|Region||Chuvashia and adjacent areas|
|1.08 million (2010 census)|
Official language in
Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Čăvašla; IPA: [tɕəʋaʂˈla]) is a Turkic language spoken in central Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas. It is the only surviving member of the Oghur branch of Turkic languages. While many Turkic languages demonstrate mutual intelligibility to varying degrees, Chuvash has diverged considerably from the other languages in the group.
- 1 Language use
- 2 History
- 3 Writing systems
- 4 Phonology
- 5 Dialects
- 6 Grammar
- 7 Notes
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Chuvash is the native language of the Chuvash people and an official language of Chuvashia. It is spoken by 1,640,000 persons in Russia and another 34,000 in other countries. 86% of ethnic Chuvash and 8% of the people of other ethnicities living in Chuvashia claimed knowledge of Chuvash language during the 2002 census. Despite that, and although Chuvash is taught at schools and sometimes used in the media, it is considered endangered, because Russian dominates in most spheres of life and few children learning the language are likely to become active users.
A fairly significant production and publication of literature in Chuvash continues to the present day. According to UNESCO's Index Translationum, at least 202 books translated from Chuvash were published in other languages (mostly Russian) since ca. 1979. However, as with most of other languages of the former USSR, most of the translation activity took place before the dissolution of the USSR: out of these 202 translations, 170 books were published in the USSR, and just 17, in the post-1991 Russia (mostly, in the 1990s). A similar situation takes place with the translation of books from other languages (mostly Russian) into Chuvash (the total of 175 titles published since ca. 1979, but just 18 out of them, in the post-1991 Russia).
Chuvash is the most distinctive of the Turkic languages and cannot be understood by speakers of other Turkic tongues. Today, Chuvash is classified, alongside Khazar, Turkic Avar, Bulgar, and (possibly) Hunnic, as a member of the Oghuric branch of the Turkic language family. It is the only language of this family which is not extinct. The conclusion that Chuvash belongs to the Oghuric branch of Turkic arises from the reasoning that the vocabulary shows the language to belong to the r- and l- type which is typical for all languages of this branch. The rest of the Turkic languages (Common Turkic) are of the z- and š- type."
Since the surviving literary records for the non-Chuvash members of Oghuric are scant, the exact position of Chuvash within the Oghuric family cannot be determined.
Formerly, scholars considered Chuvash not properly a Turkic language at all but, rather, a Turkicized Finno-Ugric (Uralic) language.
|А а||Ӑ ӑ||Б б||В в||Г г||Д д||Е е||Ё ё|
|Ӗ ӗ||Ж ж||З з||И и||Й й||К к||Л л||М м|
|Н н||О о||П п||Р р||С с||Ҫ ҫ||Т т||У у|
|Ӳ ӳ||Ф ф||Х х||Ц ц||Ч ч||Ш ш||Щ щ||Ъ ъ|
|Ы ы||Ь ь||Э э||Ю ю||Я я|
|Ӑ ӑ||ă||/ə/||ă||Reduced: may be /ə/ when unstressed, /o/ when stressed.|
|Ё ё||ё||/jo/ or /ʲo/||yo, jo|
|Ӗ ӗ||ӗ||/ɘ/||ĕ||Reduced: may be /ɘ/ when unstressed, /ø/ when stressed.|
|Й й||йӑ||/j/||y, j|
|О о||о||/o/||o||May be /ɔ/ in loanwords from Russian|
|Ҫ ҫ||ҫӑ||/ɕ/||ś, ş|
|Ц ц||цӑ||/ʦ/||ts, z|
|Ч ч||чӑ||/ʨ/||č, c|
|Ш ш||шӑ||/ʂ/||š, sh|
|Ъ ъ||хытӑлӑхпалли||–||ʺ||Placed after a consonant, acts as a "silent back vowel"; puts a distinct /j/ sound in front of the following iotified vowels with no palatalization of the preceding consonant|
|Ы ы||ы||/ɯ/||ı, y|
|Ь ь||ҫемҫелӗхпалли||/ʲ/||ʹ||Placed after a consonant, acts as a "silent front vowel", slightly palatalizes the preceding consonant|
|Ю ю||ю||/ju/ or /ʲu/||yu, ju|
|Я я||я||/ja/ or /ʲa/||ya, ja|
In 1938, the alphabet underwent significant modification which brought it to its current form.
The most ancient writing system, known as the Orkhon script, disappeared after the Volga Bulgars converted to Islam. Later, the Arabic script was adopted. After the Mongol invasion, writing degraded. After Peter the Great's reforms Chuvash elites disappeared, blacksmiths and some other crafts were prohibited for non-Russian nations, the Chuvash were educated in Russian, while writing in runes recurred with simple folks.
CăvashLat emerged in the 2007 in the Chuvash-speaking internet community Chuvash.org to bring many variants of transliteration to one standard Latin Script. Every one character of this alphabet corresponds to one specific phoneme. In the table below the characters are grouped according to the types of speech sounds they correspond to: vowels, sonorants, obstruents.
|a /a/||ă /ə/||e /e/||ӗ /ɘ/||y /ɯ/||i /i,ɨ/||u /u/||ü /y/|
|m /m/||v /ʋ/||l /l/||n /n/||r /r/||j /j/|
|p /p/||t /t/||c /ʨ/||ş /ɕ/||s /s/||š /ʂ/||h /x/||k /k/|
It is argued that Chuvash accommodated new speech sounds from Russian loanwords which became new Chuvash phonemes (/f/ and its allophones [f̬ (v),fː], which Russian itself uses only in loanwords; /ks/ and its allophone [gz]; /ʦ/ and its allophones [ʦ̬],[ʦː]). Also, characters for the speech sounds of upper dialect of Chuvash are added (o, ö). A special character for the unstressed i at the end of loanwords from Russian (intustrĭ 'industry', fottokraffĭ 'photography') is introduced.
|f /f/||ĭ /i,ɨ/||o /o/||ö /ø/||x /ks/||z /ʦ/|
Diacritic marks are used to specify: Apostrophe ' - phonemic palatalization; Breve ̆ - unstressed vowels.
The consonants are the following (the corresponding Cyrillic letters are in brackets): /p/ (п), /t/ (т), /k/ (к), /t͡ɕ/ (ч), /s/ (с), /ʂ/ (ш), /ɕ/ (ҫ), /χ/ (х), /ʋ/ (в), /m/ (м), /n/ (н), /l/ (л), /r/ (р), /j/ (й). The stops, sibilants and affricates are voiceless and fortes, but instead become lenes (sounding similar to voiced) in intervocalic position and after liquids, nasals and semi-vowels. E.g. Аннепе sounds like annebe, кушакпа sounds like kuzhakpa. However, geminate consonants don't undergo this lenition. Furthermore, the voiced consonants occurring in Russian are used in modern Russian-language loans. Consonants also become palatalized before and after front vowels.
According to Krueger (1961), the Chuvash vowel system is as follows (the precise IPA symbols are chosen based on his description, since he uses a different transcription).
|High||i 〈и〉||y 〈ӳ〉||ɯ 〈ы〉||u 〈у〉|
|Low||e 〈е〉||ø̆ 〈ӗ〉||а 〈а〉||ŏ 〈ӑ〉|
András Róna-Tas (1997) provides a somewhat different description, also with a partly idiosyncratic transcription. The following table is based on his version, with additional information from Petrov (2001). Again, the IPA symbols are not directly taken from the works, so they could be inaccurate.
|High||i 〈и〉||y 〈ӳ〉||ɯ 〈ы〉||u 〈у〉|
|Close-mid||ĕ 〈ӗ〉||ɤ̆ 〈ӑ〉|
The vowels ӑ and ӗ are described as reduced, thereby differing in quantity from the rest. In unstressed positions, they often resemble a schwa or tend to be dropped altogether in fast speech. At times, especially when stressed, they may be somewhat rounded and sound similar to /o/ and /ø/.
Additionally, ɔ (о) occurs in loanwords from Russian where the syllable is unstressed in Russian.
There are two dialects of Chuvash: Viryal or Upper (which has both o and u) and Anatri or Lower (which has u for both o and u: up. totă "full", tută "taste" – lo. tută "full, taste" ). The literary language is based on both the Lower and Upper dialects. Both Tatar and the Uralic languages have influenced the Chuvash language, as have Russian, Mari, Mongolian, Arabic, and Persian, which have all added many words to the Chuvash lexicon.
Chuvash is an agglutinative language and as such has an abundance of suffixes, but no native prefixes (apart from the reduplicating intensifier prefix as in шурă = white, шап-шурă = very white). One word can have many suffixes and these can also be used to create new words (like creating a verb from a noun, or a noun from a verbal root, see Vocabulary section further below) or to indicate the grammatical function of the word.
Nouns and adjectives
Chuvash nouns can take endings indicating the person of a possessor. They can take case-endings. There are six noun cases in the Chuvash declension system:
- Genitive, formed by adding -ӑн, -ӗн or simply -н according to the vowel harmony
- Objective, formed by adding -(н)a or -(н)е, according to the vowel harmony
- Locative, formed by adding -тe, -ре, -тa, -ра according to the vowel harmony
- Ablative, formed by adding -тен or -тан, -рен, ран according to the vowel harmony
- Instrumental, formed by adding -пe or -пa, according to the vowel harmony
- Causal-final, formed by adding -шӑн, -шӗн according to the vowel harmony
- Privative, formed by adding -сӑр, -сӗр according to the vowel harmony
- Terminative–antessive, formed by adding -(ч)чен
- relic of distributive, formed by adding -серен: кунсерен "daily, every day", килсерен "per house", килмессерен "every time one comes"
- Semblative, formed by adding -шкал, -шкел to pronouns in genitive or objective case (манaшкал "like me", санашкал "like you", унашкал "like him, that way", пир(н)ешкел "like us", сир(н)ешкел "like you all", хамашкал "like myself", хунашкал "like yourself", кунашкал "like this"); adding -ла, -ле to nouns (этемле "humanlike", ленинла "like Lenin")
Taking кун (day) as an example:
|кун||day, or the day||Nominative|
|кунӑн||of the day||Genitive|
|куна||to the day||Objective|
|кунра||in the day||Locative|
|кунран||of the day, or from the day||Ablative|
|кунпа||with the day||Instrumental|
Possession is expressed by means of constructions based on verbs meaning "to exist" and "to not exist" ("пур" and "ҫук"). For example, in order to say, "My cat had no shoes," we form:
- кушак + -ӑм + -ӑн ура атӑ(и) + -сем ҫук + -ччӗ
- (кушакӑмӑн ура аттисем ҫукччӗ)
which literally translates as, "cat-mine-of foot-cover(of)-plural-his non-existent-was."
Chuvash verbs exhibit person. They can be made negative or impotential; they can also be made potential. Finally, Chuvash verbs exhibit various distinctions of tense, mood, and aspect: a verb can be progressive, necessitative, aorist, future, inferential, present, past, conditional, imperative, or optative.
|килме-||not (to) come|
|килейме-||not (to) be able to come|
|килеймен||She (or he) was apparently unable to come.|
|килеймерӗ||She had not been able to come.|
|килеймерӗр||You (plural) had not been able to come.|
|килеймерӗр-и?||Have you (plural) not been able to come?|
"Vowel harmony" is the principle by which a native Chuvash word generally incorporates either exclusively back vowels (а, ӑ, у, ы) or exclusively front vowels (е, ӗ, и, ӳ). As such, a notation for a Chuvash suffix such as -тен means either -тан or -тен, whichever promotes vowel harmony; a notation such as -тпӗр means either -тпӑр, -тпӗр again with vowel harmony constituting the deciding factor.
Chuvash has two classes of vowels – front and back (see the table above). Vowel harmony states that words may not contain both front and back vowels. Therefore, most grammatical suffixes come in front and back forms, e.g. Шупашкарта "in Cheboksary" but килте "at home".
Compound words are considered separate words with respect to vowel harmony: vowels do not have to harmonize between members of the compound (thus forms like сӗтел|пукан "furniture" are permissible). In addition, vowel harmony does not apply for loanwords and some invariant suffixes (such as -ӗ); there are also a few native Chuvash words that do not follow the rule (such as анне "mother"). In such words suffixes harmonize with the final vowel; thus Аннепе "With the mother".
Word order in Chuvash is generally subject–object–verb.
- 1 – пӗрре pӗrre, пӗр pӗr
- 2 – иккӗ ikkӗ, икӗ ikӗ, ик ik
- 3 – виççӗ vişşĕ, виçӗ vişĕ, виç viş
- 4 – тăваттă tăvattă, тăватă tăvată, тăват tăvat
- 5 – пиллӗк pillĕk, пилӗк pilĕk
- 6 – улттă ulttă IPA: [ˈultːə], ултă ultă IPA: [ˈult̬ə], улт ult IPA: [ult]/IPA: [ult̬]
- 7 – çиччӗ şiccĕ IPA: [ˈɕiʨːɘ], çичӗ şicĕ IPA: [ˈɕiʨ̬ɘ], çич şic IPA: [ˈɕiʨ̬]
- 8 – саккăр sakkăr IPA: [ˈsakːər], сакăр sakăr IPA: [ˈsak̬ər]
- 9 – тăххăр tăhhăr, тăхăр tăhăr
- 10 – вуннă vunnă, вун vun
- 11 – вун пӗр vun pĕr
- 12 – вун иккӗ vun ikkĕ, вун икӗ vun ikĕ, вун ик vun ik
- 13 – вун виççĕ vun vişşĕ, вун виçӗ vun vişĕ, вун виç vunviş
- 14 – вун тăваттă vuntăvattă, вун тăватă vuntăvată, вун тăват vuntăvat
- 15 – вун пиллӗк vunpillĕk, вун пилӗк vunpilĕk
- 16 – вун улттă vunulttă, вун ултă vunultă, vunult
- 17 – вун çиччӗ vun şiccĕ, вун çичӗ vun şicĕ
- 18 – вун саккăр vunsakkăr, вун сакăр vunsakăr
- 19 – вун тăххăр vuntăhhăr, вун тăхăр vuntăhăr
- 20 – çирӗм şirĕm
- 30 – вăтăр vătăr
- 40 – хӗрӗх hĕrĕh
- 50 – аллă allă, алă ală, ал al
- 60 – утмăл utmăl
- 70 – çитмӗл şitmĕl
- 80 – сакăрвуннă sakărvunnă, сакăрвун sakărvun
- 90 – тăхăрвуннă tăhărvunnă, тăхăрвун tăhărvun
- 100 – çӗр şĕr
- 1000 – пин pin
- 834236 - сакăр çӗр вăтăр тăватă пин те ик çӗр вăтăр улттă sakăr şĕr vătăr tăvată pin te ik şĕr vătăr ulttă IPA: [ˌsakərɕɘrʋət̬ərt̬əʋat̬ə↗p̬inʲt̬eǀikɕɘrʋət̬ər↘ultːəǁ], сакăр çĕр вăтăр тăватă пин те ик çĕр вăтăр ултă sakăr şĕr vătăr tăvată pin te ik şĕr vătăr ultă
- Chuvash at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, Çuvaş or Çuaş
- http://www.cv-haval.org/ru/node/54 Эктор Алос-и-Фонт. Оценка языковой политики в Чувашии
- http://cvlat.blogspot.com/2010/11/blog-post.html Оценка языковой политики в Чувашии
- Ethnologue report for Chuvash
- Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации(Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts)(Russian)
- Zheltov, Pavel. An Attribute-Sample Database System for Describing Chuvash Affixes
- Tapani Salminen (22 September 1999). "UNESCO red book on endangered languages: Europe".
- Index Translationum: translations from Chuvash - shows 202 titles, as of 2013-01-06. The index has data since ca. 1979.
- Index Translationum: translations from Chuvash, published in the USSR - shows 170 titles
- Index Translationum: translations from Chuvash, published in Russia - shows 17 titles
- Index Translationum: translations into Chuvash
- Johanson (1998); cf. Johanson (2000, 2007) and the articles pertaining to the subject in Johanson & Csató (ed., 1998).
- Encyclopædia Britannica (1997)
- "Telegram to the Chairman of the Simbirsk Soviet". Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- András Róna-Tas. "Nutshell Chuvash". Erasmus Mundus Intensive Program Turkic languages and cultures in Europe (TLCE). Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Bulgar language
- Cyrillic script
- Hunnic language
- Khazar language
- Oghur languages
- Turkic Avar language
- Turkic language
- Ivan Yakovlev
- Čaušević, Ekrem (2002). "Tschuwaschisch. in: M. Okuka (ed.)". Lexikon der Sprachen des europäischen Ostens (Klagenfurt: Wieser). Enzyklopädie des europäischen Ostens 10: 811–815. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Johanson, Lars & Éva Agnes Csató, ed. (1998). The Turkic languages. London: Routledge.
- Lars Johansen (1998). "The history of Turkic". Johanson & Csató. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online CD 98. pp. 81–125. Retrieved 5 September 2007.
- Lars Johanson (1998). "Turkic languages".
- Lars Johanson (2000). "Linguistic convergence in the Volga area". Gilbers, Dicky & Nerbonne, John & Jos Schaeken (ed.). Languages in contact Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi. pp. 165–178 (Studies in Slavic and General linguistics 28.),.
- Johanson, Lars (2007). Chuvash. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier.
- Krueger, John (1961). Chuvash Manual. Indiana University Publications.
- Paasonen, Heikki (1949). Gebräuche und Volksdichtung der Tschuwassen. edited by E. Karabka and M. Räsänen (Mémoires de la Société Finno-ougrinenne XCIV), Helsinki.
- Петров, Н. П (2001). "Чувашская письменность новая". Краткая чувашская энциклопедия. – Чебоксары. pp. С. 475–476.
|Chuvash edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Chuvash–Russian On-Line Dictionary
- Chuvash English On-Line Dictionary
- Chuvash People's Website (English), also available in Chuvash, Esperanto and Russian
- Nutshell Chuvash, by András Róna-Tas
- Chuvash people and language by Éva Kincses Nagy, Istanbul Erasmus IP 1- 13. 2. 2007
- Chuvash manual online
- Mutual vocabulary of the Chuvash and Germanic languages