|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2009)|
The last vestige of the Hawthorne Works, which at its peak in the early 20th century employed over 40,000 workers
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||February 28, 1867|
|• President||Larry Dominick|
|• Total||5.87 sq mi (15.2 km2)|
|• Land||5.87 sq mi (15.2 km2)|
|• Water||0.00 sq mi (0.0 km2) 0%|
|Elevation||607 ft (185 m)|
|• Density||14,303.7/sq mi (5,522.7/km2)|
|Up 0.3% from 2010|
|Standard of living (2011)|
|• Per capita income||$14,539|
|• Median home value||$157,500|
Cicero is an incorporated town in Cook County, Illinois, United States. The population was 83,891 at the 2010 census. As of 2013, the town had a total population of 84,103, making it the tenth-largest municipality in Illinois. Cicero is named for the town of Cicero, New York, which in turn was named for Marcus Tullius Cicero, the Roman statesman and orator.
Originally, Cicero Township occupied six times its current territory. Weak political leadership and town services resulted in cities such as Oak Park and Berwyn voting to split off from Cicero, and other portions such as Austin were annexed into the city of Chicago.
On July 11–12, 1951, a race riot erupted in Cicero when a mob of around 4,000 attacked and burned an apartment building at 6139 W. 19th Street that housed the African-American family of Harvey Clark Jr., a Chicago Transit Authority bus driver who had relocated to the then-all-white city. Gov. Adlai E. Stevenson was forced to call out the Illinois National Guard. The Clarks moved away and the building had to be boarded up. The Cicero riot received worldwide condemnation.
The 1980s and 1990s saw a heavy influx of Hispanic (mostly Mexican and Central American) residents to Cicero. Once considered mainly a Czech or Bohemian town on 22nd Street (now Cermak Road), most of the European-style restaurants and shops have been replaced by Spanish-titled businesses. In addition, Cicero has a small black community.
Cicero has seen a revival in its commercial sector, with many new mini-malls and large retail stores. New condominiums are also being built in the city.
Cicero has long had a reputation of government scandal. Most recently, Town President Betty Loren-Maltese was sent to federal prison for misappropriating $12 million in funds. She was well liked by retired, long-term Cicero residents, but was continually challenged by younger Hispanic opponents before her indictment, and had strong ties to members of the Chicago Outfit, which included her deceased husband.
Cicero was taken up and abandoned several times as site for a civil rights march in the mid-1960s. The American Friends Service Committee, the Rev. Martin Luther King, and many affiliated organizations, including churches, were conducting marches against housing and school de facto segregation and inequality in Chicago and several suburbs, but the leaders feared too violent a response in Chicago Lawn and Cicero. Eventually, a substantial march (met by catcalls, flying bottles and bricks) was conducted in Chicago Lawn, but only a splinter group, led by the Rev. Jesse Jackson, marched in Cicero. The marches in the Chicago suburbs helped galvanize support for the passage of the Fair Housing Act in 1968, extending federal prohibitions against discrimination to private housing. The act also created the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, which enforces the law.
According to the 2010 census, the town has a total area of 5.87 square miles (15.2 km2), all land.
Cicero used to run from Harlem Avenue to Western Avenue and Pershing Road to North Avenue; however, much of this area was annexed by Chicago.
- St. Mary of Czestochowa, a Neo-Gothic church built in the so-called Polish Cathedral style along with the sculpture of Christ the King by famed sculptor Professor Czesław Dźwigaj, who also cast the monumental bronze doors at St. Hyacinth's Basilica in Chicago. The church's other claim to fame is as the site of Al Capone's sister Mafalda's wedding in 1930.
- J. Sterling Morton High School, East Campus, also known as Morton East High School, was built in 1894. The original school was destroyed by fire in 1924, and the current building was constructed. Located at 2423 S. Austin Blvd, Morton East serves residents of Cicero.
- Chodl Auditorium, located inside Morton East High School, was built in 1924 (completed 1927) to replace the 1,200-seat auditorium which was destroyed by fire. The auditorium was originally a dual-purpose room, serving as a gymnasium for students, and was originally built for this purpose. In 1967 the school stopped using the auditorium as a gymnasium. Chodl Auditorium is among the largest non-commercial proscenium theatres in the Chicago Metropolitan Area and is listed with the National Register of Historic Places.
- Unity Junior High School, located behind the Pink Line's 54th/Cermak station, was opened in 2003 and is the largest middle school in the entire country. Divided into two campuses, the east and the west, Unity teaches 7th and 8th grade, with four floors on each side. Since it is the only junior high school in District 99, students from all District 99 elementary schools attend Unity Junior High. After Unity, graduates study at the Morton Freshman Center.
- Hawthorne Works Tower, one of the original towers of the enormous Western Electric manufacturing plant that once stood east of Cicero Avenue, is still located behind the Hawthorne Works Shopping Center near the corner of Cermak Road (22nd Street) and Cicero Avenue.
On the south side of Cicero, there were two racetracks. Hawthorne Race Course, located in Cicero and Stickney, is a horse racing track still in operation. Just north of it was Chicago Motor Speedway at Sportsman's Park, which was formerly Sportsman's Park Racetrack (for horse racing) for many years. This Sportsman's Park facility is now closed, acquired by the Town of Cicero, and has since been demolished. Facilities of the Wirtz Beverage Group have been built on this site.
Chicagoland Sports Hall of Fame
|U.S. Census Bureau|
As of the 2010 census, 83,891 people, 22,101 households, and 17,752 families resided in the town. The population density was 14,315.9 people per square mile (5,527.4/km²). There were 24,329 housing units at an average density of 4,151.7 per square mile (1,600.6/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 51.9% White, 3.8% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander American, 39.3% some other race, and 3.5% from two or more races. 89.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, with 80.2% of Mexican descent.
There were 22,101 households, out of which 57.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.3% were headed by married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.7% were non-families. 15.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.5% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.79, and the average family size was 4.19.
The age distribution at the 2010 census was 33.8% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 5.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27.8 years. For every 100 females there were 103.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.9 males. Of the total population, 50.9% are male and 49.1% are female.
As of the 2011 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the town was $39,557, and the median income for a family was $42,235. Male full-time workers had a median income of $31,603 versus $31,117 for females. The per capita income for the town was $14,339. About 15.6% of families and 18.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2011, 52.5% of occupied housing units were owned properties, and 47.5% were rentals. There were 4,667 vacant housing units. The average age of home properties was greater than 66 years.
Cicero is a factory town. As of 1999, about a quarter of the city contained one of the greatest industrial concentrations in the world. There were more than 150 factories in 2.8 km (1.75 miles), producing communications and electronic equipment, printing presses, steel castings, tool and die makers' supplies, forging and rubber goods.
Cicero is served by the Cicero Fire Department (CFD), with a staff of 95 professional firefighters. The CFD currently operates out of three fire stations; Fire Station # 1 (North) on Central Ave., Fire Station # 2 (Headquarters) on 25th St. and Fire Station # 3 (South) on 34th St., Current apparatus is as follows: four engines (one reserve), two ladder trucks (one a tractor-drawn aerial ladder), one tower ladder and five ambulances (one reserve).
Fire station locations and apparatus
|Engines||Trucks & Tower Ladder||Ambulances||Command Unit||Address|
|E1 (Frontline)||T2 (Tractor-Dawn Aerial Ladder)||F15 (Frontline)||1601 S. Central Ave.|
|E2 (Frontline)||F10 (Fronltine), F16 (Frontline)||Car F12 (Shift Commander)||5303 W. 25th St.|
|E3 (Frontline), E4 (Reserve)||T1 (Ladder Truck Reserve), TL1 (Tower Ladder)||F14 (Frontline)||5410 W. 34th St.|
Cicero is served by two major railroad lines, the BNSF Railway and the Belt Line Railroad. Public Transportation is provided by Metra BNSF Railway Line between Aurora and Chicago's Union Station with a stop near Cicero Avenue and 26th Street. Currently, this station is undergoing a much needed reconstruction and expansion by Metra. Also, the CTA Douglas-Pink Line provides daily service from 54th Avenue Terminal to the Chicago Loop. Its Cicero-49th Avenue station is also located in Cicero. Pace routes 302-Ogden/Stanley, 305-Cicero/River Forest, 315-Austin/Ridgeland, and 322-Cermak, and CTA routes 12-Roosevelt, 18-16th/18th Streets, 21-Cermak, 35-31st/35th Streets, 54-Cicero, 54B-South Cicero, and 60-Blue Island/26th make up Cicero's bus network.
Cicero is served by Cicero Elementary School District 99 and comprises 17 schools, making it one of the largest public school districts outside of Chicago. Elementary students attend the following schools, depending on residency: Burnham (K-5), Cicero East (4-6), Cicero West (K-3), Columbus East (4-6), Columbus West (K-6), Drexel (K-6), Goodwin (K-6), Liberty (K-3), Lincoln (K-6), McKinley (K-3), Roosevelt (3-6), Sherlock (K-3), Warren Park (K-3), Wilson (K-6), Woodbine (K-3), and Unity Junior High (7-8), which was previously separated into East/West sections. High school students entering their freshman year attend the Freshman Center and then continue high school at Morton East of the J. Sterling Morton High School District 201.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates two preK-8 schools in Cicero:
From 1927 until 1972, Cicero was the home of Timothy Christian School.
Cicero is also home to Morton College.
In popular culture
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Town of Cicero
- "Cicero (town), Illinois". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Illinois Regional Archives Depository System. "Name Index to Illinois Local Governments". Illinois State Archives. Illinois Secretary of State. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Cicero town, Illinois". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2013 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. May 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Cicero, IL". Encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- Duechler, Doug (September 6, 2006). "Colorful Cicero". The Town of Cicero. Retrieved October 19, 2010. Link dead as of November 14, 2013.
- "1951 Race Riots Then & Now - Cicero, IL". Retrieved 2013-05-26.
- "Betty Loren-Maltese and fellow perps". Ipsn.org. 2001-06-16. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "Chicago Lawn". Encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "American Experience.Eyes on the Prize.The Story of the Movement". PBS. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "Historical United States Census Data". Census.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "Selected Economic Characteristics: 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (DP03): Cicero town, Illinois". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
- "Selected Housing Characteristics: 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (DP03): Cicero town, Illinois". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
- Profile of Selected Social Characteristics, Cicero, Illinois. U.S. Census Bureau. Accessed 2007-04-10.
- Fire Department. Thetownofcicero.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
- "Welcome to The Town of Cicero". Thetownofcicero.com. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "Post Office Location - CICERO." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on April 17, 2009.
- "Welcome To Our Lady of Charity School in Cicero, Illinois". Olc-school.org. 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "St Frances of Rome School". Sfr-school.org. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cicero, Illinois.|
- Official website
- Church of St. Mary of Czestochowa
- This American Life episode about Cicero, recorded 3/16/01
- People of Cicero, citizens' group
- Morton East High School
||Oak Park, Illinois||Austin, Chicago||North Lawndale, Chicago|
|Stickney, Illinois||Garfield Ridge, Chicago||South Lawndale, Chicago|