Templar chapel at Chwarszczany (Quartschen)
Chwarszczany [xfarʂˈt͡ʂanɨ] (German: Quartschen) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Boleszkowice, within Myślibórz County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border. It lies on the river Myśla (German: Mützel), approximately 6 kilometres (4 mi) south-east of Boleszkowice (German: Fürstenfelde), 32 km (20 mi) south-west of Myślibórz (German: Soldin), and 82 km (51 mi) south of the regional capital Szczecin (Stettin). It is located at the junction of voivodeship road 127 and national road 31. The village has a population of 222.
The origins of this chapel lie in the gift to the Knights Templar of 1,000 hides of land (1 hide is approximately 17 hectares) by Władysław Odonic, Duke of Greater Poland, in 1232. This land was in the Kostrzyn (German: Küstrin) region and centred on Quartschen. This donation fulfilled more than simply religious reasons, as it provided a safeguard in a borderland and enabled the settlement of the area under German Law. The Dukes of Pomerania, however, considered this whole destrict as belonging to their castle of Kienitz, and not to Kostrzyn and Santok (German: Zantoch) as Poland did. In order not to become repelled from this area, they hurried, therefore, to make an own donation. Thus, in 1234 Barnim I, the Duke of Pomerania, gave the Templars a further 200 hides which were centred around Dargomyśl (German: Darmietzel), pointing out that this land is located in his own territory Chinz (or: in territorio castri de Kinch).
It is not known where the Templars of Quartschen came from, but it may have been the Silesian commandery in Oleśnica Mała. In 1241 the property portfoloio of the Templars of Quartschen was expanded with the addition Lubno (German: Liebenow) and Oborzany (German: Nabern), donated by Włast, a Silesian magnate. By the middle of the 13th century, the Brandenburg margraves of the Ascanian dynasty gained control of the Quartschen property. Following disputation, in 1261 an agreement was reached between the Templars and the margraves: the Templars ceded rights to a commandery in Myślibórz, and gave up lands situated by the road from Kostrzyn to Gorzów (German: Landsberg an der Warthe). In return they received confirmation of the possession of Quartschen with ten villages with the addition of the village of Kaleńsko (German: Kalenzig).
In 1286 Otto VI, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel, entered the monastery in Quartschen, giving the commandery greater significance. In the 1290s Bernhard von Eberstein, the commander of Quartschen, became the Templar preceptor of Poland, the Neumark, Bohemia and Moravia. In 1308, the member of the order Günther von Köthen, presumably the last commander of the Templars' estate of Quartschen, sold the village of Cychry (German: Zicher) belonging to the commandery to two brothers of the rich Hokemann family of Frankfurt upon Oder. This is the last mention of the Templars of Quartschen, with the chapel being taken over by the Hospitallers following the suppression of the Templars.
- "Central Statistical Office (GUS) - TERYT (National Register of Territorial Land Apportionment Journal)" (in Polish). 2008-06-01.
- Wilhelm Ferdinand Wilcke: Geschichte des Ordens der Tempelherren. Vol. 2, Halle 1860, p. 43 (in German).
- Georg Wilhelm von Raumer: Die Neumark Brandenburg im Jahre 1337 oder Markgraf Ludwig's des Aelteren `Neumärkisches Landbuch´ aus dieser Zeit. Berlin 1837, p. 3-4 (in German).
- Augustin Kehrberg: Erläuterter historisch-chronologischer Abriss der Stadt Königsberg in der Neumark. Berlin 1724, p. 76 (in German).
- Heinrich Berghaus: Landbuch der Mark Brandenburg und des Margrafenthums Nieder-Lausitz in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Vol. 3, Brandenburg 1856, p. 356 (in German).
- The Templar Chapel in Chwarszczany accessed 10 August 2008