Chuvashia

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Chuvash Republic
Чувашская Республика — Чувашия (Russian)
Чăваш Республики — Чăваш Ен (Chuvash)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem:
State Anthem of the Chuvash Republic[1]
Coordinates: 55°33′N 47°06′E / 55.550°N 47.100°E / 55.550; 47.100Coordinates: 55°33′N 47°06′E / 55.550°N 47.100°E / 55.550; 47.100
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Volga[2]
Economic region Volga-Vyatka[3]
Established June 15, 1925[4]
Capital Cheboksary
Government (as of June 2014)
 - Head[6] Mikhail Ignatyev[5]
 - Legislature State Council[7]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[8]
 - Total 18,300 km2 (7,100 sq mi)
Area rank 74th
Population (2010 Census)[9]
 - Total 1,251,619
 - Rank 41st
 - Density[10] 68.39 /km2 (177.1 /sq mi)
 - Urban 58.8%
 - Rural 41.2%
Population (January 2014 est.)
 - Total 1,240,000[11]
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[12]
ISO 3166-2 RU-CU
License plates 21
Official languages Russian;[13] Chuvash[14]
Official website

The Chuvash Republic (Russian: Чува́шская Респу́блика — Чува́шия; Chuvash: Чăваш Республики — Чăваш Ен), or Chuvashia (Чува́шия) for short, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is the homeland of the Chuvash people. Its capital is the city of Cheboksary. Population: 1,251,619 (2010 Census).[9]

Geography[edit]

The Chuvash Republic is located in the center of the European part of Russia, in the heart of the Volga-Vyatka economic region, midway between Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan. The republic is not large, but is one of the most densely populated regions in the Russian Federation, with a total population of 1.35 million.

It is bordered by the Mari El Republic in the north, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in the west, the Republic of Mordovia in the southwest, Ulyanovsk Oblast in the south, and the Republic of Tatarstan in the east and southeast. Some of the Volga River valley reservoirs are in the north of the republic, and the Sura River flows towards the Volga along much of the republic's western boundary. The republic's central location gives companies located here access to some of the most industrially developed regions of the country.

The largest city is Cheboksary, together with its neighbour Novocheboksarsk. However the majority of the republic is rural. Forests, mostly in the south along the Sura River, cover approximately 30% of the land.[15]

Natural resources[edit]

The republic's natural resources include gypsum, sand, tripoli[clarification needed], clay, sapropel deposits, phosphorite, and peat.

Climate[edit]

The republic has a moderate continental climate. Average temperatures range from −13 °C (9 °F) in January to +19 °C (66 °F) in July. Annual precipitation can reach 500 millimeters (20 in)[15] The varied climate offers both summer and winter recreational opportunities.

History[edit]

Map of the Chuvash Republic
Main article: History of Chuvashia

The ancestors of the Chuvash were Bulgars and Suars -which were Turkic tribes- residing in the Northern Caucasus in the 5th to 8th centuries. In the 7th and 8th centuries, a part of the Bulgars left for the Balkans, where, together with local Slavs, they established the state of modern Bulgaria. Another part moved to the Middle Volga Region (see Volga Bulgaria), where the Bulgar population that did not adopt Islam formed the foundation of the Chuvash people.[15]

During the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, the steppe-dwelling Suar migrated north, where Finnic tribes, such as the Mordvins and Mari lived. The Chuvash claim to be descendants of these Suars who assimilated with the Mari. They became vassals of the Golden Horde in 1242. Later Mongol and Tatar rulers did not intervene in local internal affairs as long as the annual tribute was paid to Sarai. When the power of the Golden Horde began to diminish, the local Mişär Tatar Murzas from Piana and Temnikov tried to rule the Chuvash area.

During Ivan the Terrible's war of conquest against the Khanate of Kazan, in August 1552, the Chuvash Orsai and Mari Akpar Tokari princes swore their loyalty to the Grand Duchy of Muscovy at Alatyr on the Suvarley River. Between 1650 and 1850, the Russian Orthodox Church sent Chuvash-speaking missionaries to try to convert the Chuvash to the Orthodox faith. A group of these missionaries created a written Chuvash language. Most of the Chuvash who stayed in the area became Orthodox Christians, but some remained pagan.

On May 15, 1917, the Chuvash joined the Idel-Ural Movement and in December 1917 joined the short-lived Idel-Ural State, when an agreement was reached with Tatar representatives to draw the eastern border of Chuvashia at the Sviyaga River. In 1918–1919, the Russian Civil War encompassed the area. This ended with victory for the Bolsheviks. To gain support from the local population, Lenin ordered the creation of a Chuvash state within the Russian SFSR. On June 24, 1920, the Chuvash Autonomous Oblast was formed, which was transformed into the Chuvash ASSR in April 1925.

Politics[edit]

Seat of the Government of the Chuvash Republic

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the republic was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Chuvashia CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Republic Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Republic administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Republic of Chuvashia is the fundamental law of the region. The State Council of the Chuvash Republic is the republic's regional standing legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Republic's Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population: 1,251,619 (2010);[9] 1,313,754 (2002);[16] 1,336,066 (1989).[17]

The largest city is the capital, Cheboksary (population 464,000 in 2010). Cheboksary is situated mostly on the southern bank of the Volga in the northern part of the republic (one northern bank district was added in the second part of the 20th century), approximately 650 kilometers (400 mi) east of Moscow. Nearby to the east is the next largest city, Novocheboksarsk (population 124,000 in 2010). These two are the major industrialized cities. The next largest town is Kanash.

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 1,227 22,465 10,993 11,472 18.3 9.0 9.3
1975 1,266 22,956 12,450 10,506 18.1 9.8 8.3
1980 1,302 22,612 13,908 8,704 17.4 10.7 6.7
1985 1,311 24,385 13,913 10,472 18.6 10.6 8.0
1990 1,339 21,116 13,545 7,571 15.8 10.1 5.7 2,12
1991 1,342 19,113 13,459 5,654 14.2 10.0 4.2 1,96
1992 1,346 16,673 14,141 2,532 12.4 10.5 1.9 1,72
1993 1,347 14,410 16,876 - 2,466 10.7 12.5 - 1.8 1,48
1994 1,345 14,498 18,003 - 3,505 10.8 13.4 - 2.6 1,48
1995 1,345 13,842 17,727 - 3,885 10.3 13.2 - 2.9 1,41
1996 1,343 13,542 16,880 - 3,338 10.1 12.6 - 2.5 1,37
1997 1,341 12,822 16,762 - 3,940 9.6 12.5 - 2.9 1,30
1998 1,339 13,300 15,957 - 2,657 9.9 11.9 - 2.0 1,34
1999 1,337 12,129 17,997 - 5,868 9.1 13.5 - 4.4 1,22
2000 1,331 12,363 18,640 - 6,277 9.3 14.0 - 4.7 1,24
2001 1,324 11,986 18,980 - 6,994 9.1 14.3 - 5.3 1,20
2002 1,314 12,956 19,808 - 6,852 9.9 15.1 - 5.2 1,30
2003 1,304 13,171 19,978 - 6,807 10.1 15.3 - 5.2 1,32
2004 1,295 13,734 19,371 - 5,637 10.6 15.0 - 4.4 1,38
2005 1,286 13,133 19,682 - 6,549 10.2 15.3 - 5.1 1,32
2006 1,277 13,291 18,900 - 5,609 10.4 14.8 - 4.4 1,34
2007 1,269 14,835 18,642 - 3,807 11.7 14.7 - 3.0 1,50
2008 1,262 14,967 18,436 - 3,469 11.9 14.6 - 2.7 1,51
2009 1,257 16,103 17,492 - 1,389 12.8 13.9 - 1.1 1,63
2010 1,252 16,174 18,186 - 2,012 12.9 14.5 - 1.6 1,65
2011 1,249 16,165 16,923 - 758 12.9 13.6 - 0.7 1,67
2012 1,245 17,472 16,607 865 14.0 13.3 0.7 1,83
2013 1,242 17,354 16,406 948 14.0 13.2 0.8 1,85(e)

Note: TFR[18]

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Chuvash make up 67.7% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (26.9%), Tatars (2.8%), Mordvins (1.1%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.[9]

Ethnic
group
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Chuvash 667,695 74.6% 777,202 72.2% 770,351 70.2% 856,246 70.0% 887,738 68.4% 906,922 67.8% 889,268 67.7% 814,750 67.7%
Russians 178,890 20.0% 241,386 22.4% 263,692 24.0% 299,241 24.5% 338,150 26.0% 357,120 26.7% 348,515 26.5% 323,274 26.9%
Tatars 22,635 2.5% 29,007 2.7% 31,357 2.9% 36,217 3.0% 37,573 2.9% 35,689 2.7% 36,379 2.8% 34,214 2.8%
Mordvins 23,958 2.7% 22,512 2.1% 23,863 2.2% 21,041 1.7% 20,276 1.6% 18,686 1.4% 15,993 1.2% 13,014 1.1%
Others 1,301 0.1% 6,703 0.6% 8,596 0.7% 10,930 0.9% 14,874 1.3% 19,606 1.4% 23,599 1.8% 18,298 1.6%
1 48,069 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[19]

Religion[edit]




Circle frame.svg

Religion in Chuvashia (2012)[20][21]

  Russian Orthodox (54.7%)
  Other Orthodox (4%)
  Muslim (3%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (3%)
  Vattisen Yaly (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (24%)
  Atheist and non-religious (8%)
  Other and undeclared (2.3%)

According to a 2012 official survey[20] 54.7% of the population of Chuvashia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% to other Orthodox Churches, 3% of the population (mostly Tatars) follows Islam, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% follow indigenous faiths (Vattisen Yaly, Chuvash Traditional Religion). In addition, 24% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist and 2.3% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.[20]

Study of religion is compulsory for schoolchildren in Chuvashia. Of the students, 36.9% enrolled for Secular Studies, 36.0% for Orthodox studies, 25.7% for World Religions and 1.4% for Islamic studies.[22]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Chuvashia
In a liquor distillery, Mariinsky Posad

The Chuvash Republic is the most populous and fertile country in the middle Volga region. There are deciduous woodlands on fertile black earth. In agriculture, wheat and sugar-beet, pigs and beef cattle have become more important than the rye, oats, barley and dairy cattle which are typical for the whole area.

The republic is Russia's center for hops growing and is famous throughout the country for its long history of beer brewing. It is also a major center for electrical engineering, especially in the area of power transmission and control systems.[15] Other leading industries are metalworking, electricity generation, and chemical manufacturing. There are also large timber-working mills at Shumerlin.

Transportation[edit]

The transport network in the republic is one of the most developed in Russia. The republic's system of roads, railroads, waterways, and airports closely ties the region with others in and outside of Russia.[15]

Roads[edit]

Only four roads in the Chuvash Republic are classified as important federal highways. The most important is Highway M-7, which runs from Nizhny Novgorod through the northern parts of the republic from Yadrinsky Nikolskoye via Malye Tyumerli, Kalmykovo, Khyrkasy, Novye Lapsary, Kugesi, Shivlinsk, Staraya Tyurlema, to Kazan in the Republic of Tatarstan. It also forms a connection via Chuvashia through the southern suburbs of Cheboksary and Novocheboksary to the Mari El Republic and the Vyatka Highway. Part of this road is classified as a motorway, the only one in the republic. From Yadrinsky Nikolskoye, the federal road P-178 runs through Yadrin, Shumerlya, Alatyr, to Surskoye in Ulyanovsk Oblast and further to Ulyanovsk. In the eastern part of Chuvashia, the federal road A-151 runs from Tsivilsk through Kanash, Komsomolskoye, Chkalovskoye, Karabay-Shemursha, Shemursha to Ulyanovsk and Saratov. All other roads in Chuvashia are classified as local area roads.

Automobiles, trucks, and buses are the major forms of transportation, with the republic ranking fourth in highway density in all of Russia.[15] Cheboksary is situated on one of the main highways of the Russian Federation leading from Moscow to the industrial areas of Tatarstan, the southern Urals, and Siberia. A recently completed bridge across the Volga River in the north connects the republic to the developed Ural and Volga Federal Districts. To the south, highways connect Chuvashia with Saratov and Volgograd. Extensive public and private bus systems connect all towns within the republic with each other and with the surrounding regions.[15]

The standard speed of transportation of containers by road is 400 kilometers (250 mi) per day. The average time of delivery from Cheboksary to Moscow is 1.5 days; to Saint Petersburg, 2.5 days; and to Western Europe, 10 to 15 days.[15]

Railways[edit]

The railway network is highly developed, convenient, and accessible year-round. One of the largest railway junctions of Russia - Kanash — is in the center of the republic. Via Kanash, the rail system connects the major towns in Chuvashia with the big industrial centers of eastern Siberia, the Urals, and Moscow. Express trains are reliable and provide a low-cost, comfortable way to travel. Express trains to and from Moscow are available every day, with the overnight journey taking approximately fourteen hours each way.

The following lines serve railway traffic in the Chuvash Republic:

In addition to these lines, there are 26 kilometers (16 mi) of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) gauge industrial lines running from Altyshevo station, on Alatyr-Kanash section, to Pervomaysky, located just west of Starye Aybesi in Alatyrsky District.

All railway lines in Chuvashia are operated by the MPS Gorky Railway Division. Steam locomotives were mostly replaced in 1970 by diesel locomotives and when the main Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk line was electrified, the diesel locomotives were replaced by electric ones.

The Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk line is a double track main line, while the others are single track lines. The 84 km (52 mi) Sviyazhsk-Kanash section was electrified in 1986, the 142 km (88 mi) Kanash-Sergach section in 1987.

In 1967, there were four daily passenger trains in both directions on the Alatyr-Kanash line. One of them was the semifast Sochi-Sverdlovsk-Sochi long distance transit train, halting only at Alatyr, Buinsk, and Kanash. Cheboksary was connected by daily semifast passenger train to Moscow. The travel time was 17.30[clarification needed] hours for the 758 km (471 mi) journey. 21 express and passenger trains used the Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk main line in the summer high season in both directions. Of these, four did not halt in Chuvashia. Most of the remaining semifast trains stopped at Shumerlya, Piner, Burnary, and Kanash. Four pairs of semifast trains also stopped at Tyurmari. In the 1999-2000 timetable, 11 pairs of Moscow-Kanash-Kazan express trains stopped at Kanash. The Chuvashia 53/54 express trains between Moscow and Kanash took 11.23 hours, back 10.57 hours.[clarification needed]

In addition to Russian 1,524 mm (5 ft) gauge railways, there were six 750 mm (2 ft 5 12 in) narrow gauge railway lines: two short peat briquette industry lines at Severny and Sosnovka on the north side of the Volga, and four forest railways at Shumerlya, Atrat and Kirya. All opened in the 1930s. In 1965, their total length was 145 kilometers (90 mi):

  • Shumerlya-Kabanovo-Rechnoy-Burak-Krasnobar forest railway - total length 72 kilometers (45 mi)
  • Shumerlya-Kumashka-Salantshik-Yakhaykino forest railway - 46 kilometers (29 mi)
  • Kirya-Lesopunkt Lyulya forest railway - 13 kilometers (8.1 mi)
  • Atrat-Dolnaya Polyana-Lesozavod Gart forest railway - 14 kilometers (8.7 mi)

All lines were closed in the economic uncertainty after the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Rivers[edit]

The Volga and Sura Rivers connect Chuvashia to a national and international water network. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, cargo transportation is possible from Chuvash river ports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea), Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube River. However, the river is frozen from December through April.[15]

Boat tours to the major cities along the Volga are of tourist interest, and Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours that travel up and down the Volga.[15]

Air[edit]

The international Cheboksary Airport receives both cargo and passenger aircraft of practically all types and sizes. There are regularly scheduled flights to Moscow and other destinations. Cheboksary is also about a four-hour drive from Nizhny Novgorod, a city with international air connections through Lufthansa.

Culture[edit]

While Russian is the predominant business language, the Chuvash language is still spoken by many, especially in the country. The Chuvash language belongs to the Oghur subgroup of the Turkic language group. In ancient times a runic system of writing was used. Chuvashi now uses a modified Cyrillic script that was adopted in 1871.

There has been a resurgence of native Chuvash pride, with many people looking back to their Chuvash roots and exploring the culture and heritage and relearning the language. Most building signs, road signs, and announcements are in both Russian and Chuvash.

At present Chuvash Republic has 6 professional theaters:

and over 30 amateur theaters, a Philharmonic Society, an Academic Folk Song and Dance Group, an Academic Choir, a Chamber Orchestra, and some professional concert groups.

There are also more than 20 museums, exhibition halls and modern art galleries.

Chuvash Republic has more than 565 public libraries, the book collection being over 10 million units.

Monuments of Architecture

There are about 627 monuments of architecture in Chuvashia, including 54 of national importance: the Vvedensky Cathedral (1657), the Holy Trinity Monastery (1566), the Salt House, the houses of Chuvash famous merchants (Zeleischikov, Solovtsov, the Efremov family) (18th-19th century) in Cheboksary, the Tolmachev family house and Trinity Cathedral (18th century) in the town of Tsivilsk, the Burashnikov house in the town of Yadrin.

Surhuri (Chuvash: Сурхури) is the Chuvash national holiday.

Education and sport[edit]

There are five higher educational institutions, including the Chuvash State University, the Chuvash State Pedagogical Institute, and the Chuvash State Agricultural Academy located in Cheboksary. These, together with 28 colleges and technical schools, are currently attended by approximately 45,000 students. Chuvashia, along with Mordovia, has given some of the best modern race walkers, as Vera Sokolova, Olimpiada Ivanova, Yelena Nikolayeva and Vladimir Andreyev. Additionally, the 2008 IAAF World Race Walking Cup was held in Cheboksary.

Radio[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Law #12
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ Nesterov, p. 38
  5. ^ Official website of the Chuvash Republic. Mikhail Vasilyevich Ignatyev (Russian)
  6. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 68
  7. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 77
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  9. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  10. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  11. ^ Chuvash Republic Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения (Russian)
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  14. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 8
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Steven Brown and Olin Lagon (June 2001). "Economic Overview of the Republic of Chuvashia". United States Peace Corps Business Development Volunteers in Chuvashia. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  16. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  17. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  18. ^ http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b12_111/Main.htm
  19. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  20. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  21. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  22. ^ http://www.regnum.ru/news/1333093.html

Sources[edit]

  • Нестеров, В. А. (1981) [1981]. Населённые пункты Чувашской АССР. 1917–1981 годы: Справочник об административно-территориальном делении (in Russian). Чувашское книжное издательство. 
  • Государственный Совет Чувашской Республики. 30 ноября 2000 г. «Конституция Чувашской Республики», в ред. Закона №34 от 26 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в главу 7 Конституции Чувашской Республики». Вступил в силу 10 декабря 2000 г. Опубликован: "Республика", №52, 9 декабря 2000 г. (State Council of the Chuvash Republic. November 30, 2000 Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, as amended by the Law #34 of June 26, 2014 On Amending Chapter 7 of the Constitution of the Chuvash Republic. Effective as of December 10, 2000.).
  • Государственный Совет Чувашской Республики. Закон №12 от 14 июля 1997 г. «О государственных символах Чувашской Республики», в ред. Закона №59 от 30 июля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Чувашской Республики "О государственных символах Чувашской Республики"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Чаваш ен", №30, 26 июля – 2 августа 1997 г. (State Council of the Chuvash Republic. Law #12 of July 14, 1997 On the State Symbols of the Chuvash Republic, as amended by the Law #59 of July 30, 2013 On Amending the Law of the Chuvash Republic "On the State Symbols of the Chuvash Republic". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

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