Vinkovci

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Vinkovci
Grad Vinkovci
City of Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Official seal of Vinkovci
Seal
Grad Vinkovci.jpgNaselje Vinkovci.jpg
Vinkovci is located in Croatia
Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Location in Croatia
Coordinates: 45°17′28″N 018°48′04″E / 45.29111°N 18.80111°E / 45.29111; 18.80111Coordinates: 45°17′28″N 018°48′04″E / 45.29111°N 18.80111°E / 45.29111; 18.80111
Country  Croatia
County Vukovar-Srijem
Government
 • Type City
 • Mayor Mladen Karlić (HDZ)
Area[1]
 • City 94.21 km2 (36.37 sq mi)
Elevation 90 m (300 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • City 35,312
 • Density 370/km2 (970/sq mi)
 • Urban 32,029
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 32100
Area code(s) 32
Vehicle registration VK
Website vinkovci.hr

Vinkovci (pronounced [v̞îːnkɔːv̞t͡si]) is a city in Slavonia, in the Vukovar-Srijem County in eastern Croatia. In the 2011 census, the total population of the city was 35,312,[2] making it the largest town of the county. Surrounded by many large villages, it is a local transport hub, particularly because of its railways.

History[edit]

The area around Vinkovci (German: Winkowitz, Hungarian: Vinkovce, Latin: Colonia Aurelia Cibalae) has been continually inhabited since the Neolithic period, well before the Roman period. The Romans named the town Colonia Aurelia Cibalae,[when?] and it was the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens. The Roman thermal bath is still preserved underground, along with several other Roman buildings located near the center of today's Vinkovci.[3] The 4th century Battle of Cibalae, between the armies of Constantine I and Licinius, was fought nearby.

From 1526 to 1687 it was part of the Ottoman Empire, administratively located in Sirem sanjak (whose seat was in Dimitrofça) within the Budin Eyalet. It was captured by the Habsburg Empire in 1687, which was later confirmed by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Until 1918, Vinkovci (named Winkowcze before 1850)[4] was part of the Austrian monarchy (Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia after the compromise of 1867), in the Slavonian Military Frontier, under the administration of the Brooder Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment N°VII until 1881.

Kingdom of Hungary stamp cancelled with the Hungarian name VINKOVCE in 1874.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, Vinkovci was a district capital in the Syrmia County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. From 1941 to 1945, Vinkovci was part of the Independent State of Croatia. From 17 April 1944 the city was heavily bombed by the Allies due to its important position in transportation.[5] Vinkovci Synagogue was among the largest and the most prestigious synagogues in Croatia. It was destroyed in 1941-42.

The city and its surroundings were gravely impacted by the 1991–95 Croatian War of Independence. The city was close to the front lines between the forces of Croatia and the rebel Serbs, but it managed to avoid the fate of nearby Vukovar, which was besieged in the infamous Battle of Vukovar. The eastern sections of the town were substantially damaged by shelling, and the nearby village of Cerić was almost completely destroyed. The most significant destruction in the town center were the town library, which burned down to the ground, the town court, the Catholic and Orthodox churches (the Church of Saints Eusebius and Polion and the Church of Pentecost, respectively), both of its hospitals, the town theatre, two cinemas, and a host of businesses and factories.

In December 1995–96, the Vinkovci rail station served as a rail offloading base for the United States Army's 1st Armored Division en route to Županja to cross the Sava River into Bosnia during Operation Joint Endeavor.

The Croatian Ground Army has stationed the headquarters of its Armored-Mechanized Guard Brigade at Vinkovci barracks. The current brigade was formed in 2007 and it incorporated two former guards brigades (3rd and 5th) as well as several other units formed in the 1990s during the war of independence.

Geography[edit]

Vinkovci is located in the eastern part of the Slavonia region, 19 km (12 mi) southwest of Vukovar, 24 km (15 mi) north of Županja and 43 km (27 mi) south of Osijek. The city lies in a flatland on the Bosut river, at an elevation of approx. 90 metres (300 ft), and has a mild continental climate. Vinkovci is also part of the smaller subregion of Syrmia.

Vinkovci municipality of its county.

It is connected to all main railroad routes in the region, while state roads D46 and D55 connect it to motorways; river Bosut is not a waterway. Nearby villages and adjacent municipalities include Ivankovo, Jarmina, Markušica, Nuštar, Privlaka and Stari Jankovci.

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
of Vinkovci
Year Pop. ±%
1857 4,493 —    
1869 5,773 +28.5%
1880 7,315 +26.7%
1890 8,123 +11.0%
1900 9,832 +21.0%
1910 11,670 +18.7%
1921 12,640 +8.3%
1931 16,038 +26.9%
1948 18,633 +16.2%
1953 20,834 +11.8%
1961 25,313 +21.5%
1971 31,605 +24.9%
1981 35,944 +13.7%
1991 38,580 +7.3%
2001 35,912 −6.9%
2011 35,312 −1.7%
Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005 & Popis stanovništva 2011

The city administrative area includes the following settlements:[2]

  • Mirkovci, population 3,283
  • Vinkovci, population 32,029

In 2011, it was the 17th largest city in Croatia.

By ethnic group, as of census 2011, the population of Vinkovci is:[6]

Economy and transportation[edit]

The Vinkovci railway station extends throughout the northwestern part of the city.
The railway station passenger terminal has three platforms.
A local train that departs from Vinkovci, situated on a side track.
The railway station has separate passenger and cargo sections, both with over a dozen railway tracks, so a pedestrian bridge was built between the two to allow for foot traffic towards the northern outskirts.
The cargo railway station is located to the northeast of the city.

Its economy is primarily based on trade, transport and food and metal processing. Industries include foodstuff, building material, wood and timber, metal-processing, leather and textile. Due to the surrounding farmland, also notable are farming and livestock breeding, and the town hosts a Crop Improvement Centre.

Vinkovci is the main railway junction of eastern Croatia, of railroads leading from Bosnia and Herzegovina toward Hungary and from the capital Zagreb toward Belgrade. The large railway junction, after Zagreb the second largest in Croatia, underlies the importance of transit in Vinkovci. Vinkovci is also the meeting point of the Posavina and Podravina roads and the intersection of the main road D55 Županja–Vinkovci–Vukovar and several regional roads.

Vinkovci and its rail station are featured in Agatha Christie's Murder on the Orient Express as the place where the Orient Express breaks down.

Culture[edit]

The town features extremely rich cultural and historical heritage, the most interesting attraction being the pre-Romanesque church on Meraja from 1100, with the coats of arms of the kings Koloman and Ladislas, as one of the most important medieval cultural monuments in Croatia. Unfortunately, this monument has recently had the ancient timber beams removed and a new, modern, brick upper section and roof added, totally destroying its appearance. Luckily, the building is hidden in summer by mature trees.

The most famous annual event, one of the biggest in Slavonia, is the folk music festival "Vinkovci Autumns" (Vinkovačke Jeseni), which includes the folklore show and the presentation of folk customs of Slavonia. It is characterized by a number of original folk music performances, beautiful traditional costumes, a beauty contest, competitions of the manufacturers of kulen (smoked paprika-flavoured sausage), plum brandy and other traditional foodstuffs, and especially by the magnificent closing parade.

Vinkovci's music school Josip Runjanin is named after the composer of the Croatian national anthem Lijepa naša domovino. The Vinkovci gymnasium is named after Matija Antun Reljković, a Slavonian writer who lived in the city in the 18th century.

Monuments and Sights[edit]

Notable natives and residents[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Vinkovci is twinned with:

Sport[edit]

A local football club still carries the Latin name for Vinkovci, Cibalia.

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cresswell, Peterjon; Atkins, Ismay; Dunn, Lily (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia (First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SV1V 2SA. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Vinkovci" (in Croatian). Vukovar-Srijem County. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  2. ^ a b c "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Vinkovci". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. 
  3. ^ Ivana Iskra Janosic, Urbanization of Cibalae and development of centers for pottery production, Zagreb-Vinkovci 2001, 31-33, 147-150
  4. ^ Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
  5. ^ Marica Karakaš. "Saveznička bombardiranja Srijema u Drugome svjetskom ratu" (PDF) (in Croatian (summaries in English and German)). Zagreb, Croatia: Political Science Research Centre. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  6. ^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Vukovar-Sirmium". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. 

External links[edit]