomato, curry leaf, chili, radish, carrot, cucumber, beetroot, lentil, chickpea, ghost chilli chutneys
- Andhra Pradesh: coconut, coriander, red chilli with grams (chana), tomato, onion, peanut, lemon, curry leaf, tamarind, green chilli, ginger, mint, mango chutneys
- Gujarat: hot lime chutneys, garlic chutney
- Haryana: tamarind chutney
- Himachal Pradesh: guava and eggplant chutneys
- Karnataka: coconut, peanut, tomato, tamarind, mango, urad dal (a kind of legume), pudina (mint), heeray kayi (ridge gourd),badane kayi (eggplant), uchellu (Niger seed), bende kaayi (okra or ladyfinger), agashi (flax seed), ginger chutneys
- Kerala: coconut, mint, urad dal, mango, dry fish, shrimp, onion chutney
- Maharashtra: hot raw mango chutney, guramba, panchamrit, mirachicha thecha: dry chutneys made with javas (flax seed), Solapuri shenga, peanut/red chili powder, karale (Niger seed), peanut/garlic (lasun), dudhi, roasted (bottle gourd) skin chutney
- Odisha: coconut, mango, orange, tomato, dried fish chutneys
- Punjab: pudina (mint) chutney, onion chutney, tamarind chutney, mango chutney
- Tamil Nadu: Coconut, Coriander, Curry leaf, Red chilli, Green chilli, Garlic, Peanut, Tamarind, Tomato, Onion, Ginger, Radish, Mint, Mango, lentil chutneys
- Uttar Pradesh and Bihar: coriander seed and leaf, garlic, roasted onion, cooked tomato, mint, radish, amla, sweet and sour mango, green chili, boiled potato and pickled mango, red chili and jaggery chutneys
- West Bengal: lime, green mango, tomato, papaya, pineapple, date, dried mango jelly and other dry fruits, green chili chutneys
- Anglo-Indian cuisine, for a divergent type of chutney in the UK and elsewhere
- Furikake, a dry, coarsely powdered Japanese food eaten in similarly to dry chutney.
- Indian pickle
- List of condiments
- Trowbridge Filippone, Peggy. "Chutney Recipes and Cooking Tips". About.com. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "SinfulCurry: Tomato Onion Chutney recipe"
- "SinfulCurry: Cilantro Mint Coconut chutney recipe"
- Apricot Blatjang recipe
- Weaver, William Woys. "Chutney". Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Ed. Solomon H. Katz. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 417–418. 3 vols. ISBN 0-684-80568-5.
- Dahiya, Ashish. Food of Haryana: The Great Chutneys Vol. 1. India. ISBN 978-93-81818-05-3.
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