Cinema of Chile

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Cinema of Chile
Elhusardelamuerte.jpg
Number of screens 320 (2011)[1]
 • Per capita 2.0 per 100,000 (2011)[1]
Main distributors Andes Films 28.0%
UIP 22.0%
Warner 19.0%[2]
Produced feature films (2011)[3]
Fictional 13 (56.5%)
Animated -
Documentary 10 (43.5%)
Number of admissions (2011)[4]
Total 17,126,924
National films 904,625 (5.3%)
Gross Box Office (2011)[4]
Total CLP 49.3 billion
National films CLP 2.31 billion (4.7%)

Chilean cinema refers to all films produced in Chile or made by Chileans.

It had its origins at the start of the 20th century with the first Chilean film screening in 1902 and the first Chilean feature film appearing in 1910. The oldest surviving feature film is El Húsar de la Muerte (1925)., and the last silent film was Patrullas de Avanzada (1931). The Chilean film industry struggled in the late 1940s and in the 1950s, despite some box-office successes such as El Diamante de Maharajá. The 1960s saw the development of the "New Chilean Cinema", with films like Three Sad Tigers (1968), Jackal of Nahueltoro (1969) and Valparaíso, Mi Amor (1970). After the 1973 military coup, film production was low, with many filmmakers working in exile. It increased after the end of the regime in 1989, with many critical successes, such as Johnny Cien Pesos (1993), Historias de Fútbol (1997) and Gringuito (1998).

Box office success came in the late 1990s and early 2000s with films like El Chacotero Sentimental: la película (1999), Ángel Negro (2000) and Sexo con Amor (2003). In recent years, Chilean films have made regular appearances at international film festivals and awards, with No (2012) becoming the first Chilean film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

On February 17, 1895 entrepreneur Francisco de Paola presented the first Kinetoscope, anearly motion picture exhibition device, in Santiago. Next year, on August 25, 1896, the first Cinématographe reels were shown to an astounded audience in Santiago. These were the same movies that only eight months earlier, the Lumiere Brothers had shown in Paris.[5]

In the north of Chile, the Potassium nitrate mining industry created enough wealth to allow cities like Antofagasta and Iquique some privileges rare in other parts of the country. In Iquique, director was enthralled by this new technology and started to create his own short films. On May 20, 1897, he screened the short documentary "[6] in the Great Philharmonic Hall on Tarapaca Street. This first short would be followed by "El desfile en honor del Brasil",[7] "La llegada de un tren de pasajeros a la estación de Iquique",[8] "Bomba Tarapacá Nº7"[9] and "Grupo de gananciosos en la partida de football"[10]

In 1897, some circuses began to screen movies, which attracted great interest at first but soon trailed off due to the lack of new material. In the same year in Santiago, two new movie venues opened which both featured Edison's Vitascope, less popular than the Cinématographe. In June that year, the Bioscop was also launched as another alternative to the cinematographe, although it eventually failed. By the end of the year, all these new places would be closed.

In 1900, the Apollo Theatre in Santiago exhibited the film “Carreras en Viña”, (Racing in Viña) and some other foreign films. The exact date that the films screened and further details of this event remain unknown.

In the port city of Valparaíso, the first film ever fully produced in Chile was launched at the Teatro ODEON on 26 May 1902.[11] The film, Ejercicio General del Cuerpo de Bomberos[12] (General Practice of the Fire Department), filmed on May 20 the same year, was only three minutes long and showed the annual public show performed by the Valparaíso Fire Department in the city's Aníbal Pinto square. Nothing is known of the film's director, cinematographer or production team, and only 27 seconds of footage remain today, held by the Catholic University of Valparaíso.[13]

In 1903, "Un paseo por playa ancha" (A walk through Playa Ancha) was filmed in Valparaiso by Maurice Albert Massonnier. The film is split into three parts. First, a huaso charges into the scene, causing some commotion among the people around, and dances the traditional Chilean cueca accompanied by musicians. This is followed by a scene where the characters eat a Chilean Cazuela. Finally, in the last scene, a fight breaks but is quickly controlled by a guard. Maurice Albert Massonnier was sent to Chile by the Lumiere Brothers’ company, one of many sent around the world to document and produce films for them. After screening his film in Chile, Massonnier sent the film to Paris, where several copies were made. One of those copies was found in 1994 by Chilean film restorer Daniel Sandoval in an archive on Bois-d'Arcy.[14] "Un paseo por playa ancha" is now the oldest surviving Chilean movie. Massonier ended up settling in Chile and made his own production company, "Empresa Massonnier y Ca."

Un Paseo a Playa Ancha (1903), the oldest surviving Chilean film, by Maurice Albert Massonnier

The silent era[edit]

Film production boomed in Chile in the silent era, with 78 films released between 1910 and 1931. The first full-length film, Manuel Rodríguez, was released in 1910. Directed by Adolfo Urzúa, and starring Nicanor de la Sotta, it told the story of Manuel Rodríguez Erdoíza, who fought for Chile's independence from Spain until his death in 1818.[15]

Among the many Chilean directors who took up the art in this period – Salvatore Giambastini, Juan Pérez Berrocal, Jorge "Coke" Délano, Nicanor de la Sotta, Carlos Borcosque and Alberto Santana – one name in particular stands out for film historians: Pedro Sienna, a former stage actor who went on to direct and act in some of the best films of the age.[15] It was Sienna who wrote, directed and starred in the first Chilean feature-length film that has survived to this day, El Húsar de la Muerte (The Hussar of the Dead).

Premiered in Santiago on 24 November 1925, El Húsar de la Muerte – like Adolfo Urzúa's eponymous Manuel Rodríguez – tells the story of Manuel Rodríguez Erdoíza. The film was restored in 1962 by the University of Chile’s film archive, with a musical soundtrack by well-known Chilean composer and pianist Sergio Ortega. El Húsar de la Muerte was recently shown in the Treasures from the Archives category of the 2005 London Film Festival. Critic Carolina Robino described El Húsar de la Muerte in BBC Mundo as “an extremely refined film for its era. The visual imagery has an extraordinary richness. Sienna plays masterfully with the time-shifts, with the subjective view of the characters and with their thoughts. Without words, it tells an epic story with exquisite touches of humor and provides an accurate description of Chilean colonial society.”[16]

The last silent movie produced in Chile was Patrullas de Avanzada (Advanced Patrol), directed by Eric Page and released in 1931.[15]

1940s and 1950s[edit]

In 1942, the Chilean Production Development Corporation (Spanish: "Corporación de Fomento de la Producción" or CORFO) created the Chile Films project, which provided filmmakers with technical resources and supported the Chilean film industry. Despite this, the industry began to struggle in the late 1940s with some studios experiencing financial difficulties. Large sums of money were spent on cinematic “super-productions” to attract foreign directors, but most failed to make a profit.[15] One film which did buck the trend, however, was adventure-comedy El Diamante de Maharajá (The Maharaja Diamond), starring comedian Lucho Córdoba, which was a box-office hit.

The low-output trend continued into the 1950s, with only 13 films released in Chile over the course of the decade. Towards the end of the 50s, however, two films appeared which gave a taste of the new wave of socially conscious cinema that would sweep Chile in the 1960s: Naum Kramarenko's Tres miradas a la calle (Three Views of the Street, 1957) and Deja que los perros ladren (Let the Dogs Bark, 1961).[15]

The “New Chilean Cinema”[edit]

In the 1960s, a vibrant national film culture developed which came to be known as the "New Chilean Cinema" (Spanish: Nuevo Cine Chileno). An experimental film department was founded at the University of Chile, along with a Film Institute at the Catholic University of Chile. The industry also received support from the revitalised Chile Films project which had begun in the 1940s.[17] During this period, young directors such as Raúl Ruiz, Patricio Guzmán, Aldo Francia and Miguel Littín emerged, along with a new genre inspired by social and political currents on the 1960s, the documentary.[15]

The first ever "Festival del Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano" (New Latin American Film Festival) took place in Viña del Mar in 1967. Shortly afterwards some of the most important films from the New Chilean Cinema period were released: Tres Tristes Tigres (Three Sad Tigers, 1968) by Raúl Ruiz; Valparaíso, Mi Amor (Valparaíso, My Love, 1970) by Aldo Francia and El Chacal de Nahueltoro (Jackal of Nahueltoro, 1970) by Miguel Littín.[15]

Politics was a key theme for Chilean cinema in the 1960s and beyond, as it was for similar movements in other South American countries (the Cinema Novo of Brazil and the Nueva Cinema of Argentina) and for Chilean movements in other fields of the arts, such as the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song). “This left-wing Chilean filmmakers’ movement cannot be understood without connecting it to the emerging social and political identity of the American continent,” states the Chilean cultural website MemoriaChilena.[18]

The 1973 military coup drove many filmmakers abroad, where they continued to make films reflecting on and criticising the Chilean military government under Augusto Pinochet. MemoriaChilena says: “The premises of the Nuevo Cine did not die with the massive exile of filmmakers. Instead they were reinterpreted in the cinema of exile as protest against the repression under the military regime or expressing nostalgia for the shattered revolution.” Some of the best-known of the 1970s include The Promised Land by Miguel Littín and The Battle of Chile by Patricio Gúzman.[18]

Chilean cinema post-dictatorship[edit]

Film production within Chile was relatively low throughout the military regime, with most filmmakers working in exile, but began to increase again when the regime ended in 1989. In 1992, the FONDART national art fund was established which would go on to support some 90% of Chilean feature-length films made since its creation. Although many films released in the late 1980s and early 1990s received both public and critical acclaim, including Johnny Cien Pesos (Hundred Peso Johnny, 1993) by Gustavo Graef-Marino; Historias de Fútbol (Soccer Stories, 1997) the debut film from Andrés Wood and Gringuito (1998) by Sergio Castilla, Chilean movies struggled to compete with international films for audience numbers.[15]

The next decade saw this trend begin to change. The more commercial 1999 release El Chacotero Sentimental (The Sentimental Joker), by Cristián Galaz, broke Chilean box office records and was followed by box-office successes like Jorge Olguín's Ángel Negro (Black Angel, 2000) and Alejandro Rojas’ Ogú y Mampato en Rapa Nui (Ogú and Mampato on Easter Island, 2002). In 2003, the comedy Sexo con Amor (Sex with Love) by Boris Quercia set a new national box office record which would remain unbroken until 2012. Chilean films also began to win awards at noted international festivals. Silvio Caiozzi's Coronación (Coronation, 2000) won prizes at the Montreal, Huelva, Cartagena and Havana film festivals; Andrés Wood's La Fiebre del Loco (Abalone Fever, 2001) won at Cartagena and Lleida; and Taxi Para Tres (Taxi For Three, 2001) by Orlando Lübbert won at Cartagena, Havana, Mar del Plata, Miami and San Sebastián.[15]

International awards since 2000[edit]

In the last two decades, Chilean films have had a regular presence at international film festivals worldwide.

Nominated for Best Ibero-American Film (Mejor Película Iberoamericana) in the Ariel Awards. Nominated for Best Film (Mejor Película) at the Cartagena Film Festival and won two “India Catalina” awards there, for Best Supporting Actor and Best Screenplay. Nominated for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film at the Goya Awards . Won Golden Kikito for Best Actor in the Latin Film section of the Festival de Gramado, and nominated for Best Film overall. Won three awards at the Havana Film Festival: Best Screenplay; Glauber Rocha Award - Special Mention; and the Grand Coral - Third Prize, all presented to Orlando Lübbert. Won Favorite Film at the MTV Movie Awards, Latin America. Won Best Screenplay at the Lima Latin American Film Festival. Awarded with a Special Mention for Best Film at the Mar del Plata Film Festival. Won the Grand Jury Prize at the Miami Film Festival. Won the Golden Seashell in the San Sebastián International Film Festival.[19][20]

Won Most Popular International Film at the 2004 Vancouver International Film Festival.[21] Nominated for the Ariel Award, the Mexican Academy of Film awards, in the Best Iberoamerican Film category. In 2005, won the PFS Award at the Political Film Society Awards.[22] Won Best Cinematography - Gran Premio Coral in the Havana Film Festival, Cuba. Won Best Narrative Latin American Film in the FICCO, Mexico. Won the audience award at the Philadelphia Film Festival. Won the Golden Circle Award at the Bogota International Film Festival. Won Best Film at the Valdivia International Film Festival. Was voted Most Popular Film in the Vancouver International Film Festival.

Won the top prize at the 2008 Torino Film Festival. Was Chile's submission to the 81st Academy Awards for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.[23][24] In 2009, won the Golden Tulip - Best Film at the Istanbul International Film Festival. Won two of its three nominations at the Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema for the Best Actor and for the FEISAL Award. Won Best Actor at the Cinemanila International Film Festival Won two prizes at the Havana Film Festival, Best Actor and the Grand Coral - First Prize. Received a Special Mention in the Ibero-American Competition of the Miami Film Festival. Won a KNF Award at the Rotterdam International Film Festival Won a Special Jury Award in the Free Spirit Competition at the Warsaw International Film Festival.

Won the World Cinema: Dramatic prize at Sundance in 2009 Won the Golden Globe for Best Foreign Language Film in 2010. Won the Golden India Catalina prize for Best Actress at the Cartagena Film Festival for Catalina Saavedra). Won "Breakthrough Actress" for Saavedra at the Gotham Independent Film Awards Won Best Actress for Saavedra at the Lleida Latin-American Film Festival, along with Best Film. Won Best Narrative Film at the Sarasota Film Festival. Won the Talent Tape Award at the Fribourg International Film Festival. Received a Special Mention at the Taipei Film Festival. Won the Critics Award and the Elcine First Prize - Best Film at the Latin American Film Festival. Won the Satellite Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 2009. Won the Colón de Oro for Best Feature film at the Huelva Latin American Film Festival. Won the FIPRESCI Prize - Best Film in the Guadalajara International Film Festival. Sebastián Silva also won the Inspiration Award, the International Film Guide Inspiration Award and the Jordan Alexander Kressler Screenwriting Award, and Catalina Saavedra received a Special Mention - Best Actress - Ibero-American Competition in the Miami International Film Festival. The film has also been nominated for awards in several other major film festivals.[26]

Selected as the Chilean entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 83rd Academy Awards,[27] but didn't make the final shortlist.[28] Won the Best Spanish Language Foreign Film (Mejor Película Hispanoamericana) in the Goya Awards. Won the Jury Award - Best Director at the Los Angeles Latino International Film Festival Nominated for Best feature Film at Oslo Films from the South Festival.

Debuted as part of the official selection at the Cannes Film Festival. Went on to appear at the Toronto International Film Festival, San Francisco International Film Festival, Miami International Film Festival and Melbourne International Film Festival. Won European Film Award for Best Documentary, Los Angeles Latino International Film Festival (2011) won Jury Award for Best Documentary.[29] Winner Best Documentary, 2010 Abu Dhabi Film Festival[29]

Premiered at the Un Certain Regard section at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival.[31][32] and was nominated for the Un Certain Regard Award. Won the FIPRESCI Prize - Best Film at the Havana Film Festival. Won the Grand Jury Prize - Knight Ibero-American Competition at the Jordan Alexander Kressler Screenwriting Award at the Miami Film Festival. Nominated for the Horizons Award at the San Sebastián International Film Festival.

Won the World Cinema Jury Prize: Dramatic at the Sundance Film Festival.[33] Nominated for the Silver Ariel - Best Latin-American Film (Mejor Película Iberoamericana) at the Ariel Awards. Nominated for the Silver Condor - Best Foreign Film and Best Spanish Language Film (Mejor Película Iberoamericana) at the Argentine Film Critics Association Film Awards. Nominated for the Grand Prize - Best Music at the Grande Prêmio do Cinema Brasileiro.[34] Won the FIPRESCI Prize - Best Film and the Mayahuel Award - Best Actress at the Guadalajara International Film Festival. Nominated for the Art Cinema Award at the Hamburg Film Festival. Won the Grand Coral - Second Prize - Best Film at the Havana Film Festival. Nominated for the Grand Jury Prize and received a Special Mention in the Miami Film Festival. Nominated for the Films from the South Award - Best Feature, at the Oslo Films from the South Festival Nominated as Best Iberoamerican Film at the Goya Awards. Represented Chile at 84th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film. Selected as the Chilean entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards but did not make the final shortlist

Won a World Cinema Screenwriting Award at the Sundance Film Festival in 2012[35] Alicia Rodríguez won the Colón de Plata award - Best Actress at the Huelva Latin American Film Festival[36] and Marially Rivas was nominated for the Grand Jury Prize - World Cinema - Dramatic[37] Won the Sebastiane Award and was nominated for the Horizons Award at San Sebastián International Film Festival.

Won the Directing Award (World Cinema Dramatic) at Sundance 2013,[38] and was also nominated for the World Cinema - Dramatic award in the Grand Jury Prize. Nominated for two Film Independent Spirit Awards, the John Cassavetes Award, and the Independent Spirit Award in 2013.

No, 2012, directed by Pablo Larraín In 2013, became the first Chilean movie to be nominated for Best Foreign Picture at the Academy Awards. Nominated for Best Iberoamerican Movie at the Ariel Awards. Won Best Fictional Film - Premio Coral at the Havana Film Festival Won the Art Cinema Directors' Fortnight Award at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. Won the Cinema for Peace Award for Justice. Won Best Foreign Film at the Georgia Film Critics Association in 2014. Nominated for the Art Cinema Award at the Hamburg Film Festival. Nominated for the BFI London Film Festival awards in 2012. Won an NBR Award at the National Board of Review. Nominated for the SDFCS Award at the San Diego Film Critics Society. Won Best Foreign Feature Film - Audience Award at the 2012 São Paulo International Film Festival Won the Audience Award at the Thessaloniki International Film Festival.[39]

  • Gloria, 2013, directed by Sebastián Lelio.

Won the Films in Progress Award - Best Film[40] at the 2012 San Sebastian International Film Festival, before its official release. In 2013: Won the Guild of German Art House Cinemas Prize, the Ecumenical Jury Prize, and the Silver Berlin Bear (for Paulina Garcia) at the 63rd Berlin International Film Festival, where it was also nominated for the Golden Bear. Won Best Film at the Mumbai International Film Festival. Won the Silver Ariel - Best Latin-American Film at the Ariel Awards. In 2014: Nominated for the Best Spanish Language Foreign Film at the 28th Goya Awards . Nominated for Best Actress (for Paulina Garcia) and "Best Film - EuroCinema Hawaii Award at the Hawaii International Film Festival. Nominated for Best Foreign Film in the Independent Spirit Awards. Won Best Foreign Language Film at the London Film Critics' Circle. Won the Top Foreign Film Award in the National Board of Review Awards 2013. Won the NBR Award at the National Board of Review, USA. Won a Cine Latino Award - Special Mention and was nominated for the Cine Latino Award and the FIPRESCI Prize at the Palm Springs International Film Festival. Won three Platino awards - Best Film, Best Actress and Best Screenplay - and was nominated for Best Director.

Well-known directors[edit]

Well-known actresses[edit]

Well-known actors[edit]

Nelson Villagra
Héctor Noguera
Francisco Reyes
Cristian de la Fuente

Major films[edit]

Fiction films[edit]

Documentaries[edit]

Cinema Festivals in Chile[edit]

Among the best known Chilean cinema festivals are:

  • Festival Internacional de Animacion Chilemonos - CHILEMONOS (Chilemonos International Animation Film Festival)[41]

A relatively new festival with only five editions by 2014, it brings together most Chilean animation producers as well as many fans.

  • Festival Internacional de Documentales de Antofagasta - ANTOFADOCS (Antofagasta International Documentary Festival)[42]

A documentary film festival held in the Atacama Desert in the northern Chilean city of Antofagasta. ATOFADOCS offers free workshops that are open to the community.

  • Festival de Cine Documental de Puerto Varas - SURDOCS (Puerto Varas Documentary Film Festival)[43]

Located in Puerto Varas on the shores of Llanquihue lake, since 2003 the festival has featured 40 documentary films and has more than 4,500 people attending every year.

  • Festival Internacional de Cine de Antofagasta - FICIANT (Antofagasta International film festival)[44]

Launched in 2004, this has since become one of the most significant film festivals in northern Chile.

  • Festival Internacional de Cine de la Antártica sobre Medio Ambiente y Sustentabilidad - FICAMS (Antarctica International Film Festival on Environment and Sustainability).[45]

FICAMS is a green film festival which invites filmmakers of all nationalities to enter audiovisual works that address global warming, renewable energy, the environment and sustainability issues. This festival began in 2011, and is held in Punta Arenas and Puerto Williams, two of the southernmost cities in Chile and the world.

  • Festival Chileno Internacional del Cortometraje de Santiago - FESANCOR (Santiago International Short Film Festival).[46]

Since 1993, FESANCOR has promoted short films to the media and the public. The festival welcomes the exploration of new visual and audiovisual languages and is one of the most important short film festivals in Latin America.[47]

  • Festival de Cine B - CINE B (B Cinema Festival)[48]

Cine B festival is accepts all kinds of independent works, including feature films, shorts, music videos and other non traditional formats. In general, in features films rejected by big movie theatres and distributors.[49] The festival began in 2008 and is organized by the Chilean Film School and other organizations that have joined over the years.[50]

  • Festival de Cine de Mujeres - FEMCINE (Women’s Film Festival)[51]

FEMCINE is the response to the lack of women in film production, as stated on the festival’s website by its executive director Antonella Estévez: "less than 20% of the TV or cinema productions we see are directed by a woman."[52]

Valdivia International Film Festival is an international film exhibition that includes other cultural events like free concerts and book releases. The festival begun in 1993 to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the Universidad Austral de Chile’s Cine Club.

  • Festival Internacional de Cine de Viña del Mar - FICVIÑA (Viña del Mar International Film Festival)[54]

Although the Viña del Mar International Film Festival started in 1967, its history goes back to 1963, with the first Amateur Film Festival promoted by doctor and filmmaker Aldo Francia. In its fourth edition in 1966, the festival dropped the "amateur" from the title and became the First Chilean Film Festival. Eventually the festival evolved in what we know today.[55]

  • Festival Internacional de Cine de Lebu- FICIL BIOBIO (Lebu International Film Festival)[56]

Originally known as the Festival de Cine Latinoamericano Caverna Benavides de Lebu, the festival was created to incentivize film culture in Lebu, Arauco Province which by then had few cinemas and a population that knew very little about cinema. Initially, it focused on Latin American cinema before growing into the international festival that it is today.

  • Festival Internacional de Documentales de Santiago - FIDOCS (Santiago International Documentary Film Festival)[57]

Started in 1997, FIDOCS has become the main space for the exchange, circulation and competition of the documentary genre in Chile.

  • Festival del Cine Social y Antisocial de La Pintana - FECISO (La Pintana Social and Antisocial Film Festival)[58]

In 2007, La Pintana Social and Antisocial Film Festival was created with the purpose of promoting and disseminating works that address social issues. The festival brought together a wide range of social organizations and promoted the debate of social issues. La Pintana is one of most deprived communes of Chile.[59]

As its name suggests, the festival takes place in Santiago and, along with the festival held in Valdivia, has become one of the most important Chilean film festivals.

  • Festival de Cine Documental de Chiloé - FEDOCHI (Chiloé Documentary Film Festival)[61]

This festival has taken place in Chiloé in southern Chile every year since 2006, and is focused on audiovisual works about heritage, identity and the rescuing of memory.[62]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Table 6: Share of Top 3 distributors (Excel)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  3. ^ "Table 1: Feature Film Production - Genre/Method of Shooting". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Table 11: Exhibition - Admissions & Gross Box Office (GBO)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  5. ^ History of Cinema in Chile (EN) www.filmbirth.com © Copyright 2001-2009 Filmbirth.com All Rights Reserved, retrieved on Nobember 18
  6. ^ Una cueca en Cavancha Cinechile, Enciclopedia del Cine Chileno / Santiago, Chile , retrieved on November 18
  7. ^ El desfile en honor del Brasil Cinechile, Enciclopedia del Cine Chileno / Santiago, Chile, retrieved on November 18
  8. ^ La llegada de un tren de pasajeros a la estación de Iquique Cinechile, Enciclopedia del Cine Chileno / Santiago, Chile, retrieved on Nobember 18
  9. ^ Bomba Tarapacá Nº7 Cinechile, Enciclopedia del Cine Chileno / Santiago, Chile, retrieved on November 18
  10. ^ Grupo de gananciosos en la partida de football Cinechile, Enciclopedia del Cine Chileno / Santiago, Chile /, retrieved on November 18
  11. ^ Re-visión del Cine Chileno, Alicia Vega, p.204. Link to e-book on MemoriaChilena.cl Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  12. ^ Ejercicio general del Cuerpo de Bomberos (1902) Cinechile, Enciclopedia del Cine Chileno / Santiago, Chile /retrieved on November 18
  13. ^ Ejercicio General del Cuerpo de Bomberos Cine Chile: Enciclopedia del Cine Chileno. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  14. ^ "Un paseo por playa ancha" online CINETECA NACIONAL DEL CENTRO CULTURAL LA MONEDA, retrieved on November 18, 2014
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Historia del Cine Chileno Emol.cl (website of El Mercurio newspaper). Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  16. ^ Obsesionado con el húsar Carolina Robino, BBC Mundo, 24 October 2005. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  17. ^ Antonella Estévez y las transformaciones del Cine Chileno en ARTV Radio Universidad Chile website, 11 May 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  18. ^ a b Nuevo Cine Chileno Memoriachilena.cl. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  19. ^ FICHA TÉCNICA, premios Unidad Técnica Programa Ibermedia, 2013, retrieved on December 18, 2014
  20. ^ Taxi Para Tres is San Sebastian surprise winner September 30, 2001 screendaily.com By Jennifer Green
  21. ^ "23rd Vancouver International Film Festival Breaks Records" (Press release). Vancouver International Film Festival. 13 October 2004. Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  22. ^ Political Film Society Awar winers per year http://www.polfilms.com/ copyright 2014 Political Film Society. All Rights Reserved, retrieved on November 24, 2014
  23. ^ http://www.oscars.org/press/pressreleases/2008/08.10.17.html
  24. ^ "Tony Manero fue seleccionada para postular por Chile a los Oscar". ADN Radio Chile. 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  25. ^ The Maid official SevenTwentyOne Productions, The Maid Film offcial website, retrieved on December 18, 2014
  26. ^ The Maid film info (es) digitaliafilmlibrary2014 Digitalia, retrieved on December 18, 2014
  27. ^ ""La vida de los peces" postulará a ternas de Mejor Película Extranjera en los Oscar". lanacion.cl. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  28. ^ "9 Foreign Language Films Continue to Oscar Race". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-01-19. 
  29. ^ a b "Nostalgia for the Light". Icarus Films. icarusfilms.com. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  30. ^ "Interview with Bonsai director Cristián Jiménez". soundsandcolours. Retrieved 2012-04-10. 
  31. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Official Selection". Cannes. Retrieved 2011-04-16. 
  32. ^ "Cannes film festival 2011: The full lineup". guardian.co.uk (London). 14 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-16. 
  33. ^ Sundance Institute - Voleta went to heaven Archives / 2012 Sundance Film Festival, retieved on December 18, 2014
  34. ^ Violeta went to heaven, Hollywood reporter hollywoodreporter.com by Agustin Mango June 9, 2012, retrieved on December 18, 2014
  35. ^ "Joven y alocada" marcan histórico triunfo del cine chileno en Sundance Emol.cl (website of El Mercurio newspaper), 29 January 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  36. ^ "Infancia Clandestina" y "Joven y alocada" fueron galardonadas en Festival de Huelva Radio Cooperativa website, 24 November 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013
  37. ^ Joven y alocada gana premio en San Sebastián DPA, La Tercera, 28 September 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  38. ^ Sundance 2013 Award Announced hollywoodreporter.com by THR Staff January 26, 2013, retrieved on December 20, 2014
  39. ^ Cinema Chile 2012-2013 Award Movies Cinema Chile 2014 - Retrieved on December 20, 2014
  40. ^ "Chilea's Lelio wins Films in Progress in San Sebastián". screendaily. Retrieved 2013-02-13. 
  41. ^ Chilemonos © 2014 Festival internacional de animación CHILEMONOS, retrieved on November 20, 2014
  42. ^ ATOFADOCS © 2014 Antofadocs, retrieved on November 20, 2014
  43. ^ SURDOCS Surdocs 2014, retrieved on November 20, 2014
  44. ^ FICIANT - Festival Internacional de Cine de Antofagasta ficiant.cl/ FICIANT 2013, retrieved on November 20, 2014
  45. ^ FICAMS - Antarctica International Film Festival of Environment and Sustainability FICAMS 2014, retrieved on November 20, 2014
  46. ^ FESANCOR Santiago International Short Film Festival© 2013 Fesancor N°22 - Todos los Derechos Reservados | Contacto: (56)(2) 2228-4920 - (56)(9) 332-1439 - info@fesancor.cl retrieved on November 21, 2014
  47. ^ Santiago Cultura review Santiagocultura, Santiago Municipality, November 10, 2013 retrieved on November 21, 2014
  48. ^ CINE B Film Festival © Cine//B 2014. Ningún derecho reservado (No right reserved), retrieved on November 21, 2014
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  52. ^ ["Menos del 20% de la producción audiovisual que vemos en cine o televisión está dirigida por mujeres" Antonella Estévez Directora Ejecutiva, FEMCINE] FEMCINE - 2014, retrieved on November 20, 2014
  53. ^ Valdivia International Film Festival ficvaldivia.cl 2014, retrieved on November 20, 2014
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  56. ^ FICIL BIOBIO FICIL BIOBIO 2014
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References[edit]

  • (English) Michael Chanan (under the direction of), Chilean Cinema, Londres, British Film Institute, 1976, 102 p. ISBN 0-85170-058-6
  • (English) James Cosneros, "The Figure of Memory in Chilean Cinema: Patricio Guzmán and Raúl Ruiz," Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, March 2006, p. 59-75.
  • (Spanish) Eliana Jara Donoso, Cine mudo chileno, Los Héroes/Fondo de Desarrollo de la Cultura y las Artes, Ministerio de Educación, Ceneca, Tevecorp., 1994, ISBN 956-272-024-1
  • (Spanish) Julio López Navarro, Películas chilenas, Editorial La Noria, 1994.
  • (Spanish) Jacqueline Mouesca, Plano secuencia de la memoria de Chile: venticincoãnos de cine chileno (1960–1985), Madrid, Ediciones del litoral, 1988, 207 p ISBN 84-85594-21-5
  • (French) Nicolas Azalbert, "Nouveaux espoirs chiliens," Cahiers du cinéma, nº 604, September 2005, p. 60; 62.
  • (French) Collectif, Le Cinéma latino-américain, Éd. Iris, 1991, 162 p.
  • (French) Hans Ehrmann, "Le Cinéma de l'Unité Populaire – Bilan d'une expérience," Écran no. 22, p. 14.
  • (French) Jean-Paul Fargier, "Eternel Chili," Cahiers du cinéma, no. 379, January 1986, p. XII-XIII.
  • (French) Carlos Forastero, "Chili: la traversée du désert," Écran no. 72 p. 13.
  • (French) Guy Hennebelle, Alfonso Gumucio-Dagmón, et al., Les Cinémas de l'Amérique latine, Éd. Lherminier, 1981, 544 p.
  • (French) Pierre Kast, "Situation du cinéma chilien," Cinéma no. 164, March 1972, p. 72.
  • (French) Françoise Le Pennec, "Cinéma du Chili, en exil ou sur place," Cinéma no. 290, p. 54.
  • (French) Eric Le Roy, review of book by Eliana Jara Donoso, Cine mudo chileno, revue 1895 no. 19, p. 96.
  • (French) Paulo Antonio Paranagua, Le Cinéma en Amérique latine: le miroir éclaté, Éd. L'Harmattan, 2000, 288 p.
  • (French) Paulo Antonio Paranagua, "Chili" (an association of friends of Chilean cinema), Positif no. 240, March 1981, p. 61.
  • (French) Paulo Antonio Paranagua, review of book by Alicia Vega, Re-visión del cine chileno, Positif n° 250, January 1982, p. 91.
  • (French) Paulo Antonio Paranagua, "Chili, impressions," Positif no. 372, February 1992, p. 18.
  • (French) Zuzana Mirjam Pick, "Le Cinéma chilien sous le signe de l'union populaire 1970–1973," Positif no. 155, January 1974, p. 35.
  • (French) Francis Saint-Dizier, Cinémas d'Amérique latine n° 6: les historiens du cinéma en Amérique latine, Toulouse, Presses universitaires du Mirail, 1998, 185 p.
  • (French) Francis Saint-Dizier, Cinémas d'Amérique latine n° 7: cinémas latino-américains des années 90, Toulouse, Presses universitaires du Mirail, 1999, 182 p. ISBN 2-85816-447-9
  • (French) Francis Saint-Dizier, Esther Saint-Dizier, Cinémas d'Amérique latine n° 8: cinéma et musique, Toulouse, Presses universitaires du Mirail, 2000, 182 p. ISBN 2-85816-506-8
  • (French) "Chili: les années du 'cinéma noir,'" Cinéma no. 461, November 1981, p. 5.

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{{es:Cine de Chile}}