Circa

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For other uses, see Circa (disambiguation).
"Ca." and "Cca." redirect here. For other uses of "Ca", see CA. For other uses of "Cca", see CCA.

Circa (from Latin, meaning "around, about"), usually abbreviated c., ca or ca. (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in English, French, Spanish, Italian, Croatian, Serbian, German, Dutch, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Czech, Norwegian, Swedish and Danish (spelled cirka), usually referring to a date.[1] Circa is widely used in genealogy and historical writing when the dates of events are not precisely known.

When used in date ranges, the term "circa" is applied before each approximate date, while dates without "circa" immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty.

Examples:

  • 1732–1799, both years are known precisely.
  • c. 1732–1799, only the end year is known precisely; the start year is approximate.
  • 1732 – c. 1799, only the start year is known precisely; the end year is approximate.
  • c. 1732 – c. 1799, both years are approximate.

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