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Cincinnati, Ohio
City of Cincinnati
Downtown Cincinnati from Devou Park in Covington, Kentucky
Flag of Cincinnati, Ohio
Official seal of Cincinnati, Ohio
Nickname(s): The Queen City, Cincy, The Tri-State
Motto: Juncta Juvant (Lat. Strength in Unity)
Location in Hamilton County and the state of Ohio.
Location in Hamilton County and the state of Ohio.
Cincinnati, Ohio is located in USA
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cincinnati, Ohio
Location in the United States of America
Coordinates: 39°6′N 84°31′W / 39.100°N 84.517°W / 39.100; -84.517Coordinates: 39°6′N 84°31′W / 39.100°N 84.517°W / 39.100; -84.517
Country United States
State Ohio
County Hamilton
Settled 1788
Incorporated 1802 (village)
- 1819 (city)
 • Type Council-manager government
 • Mayor John Cranley (D)
 • City 79.54 sq mi (206.01 km2)
 • Land 77.94 sq mi (201.86 km2)
 • Water 1.60 sq mi (4.14 km2)
Elevation 482 ft (147 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 296,943
 • Estimate (2013)[3] 297,517
 • Rank US: 65th
 • Density 3,809.9/sq mi (1,471.0/km2)
 • Urban 1,624,827 (US: 30th)
 • Metro 2,137,406 (US: 28th)
 • Demonym Cincinnatian
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes
Area code 513
FIPS code 39-15000[5]
GNIS feature ID 1066650[6]
Website City of Cincinnati

Cincinnati (/sɪnsɨˈnæti/) is a city in and the county seat of Hamilton County, Ohio, United States.[7] The third largest city in Ohio and the 65th largest city in the United States, it had a population of 296,945 at the 2010 census. According to the census,[8] the population of the metropolitan area was 2,214,954 - the 28th largest Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in the United States and the largest centered in Ohio.[9] Settled in 1788, the city is located on the border between Ohio and Kentucky at the confluence of the Ohio River and the Licking River. Residents of Cincinnati are called Cincinnatians.[10]

In the early 19th century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the heart of the country to rival the larger coastal cities in size and wealth, at one point being the 6th largest city in the United States by population, surpassed only by the older, established settlements of the Eastern Seaboard and New Orleans.[11] Because it is the first major American city founded after the American Revolution as well as the first major inland city in the country, Cincinnati is sometimes thought of as the first purely American city.[12] It developed with less European immigration or influence than eastern cities in the same period; however, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads, Cincinnati's growth had slowed considerably and the city became surpassed in population by other inland cities, Chicago and St. Louis.

Cincinnati is home to two major sports teams, the Cincinnati Reds, one of the oldest franchises in Major League Baseball, and the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League. The University of Cincinnati, founded in 1819, is one of the 50 largest in the United States.[13] Cincinnati is known for its historic architecture. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as "Paris of America," mainly due to significant architectural projects, like Music Hall, the Cincinnatian Hotel, and the Shillito Department Store.[14]


Cincinnati was founded in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson and Israel Ludlow landed at the spot on the north bank of the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Licking River. The original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville".[15] In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, of which he was a member.[16]

Germans were among the first settlers. General David Ziegler succeeded General St. Clair in command at Fort Washington and became the mayor of Cincinnati in 1802.[17] Cincinnati was incorporated as a city in 1819. The introduction of steam navigation on the Ohio River in 1811 and the completion of the Miami and Erie Canal helped the city grow to 115,000 residents by 1850.[16]

Cincinnati in 1841 with the Miami and Erie Canal in the foreground

Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River. The canal became operational in 1827.[18] In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown; by 1840, it had reached Toledo. During this period of rapid expansion, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the "Queen" city.

Cincinnati depended on trade with the slave states south of the Ohio River, at a time when growing numbers of African Americans were settling in the state. This led to tensions between anti-abolitionists and citizens in favor of lifting restrictions on blacks codified in the "Black Code" of 1804. There were riots in 1829, where many blacks lost their homes and property, further riots in 1836 in which an abolitionist press was twice destroyed, and more rioting in 1842.[19]

Railroads were the first major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati. In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered.[20] Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, and provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie.[18]

In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines, using horse-drawn cars, making it easier for people to get around the city.[20] By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities. The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people to the top of Mount Auburn that year.[18]

Cincinnati in 1862, a lithograph in Harper's Weekly

In 1880, the City of Cincinnati completed the Cincinnati Southern Railway to Chattanooga, Tennessee. It is the only municipality-owned interstate railway in the United States.

The Tyler Davidson Fountain, a symbol of the city, was dedicated in 1871.

In 1884, outrage over a manslaughter verdict in a clear case of murder triggered the Courthouse riots, one of the most destructive riots in American history. Over the course of three days, 56 were killed and over 300 were injured.[21] The riots ended the regime of political bosses John Roll McLean and Thomas C. Campbell in Cincinnati. In 1889, the Cincinnati streetcar system began converting its horsecar lines to electric streetcars.[22]

Cincinnati weathered the Great Depression better than most American cities of its size, largely because of a resurgence in river trade, which was less expensive than rail. The rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of Union Terminal, the post office, and the large Cincinnati and Suburban Telephone Company Building. The flood of 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history. Afterward the city built protective flood walls.


Cincinnati is in the bluegrass region of Ohio.

Cincinnati, a major city of the Ohio Valley, is situated on the north bank of the Ohio River in Hamilton County, which is the extreme southwestern county of the state of Ohio. It is midway by river between the cities of Pittsburgh and Cairo. The city lies opposite the mouth of the Licking River, which fact was apparently the determinant as to its original location.[23]

Cincinnati's core metro area spans parts of southern Ohio and northern Kentucky. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 79.54 square miles (206.01 km2), of which 77.94 square miles (201.86 km2) is land and 1.60 square miles (4.14 km2) is water.[1] The city spreads over a number of hills, bluffs, and low ridges overlooking the Ohio River in the Bluegrass region of the country.[24] Cincinnati is geographically located within the Midwest and is on the far northern periphery of the Upland South. Two-thirds of the American population live within a one-day drive of the city.[25][26][27]

This topography is often used for physical activity. The Steps of Cincinnati provide pedestrians a mode to traverse the many hills in the city. In addition to practical use linking hillside neighborhoods, the 400 stairways provide visitors scenic views of the Cincinnati area.[28]


Cincinnati Museum Center

Downtown Cincinnati is focused around Fountain Square, a public square and event location.

Cincinnati is home to numerous structures that are noteworthy due to their architectural characteristics or historic associations including the Carew Tower, the Scripps Center, the Ingalls Building, Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal, and the Isaac M. Wise Temple.[29]

The city is undergoing significant changes due to new development and private investment, as well as the construction of the long-stalled Banks project, which will include apartments, retail, restaurants, and offices and will stretch from Great American Ball Park to Paul Brown Stadium. Phase 1A is already complete and 100% occupied as of early 2013. Smale Riverfront Park is a development working alongside with The Banks and is Cincinnati's newest park. Nearly $3.5 billion has been invested in the urban core of Cincinnati (including Northern Kentucky). Much has been done by 3CDC.

Queen City Square opened on January 11, 2011, at 1:11 p.m. EST. The building is the tallest in Cincinnati (surpassing the Carew Tower), and is the third tallest in Ohio, reaching a height of 665 feet.[30] In 2013 the Horseshoe Casino Cincinnati opened, the first casino in the city and fourth in the state of Ohio.

Cincinnati from Mt. Echo park in Price Hill


Cincinnati belongs to a climatic transition zone, at the northern limit of the humid subtropical climate and the southern limit of the humid continental climate zone (Köppen: Cfa/Dfa, respectively).[31] Summers are hot and humid, with significant rainfall in each month and highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or above on 21 days per year, often with high dew points and humidity. July is the warmest month, with a daily average temperature of 75.9 °F (24.4 °C).[32] Winters tend to be cold and snowy, with January, the coldest month, averaging at 30.8 °F (−0.7 °C);[32] however, lows reach 0 °F (−18 °C) on an average 2.6 nights annually.[32] An average winter will see around 22.1 inches (56 cm) of snowfall, contributing to the annual 42.5 inches (1,080 mm) of precipitation, with rainfall peaking in spring.[33] Extremes range from −25 °F (−32 °C) on January 18, 1977 up to 108 °F (42 °C) on July 21 and 22, 1934.[34] Severe thunderstorms are common in the warmer months, and tornadoes, while infrequent, are not unknown, with such events striking the Greater Cincinnati area most recently in 1974, 1999, and 2012.


Historical population
Census Pop.
1800 850
1810 2,540 198.8%
1820 9,642 279.6%
1830 24,831 157.5%
1840 46,338 86.6%
1850 115,435 149.1%
1860 161,044 39.5%
1870 216,239 34.3%
1880 255,139 18.0%
1890 296,908 16.4%
1900 325,902 9.8%
1910 363,591 11.6%
1920 401,247 10.4%
1930 451,160 12.4%
1940 455,610 1.0%
1950 503,998 10.6%
1960 502,550 −0.3%
1970 452,525 −10.0%
1980 385,460 −14.8%
1990 364,040 −5.6%
2000 331,285 −9.0%
2010 296,945 −10.4%
Est. 2013 297,517 [3] 0.2%
Population 1810-1970.[36]
Population 1980-2000.[37][38]
Population 2010.[39]

For several decades the Census Bureau had been reporting a steady decline in the city's population. But according to the Census Bureau's 2006 estimates, the population was 332,252, representing an increase from 331,310 in 2005.[40] Despite the fact that this change was due to an official challenge by the city however, Mayor Mark Mallory has repeatedly argued that the city's population is actually at 378,259 after a drill-down study was performed by an independent, non-profit group based in Washington, D.C.[41]

The Cincinnati-MiddletownWilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 2,155,137 people, making it the 24th largest MSA in the country. It includes the Ohio counties of Hamilton, Butler, Warren, Clermont, and Brown, as well as the Kentucky counties of Boone, Bracken, Campbell, Gallatin, Grant, Kenton, and Pendleton, and the Indiana counties of Dearborn, Franklin, and Ohio.

Race relations[edit]

Because of its location on the Ohio River, Cincinnati was a border town between a state that allowed slavery, Kentucky, and one that did not, Ohio, before the Civil War. Some residents of Cincinnati played a major role in abolitionism. Many fugitive slaves used the Ohio River at Cincinnati to escape to the North. Cincinnati had numerous stations on the Underground Railroad, as well as slave catchers.

In 1829, a riot broke out as anti-abolitionists attacked blacks in the city. As a result, 1,200 blacks left the city and resettled in Canada.[42] The riot and its refugees were a topic of discussion throughout the nation, and at the first Negro Convention held in 1830 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Riots also occurred in 1836 and 1841.[42] In 1836, a mob of 700 anti-abolitionists again attacked black neighborhoods, as well as a press run by James M. Birney, publisher of the anti-slavery weekly The Philanthropist.[43] Tensions further increased after passage in 1850 of the Fugitive Slave Act.

Harriet Beecher Stowe lived in Cincinnati for a time, met escaped slaves, and used their stories as a basis for her watershed novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. Levi Coffin made the Cincinnati area the center of his anti-slavery efforts in 1847.[44] Today, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, located on the Cincinnati riverfront in the middle of "The Banks" area between Great American Ballpark and Paul Brown Stadium, commemorates this era.

Cincinnati has historically been predominantly white.[45] In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Cincinnati's population as 12.2% black and 87.8% white.[45]

In the second half of the 20th century, Cincinnati, along with other rust belt cities, underwent a vast demographic transformation. Predominantly white, working-class families that had filled the urban core during the European immigration boom in the 19th century moved to the suburbs. Blacks, fleeing the oppression of the Jim Crow South in hopes of better socioeconomic opportunity, filled these older city neighborhoods. Racial tensions boiled over in 1968 with the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. when riots occurred in Cincinnati along with nearly every major U.S. city. In April 2001, racially charged riots occurred after police shot and killed a black man, Timothy Thomas during a foot pursuit.[46]

After the 2001 race riots, a collaborative agreement was formed between the ACLU, Cincinnati Black United Front, city and police union, which required police to adopt community-oriented policing as a strategy. The collaborative has been used as a model across the country for building relationships between police and the communities they serve.[47]


Procter & Gamble is one of many large corporations with headquarters in the city.

Many major corporations have their head offices in Cincinnati such as Procter & Gamble, The Kroger Company, and Macy's, Inc., among many others.

The largest employer in Cincinnati, Kroger, has 17,000 employees. The University of Cincinnati is the second largest, with 15,162 employees.[48]

Arts and culture[edit]

Main article: Culture in Cincinnati
Approximately 500,000 attend Taste of Cincinnati annually, making it one of the largest street festivals in the United States.[49]

Cincinnati's culture is influenced by its history of German and Irish immigration and its geographical position on the border of the Southern United States and Midwestern United States. In the early nineteenth century, Cincinnati became a major destination for German immigrants. In 1830 residents with German roots made up 5 percent of the population and ten years later the number had risen to 30 percent.[50] By 1900, over 60 percent of its population was of German background.[51]

Cincinnati's Jewish community was developed by immigrants from England and Germany who made the city a center of Reform Judaism.

Fountain Square serves as one of the cultural cornerstones of the region.

Findlay Market, Ohio's oldest operating market


Cincinnati is identified with several unique foods. "Cincinnati chili" is commonly served by several independent chains, including Skyline Chili, Gold Star Chili, Camp Washington Chili, and Dixie Chili and Deli. Cincinnati has been called the "Chili Capital of America" and "of the World" because it has more chili restaurants per capita than any other city in the nation or world.[52][53] Goetta is a meat product popular in Cincinnati consisting of sausage and pinhead oatmeal, usually fried and eaten as a breakfast food. Cincinnati also has many gourmet restaurants. Until 2005, when it closed, The Maisonette carried the distinction of being Mobil Travel Guide's longest running five-star restaurant in the country for 41 consecutive years. Jean-Robert de Cavel has opened four new restaurants in the area since 2001, including Jean-Robert's at Pigall's which closed in March 2009.

Cincinnati's German heritage is evident in the city's food selection. Many restaurants specialize in schnitzels and Bavarian cooking.[54] Two annual festivals focus on traditional German foods: Oktoberfest Zinzinnati, billed as the largest Oktoberfest celebration outside of Munich,[55] and Bockfest, the country's oldest German-style bock beer festival.[56]


Cincinnati's Tall Stacks festival

Cincinnati hosts a number of large annual events. Oktoberfest Zinzinnati, Bockfest, and the Taste of Cincinnati feature local restauranteurs. Music-related events include the Cincinnati May Festival, MidPoint Music Festival, and Cincinnati Bell/WEBN Riverfest. There is an annual marathon, the Flying Pig Marathon. Tall Stacks, held every three or four years, celebrates the city's riverboat heritage.


Cincinnati lies at the periphery of a region that speaks Midland American English, a dialect closely associated with General American. Unlike the rest of the Midwest, Southwest Ohio shares some aspects of its vowel system with northern New Jersey English.[57][58] However, the most distinctive local features have gradually diminished among younger speakers in favor of Midland American.[59] There is also some influence from the Southern American dialect found in Kentucky.[60]

An element of German culture remains audible in the local vernacular: some residents use the word please when asking a speaker to repeat a statement. More common on the West Side, this usage is taken from the German word for please, bitte (a shortening of the formal, "Wie bitte?" or "How please?" rendered word for word from German into English), which is used in this sense.[61][62]


Theatre has existed professionally in Cincinnati since at least as early as the 1800s and is as vibrant as ever in the city itself and its surrounding suburbs. A few of the professional companies based in Cincinnati include Ensemble Theatre Cincinnati, Cincinnati Shakespeare Company, the Know Theatre of Cincinnati, Stage First Cincinnati, Cincinnati Public Theatre, Cincinnati Opera, The Performance Gallery and Clear Stage Cincinnati. The city is also home to Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park which hosts many regional premiers and the Aronoff Center which plays host to many traveling Broadway shows each year via Broadway Across America. The city also is home to numerous community theatres such as the Cincinnati Young People's Theatre, the Showboat Majestic (which is the last surviving showboat in the United States and possibly[original research?] the world), and the Mariemont Players along with other community theatres.


Main article: Sports in Cincinnati

Cincinnati has seven major sports venues, two major league teams, six minor league teams, and five college institutions with their own sports teams. It is home to baseball's Reds, who were named for America's first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings;[63][64][65] and the Bengals of the National Football League. The Cincinnati Masters, a historic international men's and women's tennis tournament that is part of the a ATP World Tour Masters 1000 Series, was established in the city in 1899, though it has been held in suburban Mason since 1979. The most notable minor league team is the Cincinnati Cyclones, a AA level professional hockey team. The team is a member of the ECHL. Founded in 1990, the team first played their games in the Cincinnati Gardens and now play at U.S. Bank Arena. They are the reigning ECHL Kelly Cup Champions, having won the 2010 Kelly Cup Finals in five games over the Idaho Steelheads, and currently enjoy their 2nd championship reign in three seasons. It is also home to three professional soccer teams, two outdoor teams, the Cincinnati Kings (men's) and Cincinnati LadyHawks (women's), and one indoor team, the Cincinnati Excite (men's). On Opening Day, Cincinnati has the distinction of holding the "traditional opener" in baseball each year, due to its baseball history. Many children in Cincinnati skip school on Opening Day, which is commonly thought of as a city holiday.[66]

Fans often refer to the city and its teams as "Cincy" for short. Even the Reds' official website uses that name frequently.[67]

Club Sport Founded League Venue
Cincinnati Bengals Football 1968 National Football League, AFC Paul Brown Stadium
Cincinnati Reds Baseball 1882 MLB, National League Great American Ball Park
Cincinnati Cyclones Ice hockey 1990 ECHL U.S. Bank Arena
Cincinnati Rollergirls Roller derby 2005 Women's Flat Track Derby Association Cincinnati Gardens
Cincinnati Kings Soccer 2005 USL Premier Development League Town and Country Sports Club
Cincinnati Kings Indoor Team Indoor Soccer 2008 Professional Arena Soccer League Cincinnati Gardens
Cincinnati Revolution Ultimate Frisbee 2011 American Ultimate Disc League, Midwest Conference Sheakley Athletic Center
Cincinnati Saints Soccer 2013 Professional Arena Soccer League Tri-County Soccerplex


City of Cincinnati

The city is governed by a nine-member city council, whose members are elected at large. Prior to 1924, city council was elected through a system of wards. The ward system was subject to corruption and as with any one-party dominance, abuses arose. From the 1880s to the 1920s, the Republican Party dominated city politics, with the political machine of "Boss" Cox exerting control.

A reform movement arose in 1923, led by another Republican, Murray Seasongood. Seasongood founded the Charter Committee, which used ballot initiatives in 1924 to replace the ward system with the current at-large system. They also gained approval by voters for a city manager form of government. From 1924 to 1957, the council was selected by proportional representation. Beginning in 1957, all candidates ran in a single race and the top nine vote-getters were elected (the "9-X system"). The mayor was selected by the council. In 1977, thirty-three-year-old Jerry Springer, later a notable television talk show host, was chosen to serve one year as mayor.[68]

Residents continued to work to improve their system. To have their votes count more, starting in 1987, the top vote-getter in the city council election was automatically selected as mayor. Starting in 1999, the mayor was elected separately in a general election for the first time. The city manager's role in government was reduced. These reforms were referred to as the "strong mayor" reforms, to make the city government accountable to voters. Cincinnati politics include the participation of the Charter Party, the party with the third-longest history of winning in local elections.

The current mayor of Cincinnati is John Cranley. The nine-member city council is composed of Vice-Mayor David Mann and Councilmembers Yvette Simpson (President Pro-Tem), Kevin Flynn, Amy Murray, Chris Seelbach, P.G. Sittenfeld, Christopher Smitherman, Charlie Winburn, Wendell Young [69]

Police and fire departments[edit]

Crime increased after the 2001 riots, but has been decreasing since.

The city of Cincinnati's emergency services for fire, rescue, EMS, hazardous materials and explosive ordnance disposal is handled by the Cincinnati Fire Department. On April 1, 1853, the Cincinnati Fire Department became the first paid professional fire department in the United States.[70] The Cincinnati Fire Department currently operates out of 26 fire stations, located throughout the city in 4 districts, each commanded by a district chief.[71][72][73] The Cincinnati Fire Department is organized into 4 bureaus: Operations,[72] Personnel and Training,[74] Administrative Services,[75] and Fire Prevention.[76] Each bureau is commanded by an assistant chief, who in turn reports to the chief of department.

The Cincinnati Police Department has more than 1,000 sworn officers. Before the riots of 2001, Cincinnati's overall crime rate had been dropping steadily and had reached its lowest point since 1992.[77] After the riot, violent crime increased, but crime has been on the decline since. In 2014, there were 66 homicides, down 12% from 2013.[78]


University of Cincinnati's McMicken Hall

The Cincinnati Public School (CPS) district includes 16 high schools accepting students on a city-wide basis. CPS is the third-largest Ohio school district by student population, and the largest one to garner an overall 'effective' rating from the state.[79] The district includes public Montessori schools, including the first public Montessori high school established in the United States, Clark Montessori.[80] Cincinnati Public Schools' top rated school is Walnut Hills High School, ranked 34th on Newsweek's list of best public schools. Walnut Hills offers 28 Advanced Placement courses, highly ranked athletic teams, a wind ensemble that has performed in Carnegie Hall, and its marching band has performed in the London New Year's Day Parade. Cincinnati is also home to the first Kindergarten - 12th Grade Arts School in the country, The School for Creative and Performing Arts.

 Four story brick and steel building before blue sky and clouds with trees and grass in foreground
The School for Creative and Performing Arts.

The Cincinnati area has one of the highest private school attendance rates in the United States; Hamilton County ranks second only to St. Louis County, Missouri among the country's 100 largest counties.[81][82]

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati accounts for 10 high schools in Cincinnati; six of which are single-sex: there are four all-female schools and two all-male high schools in the city with additional schools in the metro areas.[83] and six all-female high schools[84]

The Jewish community in Cincinnati is home to several schools, including the all-girl RITSS (Regional Institute for Torah and Secular Studies) high school,[85] the all-boy Yeshivas Lubavitch High School,[86] and the Hebrew Union College- Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR) founded by Isaac Mayer Wise.[87]

Cincinnati is home to the University of Cincinnati and Xavier University. The University of Cincinnati, often referred to as "UC", is one of the United States' major graduate research institutions in engineering, music, architecture, classical archaeology, and psychology. The University of Cincinnati Medical Center is highly regarded, as well as the College Conservatory of Music, which has many notable alumni, including Kathleen Battle, Al Hirt and Faith Prince. Xavier, a Jesuit university, was at one time affiliated with The Athenaeum of Ohio, the seminary of the Cincinnati Archdiocese.

Antonelli College, a career training school, is based in Cincinnati with several satellite campuses in Ohio and Mississippi. Cincinnati State is a community college which includes the Midwest Culinary School. Also located in Cincinnati are Cincinnati Christian University, and Chatfield College, a Catholic two-year college, located in Downtown.

In 2009, Cincinnati was listed fourth on CNN's Top 10 cities for new grads.[88]

The city also has an extensive library system, both public and university. In 1998, The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County was the third largest public library nationally.[89]

Media and music[edit]

Main article: Media in Cincinnati

Cincinnati is served by The Cincinnati Enquirer, a daily newspaper. The city is home to several alternative, weekly, and monthly publications, as well as twelve television stations and many radio stations. Free weekly print magazine publications include CityBeat[90] and Metromix, which have a local events and entertainment focus.

A Rage in Harlem was filmed entirely in the Cincinnati neighborhood of Over the Rhine because of its similarity to 1950s Harlem. Movies that were filmed in part in Cincinnati include The Best Years of Our Lives (aerial footage early in the film), Ides of March, Fresh Horses, The Asphalt Jungle (the opening is shot from the Public Landing and takes place in Cincinnati although only Boone County, Kentucky is mentioned), Rain Man, Airborne, Grimm Reality, Little Man Tate, City of Hope, An Innocent Man, Tango & Cash, A Mom for Christmas, Lost in Yonkers, Summer Catch, Artworks, Dreamer, Elizabethtown, Jimmy and Judy, Eight Men Out, Milk Money,Traffic, The Pride of Jesse Hallam, The Great Buck Howard, In Too Deep, Seven Below Public Eye, The Last Late Night,[91] and The Mighty.[92] In addition, Wild Hogs is set, though not filmed, in Cincinnati.[93]

The Cincinnati skyline was prominently featured in the opening and closing sequences of the daytime drama The Edge of Night from its start in 1956 until 1980, when it was replaced by the Los Angeles skyline; the cityscape was the stand-in for the show's setting, Monticello. Procter & Gamble, the show's producer, is based in Cincinnati. The sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati and its sequel/spin-off The New WKRP in Cincinnati featured the city's skyline and other exterior shots in its credits, although was not filmed in Cincinnati. The city's skyline has also appeared in an April Fool's episode of The Drew Carey Show, which was set in Carey's hometown of Cleveland. 3 Doors Down's music video "It's Not My Time" was filmed in Cincinnati, and features the skyline and Fountain Square. Also, Harry's Law, the NBC legal dramedy created by David E. Kelley and starring Kathy Bates, was set in Cincinnati.[94]

Cincinnati has given rise to popular musicians and singers Doris Day, Dinah Shore, Fats Waller, Rosemary Clooney, Bootsy Collins, The Isley Brothers, Merle Travis, Hank Ballard, Otis Williams, Mood, Midnight Star, The Afghan Whigs, Over the Rhine, Blessid Union of Souls, Freddie Meyer, 98 Degrees, The Greenhornes, The Deele, Enduser, Heartless Bastards, The Dopamines, Adrian Belew, The National, Foxy Shazam, Why?, and Walk the Moon, and alternative hip hop producer Hi-Tek calls the Greater Cincinnati region home. Andy Biersack, the lead vocalist for the rock band Black Veil Brides, was born in Cincinnati.

WCET channel 48, now known as CET, is the nation's oldest licensed public television station (License #1, issued in 1951).[95]

The Cincinnati May Festival Chorus is an amateur choir that has been in existence since 1880. Music Director James Conlon and Chorus Director Robert Porco lead the Chorus through an extensive repertoire of classical music. The May Festival Chorus is the mainstay of the oldest continuous choral festival in the Western Hemisphere. Cincinnati's Music Hall was built specifically to house the May Festival. The city is home to the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Cincinnati Opera, Cincinnati Boychoir and Cincinnati Ballet. The Greater Cincinnati area is also home to several regional orchestras and youth orchestras, including the Starling Chamber Orchestra and the Cincinnati Symphony Youth Orchestra.

The Hollows series of books by Kim Harrison is an urban fantasy that takes place in Cincinnati. American Girl's Kit Kittredge sub-series also took place in the city, although the film based on it was shot in Toronto.

Cincinnati also has its own chapter (or "Tent") of The Sons of the Desert (The Laurel and Hardy Appreciation Society), which meets several times per year.[96]

A previous mayor of Cincinnati, Mark Mallory, was featured on CBS's Undercover Boss.

The Cincinnati Police Department was featured on TLC's Police Women of Cincinnati and on A&E's reality show The First 48.


US 27 Bridge looking at Cincinnati, Ohio from technically Newport, Kentucky 2015-01-21

Transportation in Cincinnati is dominated by private automobiles. Public transit ridership has been in decline for at least several decades and bicycles and walking account for a relatively small portion of all trips. Like many other middle-western cities though, bicycle use is growing fairly rapidly in the 2000s and 2010s.

Inner-city transit[edit]

Greater Cincinnati transit map

Cincinnati is served by the Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (SORTA), the Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky (TANK) and the Clermont Transportation Connection. SORTA and TANK primarily operate 40-foot diesel buses, though some lines are served by longer articulated or hybrid-engine buses. Cincinnati is also currently constructing a streetcar line in Downtown and Over-the-Rhine. This modern version of the streetcar is scheduled to be ready by September 2016.

Inter-city Transit[edit]

The city is served by Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (IATA: CVG) which is actually located in Hebron, Kentucky. The airport is a hub for Delta Air Lines and express mail service company DHL Express.[97][98]

Cincinnati is served by Amtrak's Cardinal, an intercity passenger train which makes three weekly trips in each direction between Chicago and New York City through Cincinnati Union Terminal.

Megabus and Greyhound as well as several other, smaller motor coach companies operate out of Cincinnati, making trips within the midwest or beyond.

Major roads[edit]

Highways of Greater Cincinnati

The city has an outer-belt, Interstate 275 (which is the longest circle highway in the country) and a spur, Interstate 471, to Kentucky. It is also served by Interstate 71, Interstate 74, Interstate 75 and numerous U.S. highways: US 22, US 25, US 27, US 42, US 50, US 52, and US 127.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Cincinnati has nine[99] sister cities.[100]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Official records for Cincinnati kept at downtown from January 1871 to March 1915, at the Cincinnati Abbe Observatory just north of downtown from April 1915 to March 1947, and at KCVG near Hebron, Kentucky since April 1947. For more information, see Threadex and History of Weather Observations Cincinnati, Ohio 1789–1947


  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 
  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-12-02. 
  4. ^ "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Retrieved December 2, 2014. 
  5. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008. 
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008. 
  7. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  8. ^ Thomas, G. Scott (June 22, 2010). "Census: Cincinnati 62nd-largest U.S. city". Business Courier. Retrieved June 22, 2010. 
  9. ^ Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas
  10. ^ "Cincinnati". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts, United States: Merriam-Webster. 2008. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  11. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ Industrial Bureau of Cincinnati (1909). The Cincinnati Industrial Magazine, Volumes 1-2. p. 33. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  13. ^ Rieselman, Deborah. "Brief history of University of Cincinnati". UC Magazine. University of Cincinnati University Relations. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  14. ^ "When Cincinnati was 'the Paris of America'". Building Cincinnati. April 19, 2010. 
  15. ^ History of Cincinnati, Ohio
  16. ^ a b "How Cincinnati Became A City". Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. 
  17. ^ Clark, S. J. (1912). Cincinnati, the Queen City, 1788-1912, Volume 2. The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company. p. 9. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c Carl W. Condit. The Railroad and the City: A Technological and Urbanistic History of Cincinnati. 
  19. ^ Daniel Aaron (1992). Cincinnati, Queen City of the West: 1819-1838. Ohio State University Press. p. 300ff. ISBN 0-8142-0570-4. Retrieved October 24, 2010. 
  20. ^ a b Robert Vexler. Cincinnati: A Chronological & Documentary History. 
  21. ^ Stradling 2003, p. 67.
  22. ^ O'Neill, Tom (August 18, 2001). "Exhibit commemorates the streetcar era". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved January 3, 2014. 
  23. ^ Charles Theodore Greve (1904). Centennial History of Cincinnati and Representative Citizens, Volume 1. Biographical Publishing Company. p. 13. Retrieved May 22, 2013. 
  24. ^ Ohio Divistion of Geological Survey (1998). "Physiographic Regions of Ohio" (pdf). Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Region Description: Upper South". National Gardening Association. Retrieved March 4, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Ohio State Geography". Retrieved March 4, 2011. 
  27. ^ "United States: The Upper South". Brittanica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 4, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Hillside Steps - Transportation & Engineering". Retrieved July 10, 2013. 
  29. ^
  30. ^ "Sights in Cincinnati, Ohio". Archived from the original on December 30, 2007. 
  31. ^ US Map of the Köppen climate classification system
  32. ^ a b c d "Station Name: KY CINCINNATI NORTHERN KY AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-30. 
  33. ^ a b "NowData — NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  34. ^ a b "Records for Cincinnati". National Weather Service. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  35. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for CINCINNATI/GREATER CINCINNATI,KY 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  36. ^ "Population of the 100 largest cities 1790-1990". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 29, 2007. 
  37. ^ "1980-1990 Population of Places With 100,000 or More Inhabitants". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 29, 2007. 
  38. ^ "2009 Estimates for Ohio Cities". Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  39. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Ohio's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Subcounty population estimates: Ohio 2000-2006" (CSV). United States Census Bureau, Population Division. June 28, 2007. Retrieved May 28, 2008. 
  41. ^ Korte, Gregory (June 27, 2007). "Mayor: Census count low again". The Cincinnati Enquirer. [dead link]
  42. ^ a b Carter G. Woodson, Charles Harris Wesley, ''The Negro in Our History'', Associated Publishers, (digitized from original at University of Michigan Library). 1922. p. 140. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  43. ^ "The Pro-Slavery Riot in Cincinnati", Abolitionism 1830-1850, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, University of Virginia, 1998-2007, accessed January 14, 2009
  44. ^ Levi Coffin, Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad: being a brief history of the labors of a lifetime in behalf of the slave, with the stories of numerous fugitives, who gained their freedom through his instrumentality, and many other incidents, Cincinnati: Western tract society, University of Michigan Library
  45. ^ a b "Ohio — Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 16, 2012. 
  46. ^ Cincinnati.Com - Your Key to the City
  47. ^ "Ohio — 2001 riots led to top-down change for Cincinnati police". USA Today. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  48. ^ "Cincinnati USA Top 20 Employers". Cincinnati USA Partnership. 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  49. ^ Taste of Cincinnati, About Taste. Accessed on December 27, 2009.
  50. ^ ":: Cincinnati, A City of Immigrants ::". Retrieved July 10, 2013. 
  51. ^ Hetzer, Laura. "Cincinnati: Our German History". Yahoo!. 
  52. ^ MSN, Food Capitals of America. Accessed on July 23, 2009.
  53. ^ Cliff Lowe, The history of Cincinnati Chili. Accessed on July 23, 2009.
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006). The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology, and Sound Change 1. Walter de Gruyter. p. 276. ISBN 3110167468. 
  58. ^ Labov, William (July 5, 2011). Principles of Linguistic Change: Cognitive and Cultural Factors. New York City: John Wiley & Sons. 15.6.3. ISBN 144435146X. 
  59. ^ Boberg, Charles; Strassel, Stephanie M. (June 2000). "Short-a in Cincinnati: A Change in Progress". Journal of English Linguistics (Sage Publications) 28: 108–126. doi:10.1177/00754240022004929. (subscription required (help)). 
  60. ^ Ash, Sharon (January 1, 2006). "The North American Midland as a dialect area". In Murray, Thomas Edward; Simon, Beth Lee. Language Variation and Change in the American Midland: A New Look at 'Heartland' English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 55. ISBN 90-272-4896-6. 
  61. ^ "UC Idioms and Jargon". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  62. ^ Vaccariello, Linda (January 21, 2014). "How To: Speak Cincinnatiese". Cincinnati (Emmis Communications). Retrieved December 19, 2014. 
  63. ^ 1866 to 1875[dead link]
  64. ^ 1876 to 1881[dead link]
  65. ^ 1882 to 1889[dead link]
  66. ^ "Today, dads let kids skip school". Sarasota Herald-Tribune (Sarasota, Florida). April 3, 2000. p. 5C. Retrieved May 30, 2010. 'We'd skip school,' [Ken Griffey] Junior said Sunday, when asked for his favorite opening day memory. 'My son's skipping school on opening day. It's a tradition. Cincinnati expects that a lot of kids are not going to be there.' 
  67. ^ Search Results | Search
  68. ^ "Jerry Springer". Retrieved August 18, 2009. 
  69. ^ City of Cincinnati website,
  70. ^ "Home - Fire". Retrieved September 25, 2014. 
  71. ^ "About The Cincinnati Fire Department - Fire". Retrieved September 25, 2014. 
  72. ^ a b
  73. ^ "Cincinnati Fire Department History and Photos". Retrieved September 25, 2014. 
  74. ^ "Personnel & Training - Fire". Retrieved September 25, 2014. 
  75. ^ "Administrative Services Bureau - Fire". Retrieved September 25, 2014. 
  76. ^ "Fire Prevention Bureau - Fire". Retrieved September 25, 2014. 
  77. ^ "Crime Rate Dropping Slightly Murders, Rapes Up, Says New FBI Study". 
  78. ^ Retrieved January 2, 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  79. ^
  80. ^ "Clark Montessori". Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  81. ^ "Tristaters put stock in private school". October 20, 2002. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  82. ^ Best Private High Schools Cincinnati Magazine[dead link]
  83. ^ "No Girls Allowed: Boys' Schools"[dead link]
  84. ^ "A League of Their Own: Girls' Schools"[dead link]
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^ "Jewish Federation of Cincinnati, Community Directory". Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  88. ^ Kate Lorenz editor (May 13, 2009). "Top 10 cities for new grads". Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  89. ^ "Nation's Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. Retrieved October 21, 2007. 
  90. ^ "City Beat". City Beat. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  91. ^ "Shot Here". Greater Cincinnati & Northern Kentucky Film Commission. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  92. ^ The Mighty at the Internet Movie Database
  93. ^ "Wild About Moves". Retrieved October 21, 2007. 
  94. ^ Campbell, Polly. "Cincinnati will get more airtime on 'Harry's Law'". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved July 18, 2011. 
  95. ^ Virginia Watson-Rouslin (February 1978). "Channel 48: A Muttering Voice in the T.V. Wilderness". Cincinnati Magazine (Greater Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce): 53. Retrieved November 17, 2009. 
  96. ^ "The Laurel and Hardy Appreciation Society of Cincinnati, Ohio". Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  97. ^ "Domestic Hubs". Delta Air Lines. 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2015. 
  98. ^ Wetterich, Chris (June 13, 2013). "DHL opens super-hub at CVG". Cincinnati Business Courier. Retrieved January 25, 2015. 
  99. ^ "Cincinnati USA Sister City Association - Cincinnati Ohio". Retrieved September 25, 2014. 
  100. ^ "OKI Sister City Coalition". 
  101. ^ Cincinnati, meet your sister Cincinnati Enquirer.
  102. ^ "Green signal for Mysore-Cincinnati pact". The Times Of India. August 4, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]