Cineon

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Cineon System was a computer based system, integrating a film scanner and recorder hardware, digital software for compositing and effects, image restoration, color management and the development of a proprietary file format designed by Kodak. These components were created to support the work flow of digital intermediate film production. Tape drives and workstations were also included in the system. The system was first released in 1993 and was abandoned by 1997. As an end-to-end solution for 2K and 4K digital film production, the system was well ahead of its time. The major components of the system (scanner, workstation software, and recorder) have all received AMPAS Scientific and Technical Awards.

Cineon Image File Format
Filename extension .cin
Developed by Kodak
Type of format Image file formats
Extended to DPX
Standard Draft 4.5
Website www.cineon.com

Kodak no longer sells the system or its components; however, the “Cineon” (.cin) file format that Kodak defined still is commonly used in the film visual effects world. (The Digital Picture Exchange (DPX) file format is also used in those applications; DPX files commonly store pixel data encoded according to Cineon Printing Density.)

Cineon file format[edit]

The Cineon file format was designed specifically to represent scanned film images, and it has some interesting differences from other formats such as TIFF and JPEG:

  • The pixel data represents "printing density", the density that is seen by the print film. Thus, Cineon files are assumed to operate as part of a reproduction chain keeping whatever values are originally scanned from a negative or positive film. Any negative can be reproduced on the recorder retaining the original neg's characteristics (such as color component crosstalk and gamma) — and thereby retaining the negative's "look" if it were directly printed. The original Cineon color data metric printing densities were based upon 5244 intermediate film. Conversion of Cineon Printing Density (CPD) to Status-M can be estimated with a 3x3 matrix or by using tables contained in the Kodak "Digital LAD" document. This document shows a specific relation between Cineon Code values and Status-M densities.
  • The data is stored in log format, directly corresponding to density of the original negative. Since the scanned material is likely a negative, the data can be said to be "gamma with log encoding".
  • To evaluate original scene luminances from Cineon data, the camera negative characteristics must be known. (Such characterization is known as "unbuilding.") Such characterization is aided by exposing a sensitometric strip so that the actual developing gamma can be determined. The film can be unbuilt by using the unique per-layer contrasts of the color negative.
  • In a Cineon (.cin) file, each channel (R,G,B) is 10 bits, packed 3 per 32-bit word, with two bits unused.
  • Conversion to 8-bit integer format for display on computer monitors or transfer to video typically involves the notion of the "black point" and "white point" used for conversion to more limited range video signals. Conventionally, these points are 95 and 685 on the 0-1023 scale (but should be adjusted based upon actual negative content). Pixel values above 685 are "brigher than white", such as the sun, chrome highlights, etc. The concept of a "soft clip" was introduced to make the rolloff of whites appear more natural. Pixel values below 95 represent black values exposed on the negative (the clear base of the film). These values can descend in practice as low as pixel values 20 or 30.

Documentation[edit]

Conversions to the Cineon format were defined in a Kodak document by Glenn Kennel, Conversion of 10-bit Log Film data to 8-bit Linear or Video Data

SMPTE standardized the format further into a related format called DPX which can store more varieties of image information as well as additional header information.

The Cineon 10 bits per pixel color space provides 1024 levels of color as opposed to 256 levels of color in 8 bits per pixel color space.

10 bit YUV and 10 bit RGB are industry standard. This is documented and recognized by the Society Of Motion Picture Television Engineers: SMPTE 259M, SMPTE 292M, SMPTE 296M, SMPTE 372M.

History[edit]

In 1990, the Cineon system began its birth. Glenn Kennel was the architect of the Cineon digital film system and led the development of the Cineon CCD film scanner and film recorder over the next couple of years. He helped launch Kodak's Cinesite Digital Film Center in 1992, which became the premier test site for Cineon. In 1993 Cinesite used Cineon in the digital restoration of Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, which became the first film to be entirely scanned to digital files, manipulated, and recorded back to film. The restoration project was done entirely at 4K resolution and 10-bit color depth using the Cineon software to digitally remove dirt and scratches and restore faded colors. After the demise of Cineon Glenn Kennel worked with Philips to extend the Spirit DataCine to Cineon-compatible digital file output, first applying it to the film "Pleasantville" in 1997. Philips licensed some of the technology from Kodak, mainly the front end (lens, optics and CCDs).

See also[edit]