Circumferential Road 5
|Circumferential Road 5|
|Length:||32.5 km (20.2 mi)|
|Beltway around Manila|
|north end:||North Luzon Expressway in Valenzuela|
|south end:||Coastal Road in Parañaque|
|Major cities:||Valenzuela, Quezon City, Pasig, Makati, Marikina, Taguig, Parañaque, and Las Piñas|
|Highways in the Philippines|
The Circumferential Road 5, more commonly known as the C-5 Road or C-5, is a network of roads and bridges that altogether forms the fifth beltway of the City of Manila. The road currently spans 32.5 kilometres (20.2 mi) as it connects the cities of Parañaque, Taguig, Makati, Pasig, Marikina, Quezon City and Valenzuela. The entire road is within the boundaries of the National Capital Region, more commonly known as Metro Manila, in the Philippines. It serves as the second most important north to south transportation corridor, effectively serving as a reliever road for the Circumferential Road 4, better known as Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or EDSA.
The C-5 Road consists of the following segments: Mindanao Avenue, Congressional Avenue, Tandang Sora Avenue, Luzon Avenue, Katipunan Avenue, Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue, Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue and the C-5 Road Extension. Not these entire roads are designated as the C-5 Road itself, hence, only the portion of them that are necessary to form a north-south circumferential road are labelled as parts of the C-5 road. Under the power of the Republic Act 8224, all these segments, and therefore the entire Circumferential Road 5, were being labelled as the President Carlos P. Garcia Avenue, honoring the eighth president of the Republic of the Philippines, Carlos P. Garcia.
The road was a subject of controversy in the Senate since the planned route passes much of the private properties of then Senate President Manny Villar in Las Piñas. Due to this controversy, the Circumferential Road 5 is currently uncompleted, although the 32.5 kilometres (20.2 mi) portion of the road is already open and is already utilized by the public.
- 1 History
- 2 Route description
- 3 Future Extensions
- 4 Landmarks
- 5 Exits and Intersections
- 6 Transportation Links
- 7 Gallery
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The proposal for the Metro Manila Arterial Road System was done in the late 1960s. The proposal states of building 10 Radial Roads and 6 Circumferential Roads to support the growing vehicular population of the Metropolitan Manila.
The 5th Circumferential Road began construction in 1986. It was renamed as President Carlos P. Garcia Avenue upon the approval of the Philippine Republic Act 8224 in November 6, 1996. Based on the main proposal, the road shall have the approximate length of 51 kilometres (32 mi) when completed, however, because of the senate controversies, the road is not yet complete to date.
The C-5 road lies parallel to Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, passing through the cities of Valenzuela, Quezon City, Marikina, Pasig, Makati, Taguig and Paranaque. The road is divided into segments.
Also known as the NLEX Segment 8, the NLEX-Mindanao Avenue connector is a 2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi) tollway starting from the Smart Connect Interchange, a cloverleaf interchange between the NLEX-Mindanao Avenue link and the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) and ending in a 3-way signalized junction with the Mindanao Avenue. The entire 2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi) tollway is designated as part of a C-5 Road.
Mindanao Avenue is a 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi), 10-lane divided carriageway that serves as the main transportation corridor of the Talipapa and Tandang Sora districts of Quezon City. The northern terminus of the road is a dead end 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi) north of the NLEX-Mindanao Avenue Connector Road and the southern terminus of the road is the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. The 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) portion of the road from the NLEX-Mindanao Avenue Connector Road junction to Congressional Avenue is designated as a portion of the C-5 Road.
Congressional Avenue is a 6 kilometres (3.7 mi), 6-lane divided carriageway that serves as the main east to west transportation corridor of Muñoz, Culiat and Tandang Sora districts in Quezon City. The western terminus of the road is Epifanio de los Santos Avenue and the eastern terminus of the road is a junction with Luzon Avenue. The 3.9 kilometres (2.4 mi) portion of the road from Mindanao Avenue to Luzon Avenue is designated as a portion of C-5 Road.
Luzon Avenue is a 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi), 4-lane divided/undivided municipal road that serves as the main thoroughfare of the Holy Spirit district of Quezon City. The northern terminus of the road is a junction with Holy Spirit Drive and the southern terminus is a junction with Commonwealth Avenue. The 850 metres (2,790 ft) portion of the road from Congressional Avenue to Commonwealth Avenue is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. Before crossing ending in Commonwealth Avenue, a 6-lane flyover starts 850 metres (2,790 ft) north of the junction and heads towards Tandang Sora Avenue on the other side of Commonwealth Avenue.
Tandang Sora Avenue
Tandang Sora Avenue is a 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi), 2-lane undivided municipal road that serves as the main thoroughfare of the Talipapa, Culiat and Tandang Sora districts of Quezon City. The northern terminus of the road is the Tullahan Road, while the southern terminus is the junction with Magsaysay Avenue inside the University of the Philippines campus. The original planned route of C-5 included the entire road, however, due to the incapacity of the road to carry a large amount of vehicular traffic, only the 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) portion of the road from the Luzon Avenue flyover to Magsaysay Avenue was designated as a portion of C-5 Road. Furthermore, Tandang Sora Avenue becomes a 6-lane divided carriageway shortly after crossing Capitol Hills Drive, 350 meters south of the flyover. After crossing Magsaysay Avenue, Tandang Sora Avenue becomes Katipunan Avenue.
Katipunan Avenue is a 7.3 kilometres (4.5 mi), 10-lane divided carriageway that serves as the main transportation corridor of the Balara and Project 4 districts of Quezon City. The northern terminus of the road is Tandang Sora Avenue and the southern terminus is Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. The 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) portion of the road from its northern terminus to the intersection with Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. Shortly before crossing Bonny Serrano Avenue, a 4-lane divided underpass descends from Katipunan Avenue and traverses underneath Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue and ascends into a flyover that immediately connects to E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue.
Col. Boni Serrano Avenue
Col. Boni Serrano Avenue is a 2.2 kilometres (1.4 mi), 4-lane undivided avenue that serves as the main thoroughfare between Epifanio de los Santos Avenue and Eastwood City. The 500 metres (1,600 ft) portion of the road from Katipunan Avenue to Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue is designated as a portion of the C-5 Road. A 4-lane divided underpass descends from Katipunan Avenue and traverses underneath Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue and ascends into a flyover that immediately connects to E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue.
Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue
Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue is a 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi), 10-lane divided road that serves as the main thoroughfare between Quezon City and Pasig. The entire road, from Katipunan Avenue to Pasig Boulevard is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. The road ends in a junction with Pasig Boulevard and continues onto F. Manalo Bridge that crosses the Pasig River and eventually becomes C.P. Garcia Avenue shortly afterwards.
Carlos P. Garcia Avenue
Carlos P. Garcia Avenue is a 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi), 14-lane divided road that serves as the main thoroughfare between Pasig and Parañaque, passing through the cities of Makati and Taguig. The entire road, from the F. Manalo Bridge to South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. The road ends in a junction with South Luzon Expressway.
On July 23, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo said in her State of the Nation Address that C-5 Road will be extended north of Metro Manila, from North Luzon Expressway in Quezon City to Navotas and will be extended in the south from South Luzon Expressway in Parañaque to Coastal Road in Las Piñas in the southern part of Ninoy Aquino International Airport.
As of July 2010, the NLEx-Mindanao Avenue Link or NLEx Segment 8.1 which is located in Valenzuela and Congressional Avenue Extension from Tandang Sora to Luzon Avenue which is located in Quezon City has been opened to all motorists in the North Extension and also the SLEx-Sucat Link or Carlos Garcia Avenue Extension in the South Extension located in Parañaque was also opened.
At present, the New Commonwealth Avenue Flyover connecting Katipunan and Luzon Avenue is now open to all motorists. Before the opening of the flyover, the Congressional Avenue Extension from Visayas to Luzon Avenue opened in 2010 to decongest heavy traffic in Visayas-Tandang Sora Avenue Intersection.
C-5 North Extension
The C-5 road is being planned to be extended to the North Harbor and Navotas.
North Extension Controversy
The residents of Barangays Old Balara, Culiat and Pasong Tamo in Quezon City are against the C-5 North Extension Project because their homes are going to be demolished and they do not have enough money to relocate. The location of project will be from Katipunan Avenue to Tandang Sora Avenue crossing Commonwealth Avenue through a flyover. The flyover ends in Luzon Avenue.
C-5 South Extension
It is proposed by the senate that the C-5 Road be extended by a 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) tollway connecting the C.P. Garcia Avenue and SLEX to Coastal Road. The proposal has received much controversies and due to that, only the 8.9 kilometres (5.5 mi) road from SLEX to E. Quirino Avenue in Parañaque and Las Piñas became operational. This extension is not accessible from the C.P. Garcia Avenue.
South Extension Controversy
Recently, the Senate of the Philippines investigated the South Extension since it passes many of Sen. Manny Villar's properties such as Camella. The original C5 South Extension was called MCTEP, and was already approved by the Senate. MCTEP was a road that would be made as a toll expressway.
- Bonifacio Global City (Makati/Taguig)
- Eastwood City (Quezon City)
- Frontera Verde (Pasig)
- Market! Market! (Makati/Taguig)
- Silver City Mall (Pasig)
- SM Aura Premier (Makati/Taguig)
- SM City Sucat (Parañaque)
- SM Supercenter Pasig (Pasig)
- Tiendesitas (Pasig)
These schools are located in Quezon City.
- Ateneo de Manila University
- Colegio de San Lorenzo - Main Campus
- Miriam College
- St. James College of Quezon City
- University of the Philippines Diliman
- Reedley International School
These schools are located in Bonifacio Global City
- International School Manila
- British School Manila
- Manila Japanese School
- Everest Academy
- Treston International College
- Summit School
- Golden Haven Memorial Park (Las Piñas)
- Heritage Memorial Park (Makati/Taguig)
- Libingan ng mga Bayani or Cemetery of Heroes (Makati/Taguig)
- Manila American Cemetery and Memorial (Makati/Taguig)
- Himlayang Pilipino Memorial Park (via Himlayan Road) (Quezon City)
- El Shaddai House of Prayer (San Dionisio, Parañaque)
- Iglesia ni Cristo Pembo Locale (via Xyris St.,Pembo, Makati)
- Iglesia ni Cristo Bagong Ilog Locale (via Lakeshore Drive) (Bagong Ilog, Pasig)
- Iglesia ni Cristo Ugong Locale (Ugong, Pasig)
- Blessed John Paul II Parish (Eastwood Chapel) (Eastwood City, Quezon City)
- Monasterio de Santa Clara (Loyola Heights, Quezon City)
- Church of the Gesu (Loyola Heights, Quezon City)
- Santa Maria dela Strada Parish (Pansol, Quezon City)
- Iglesia ni Cristo Central Temple (via Commonwealth Ave., Quezon City)
- Christ's Commission Fellowship (CCF Center) (Frontera Verde, C5, cor. Ortigas Avenue, Pasig)
- Santuario De San Ezekiel Moreno (Pulanglupa Uno, Las Piñas) - Under Construction
Expressway Toll Plazas
|Kilometer No.:||Toll Plaza||Expressway||Part of C-5||Location|
|KM 28||Mindanao Avenue Toll Plaza||North Luzon Expressway||NLEX Segment 8.1||Valenzuela|
|KM 4||C-5 Toll Plaza||South Luzon Expressway||Carlos Garcia Avenue||Parañaque|
|KM 1||Las Piñas Toll Plaza (Future Toll Plaza)||Coastal Road||Carlos Garcia Avenue Extension||Las Piñas|
Exits and Intersections
A list of exits, flyovers, underpasses, and major intersections along C-5 Road. There are no exit numbers along C-5 Road. Instead, kilometer posts mark the location of exits and establishments along the road.
|C-5 Segment||Kilometer No.||Exit Name||Location||Remarks|
|Mindanao Avenue||KM 28||Smart Connect Interchange||Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela||This is an interchange to the North Luzon Expressway, that leads motorists to Central Luzon, Cagayan Valley, Ilocos Region and Cordillera Administrative Region. It is also formerly known as NLEX-C5-Mindanao Avenue Link Interchange.|
|KM 28||Mindanao Avenue Toll Barrier||Ugong, Valenzuela||This is the toll barrier located in the NLEX segments 8.1 and 9|
|KM 25||SB Diversion Road Junction NB (C-5 –Katipunan)||Novaliches, Quezon City||The SB Diversion Road (Katipunan Avenue) goes to Novaliches and General Luis Street. SB travellers can access the road by a U-Turn Slot.|
|KM 24||Quirino Highway Underpass (Sauyo Underpass)||Mindanao Ave intersects Quirino Highway at this point. There is a 4-lane underpass under Quirino Highway. The east side of Quirino Highway leads to the Novaliches district and Bulacan province, the west side goes to NLEX.|
|KM 23||Sauyo Road Junction NB(C-5 –Sauyo)||Project 6 & 8, Quezon City||The Sauyo Road goes to Tandang Sora and Commonwealth Avenue.|
|KM 23||Tandang Sora-Mindanao Avenue Intersection||Tandang Sora Avenue North Side goes to Commonwealth Avenue and C-5 and South Side goes to Quirino Highway and MacArthur Highway|
|KM 23||Road 1-Mindanao Avenue Junction||Road 1 goes to the Project 6 proper, to Visayas Avenue and the Elliptical Road.|
|KM 22||Congressional Avenue Intersection||This is the point where the C-5 route is transferred from Mindanao Avenue to Congessional Avenue South Side. North Side Congressional goes to EDSA and Quezon Avenue and South Side Mindanao Avenue goes to the Triangle Park, SM City North EDSA, Trinoma Malls, North Avenue and EDSA.|
|Congressional Avenue||KM 22||Visayas Avenue Intersection||South SideThe Visayas Avenue goes to Quezon Memorial Circle and North Side goes to Tandang Sora Avenue.|
|KM 22||Central Avenue Junction SB||Balara and Tandang Sora, Quezon City||Central Avenue goes to Commonwealth Avenue and the Iglesia ni Cristo Central Temple.|
|KM 21||Tandang Sora-Congressional Avenue Intersection||SB Tandang Sora goes to Commonwealth Avenue and C-5 and NB goes to Mindanao Avenue|
|KM 20||Luzon Avenue C-5 Junction(C-5 – Regalado)||The C-5 route is transferred from Congressional Avenue to Luzon Avenue South Side. North Side Luzon Avenue goes to Regalado Avenue and Fairview.|
|Luzon Avenue||KM 19||Commonwealth Avenue Flyovers(C-5 - Espana)||A 6-lane flyover from Luzon Avenue is being built over Luzon Avenue. NB Commonwealth Avenue goes to Quirino Highway and Zabarte Avenue and SB goes to the Quezon Memorial Circle and Manila.|
|Tandang Sora Avenue||KM 18||Tandang Sora C-5 Junction||The route is transferred from Luzon Avenue to Tandang Sora Avenue. The place is the most prone to traffic jams along C-5 for Tandang Sora Avenue cannot hold a big volume of traffic because it is very narrow.|
|KM 17||Capitol Hills Drive junction NB(C-5 –Zuzuarregui)||Capitol Hills drive goes to Commonwealth Avenue. Tandang Sora widens to 6 lanes with center island after the junction.|
|KM 16||Carlos P. Garcia Avenue junction NB(C-5 –U.P.)||This is currently the official terminus of C-5. C.P. Garcia Avenue goes to the University of the Philippines. Tandang Sora becomes the Katipunan Avenue.|
|Katipunan Avenue||KM 15||Aurora Boulevard-Marcos Highway Flyover(C-5 - Aurora)||Marikina||Is a 6-lane flyover over the Aurora Boulevard. The Westside is going to Araneta Center, EDSA, the City of Manila and the Eastside is going to Marikina and Antipolo.|
|KM 15||P. Tuazon Boulevard Junction SB||Libis, Quezon City||P. Tuazon goes to EDSA and Cubao|
|Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue and Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue||KM 14||C-5 Interchange||Is an underpass from Katipunan Avenue to Eulogio Rodriguez Avenue South Side. The C-5 route will be transferred there. SB Katipunan Avenue goes to the White Plains, Corinthian Gardens and EDSA.|
|Col. Bonny Serrano -Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue Underpass||Is the underpass from Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue SB to Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue . WB Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue goes to EDSA, Socorro, Cubao and Santolan.|
|Fidel V. Ramos Avenue Junction NB Flyover(C-5 –Eastwood)||FVR Avenue goes to the Marcos Highway. Vehicles from the underpass must use the service road to access the road.|
|KM 13||C5-Calle Industria (Northbound)||The Eastwood City is located near this intersection. Calle Industria goes to future Circulo Verde.|
|KM 12||C5-Green Meadows (Southbound)||Green Meadows Avenue goes to Christ the King Parish.|
|KM 11||Circumferential Road 5–Ortigas Avenue Interchange||Barangay Ugong, Pasig||This is a flyover over the Ortigas Avenue. Keeping right takes you to Ortigas Avenue, where East Side goes to Taytay, Pasig, and Antipolo, and West Side goes to the Ortigas Avenue, Greenhills and the Broadway Centrum. The notable landmarks at the C5-Ortigas Intersection are Frontera Verde, Tiendesitas, TransCom, and the CCF Center C5.|
|KM 10||C5-Julia Vargas (Southbound)||Julia Vargas Avenue goes to Ortigas Center and SM Megamall.|
|KM 9||Rodrigo Lanuza Avenue junction (Southbound)(C5-Lanuza)||Lanuza Avenue goes to PhilSports Arena.|
|Carlos P. Garcia Avenue||KM 8||Bagong Ilog Flyovers||Barangay Bagong Ilog, Pasig||Is a very long flyover from Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue to Carlos P. Garcia Avenue.|
|Pasig Boulevard By-Pass Intersection||Pasig Boulevard WB goes to the City of Manila, EDSA and Ortigas Center and EB goes to Rizal Province. There is no access to the boulevard from the flyover.|
|Felix Manalo Bridge||Crosses the Pasig River.|
|Rembo-Comembo Interchange||Are the only access ramps to the Pasig River Expressway. Eastside goes to Guadalupe and Westside goes to Rembo. There is no access to the road from the flyover.|
|KM 7||C-5-Kalayaan Elevated U-Turn Slot (Phase II)||Barangay East Rembo, Makati||This U-Turn slot leads motorists to Southern Metro Manila and Makati Central Business District.|
|Kalayaan Intersection||The Westside of Kalayaan Avenue goes to Makati Central Business District and the Eastside is going to Pateros, Makati and Pasig. Turning left on this intersection is no longer available, resulting in traffic congestion in or near it. That's why two elevated U-Turn Slots are constructed.|
|C-5-Kalayaan Elevated U-Turn Slot (Phase I)||This U-Turn slot goes to North of Metro Manila, Pasig, Makati and Pateros.|
|KM 6||Mabini Drive Junction NB Flyover(BGC-C5 NorthPass)||Bonifacio Global City, Makati/Taguig||From Mabini Drive of Bonifacio Global City, It gives access to motorists from BGC to Northbound Lanes of C5. Alternative way to go to Pasig, Quezon City, NLEX and Valenzuela from Makati via Gil Puyat Avenue and Mabini Drive. International School Manila and Market! Market! lies along this Flyover.|
|KM 6||McKinley Road Junction SB Flyovers(Sampaguita Interchange)||McKinley Road goes to the Bonifacio Global City and the Ayala Center and Eastbound goes to Sampaguita Street at Barangays Pembo and Rizal in Makati. It is also an alternative access to Pateros. Market! Market! and SM Aura lie along this interchange.|
|KM 4.5||Bayani Road Interchange||Barangay Pinagsama, Taguig||Bayani Road goes to the Bonifacio Global City, Libingan ng mga Bayani, Philippne Army Headquarters, McKinley Hill, Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3, Villamor Airbase and Resorts World Manila in Newport City and Eastbound goes to Signal Village, Taguig City Proper, and Muntinlupa via Manuel L. Quezon Road.|
|KM 4||SLEX Interchange||Villamor Airbase, Pasay||This is the current terminus for Carlos P. Garcia Avenue leading to the southbound lane of South Luzon Expressway heading to Muntinlupa, CALABARZON, and Bicol Region. The Flyover from the C.P. Garcia Avenue leads to the Moonwalk Access Road and West Service Road.|
|Moonwalk Access Road and C-5 Road Extension||KM 3||C5-Sucat Overpass||Barangay San Dionisio, Parañaque||The Northside leads to Ninoy Aquino International Airport and the Southside leads to South Luzon Expressway. The flyover is located in Dr. Santos Avenue where the SM City Sucat is located. The flyover goes to Las Piñas and is not yet operational for access due to issues on Villar-properties.|
|KM 2||Quirino Avenue Intersection||Las Piñas||Currently is the terminus of the C-5 Road. The northside goes to Bamboo Organ and San Dionisio, Parañaque and the southside goes to Zapote and Cavite.|
|KM 1||Coastal Road Interchange||This future Trumpet Interchange provides access to Coastal Road. The Northbound goes to the City of Manila, Pasay and Parañaque via Roxas Boulevard and the Southbound goes to Las Piñas. Currently, the road is only accessible to northbound vehicles.|
|C-5 Segment||Kilometer No.||Exit Name||Location||Remarks|
|Mindanao Avenue Extension||KM 32||NLEX Segment 9 and 10 Boundary||Barangay Tanza, Navotas||It connects the Mindanao Avenue to the Segment 10, which is under construction, which will be a portion of theC-5, Connecting Mindanao Avenue to the Mariano Naval Street. The road goes to the Skyway (NLEX-SLEX Link or Skyway Stage 3), C-3 Letre Road and Manila North Harbor.|
|KM 30||Mac Arthur Highway Intersection||Barangay Gen T. de Leon, Valenzuela||The Northside is going to North/Central Luzon and the Southside is going to Monumento.|
|Carlos P. Garcia Avenue Extension||KM 4||New SLEX Interchange||Villamor Airbase, Pasay and Barangay Merville, Parañaque||This will be the completion of the interchange between SLEX and C-5, and might be constructed when the southern portion of C-5 from Sucat to Moonwalk becomes operational. Northbound Lane of SLEX goes to Makati and the City of Manila and Southbound goes to Muntinlupa, CALABARZON and Bicol Region. This Interchange will be in Full Y or Full Cloverleaf|
- North Luzon Expressway
- South Luzon Expressway
- Ninoy Aquino International Airport
- Coastal Road (future)
- Katipunan Station of MRT Line 2
- PNR FTI Station of PNR
C-5 Road northbound towards Pasig.
- Major roads in Metro Manila
- Metro Manila
- North Luzon Expressway
- South Luzon Expressway
- Coastal Road
- Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
- "Circumferential Road 5". google.com. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "The Circumferential Road 5". scribd.com. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- Flores, Asti (February 7, 2013). "MMDA, DPWH name C5 Road as alternate route for EDSA overhaul". GMA News. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. "REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8224-THE ACT OF CHANGING THE NAME OF THE C-5 ROAD TO CARLOS P. GARCIA AVENUE, TO HONOR CARLOS P. GARCIA, THE 8TH PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES". Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "Controversies regarding the C-5 Road". slideshare.net. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- "Overview of the Metro Manila Arterial Road System". Department of Public Works and Highways (Philippines). Retrieved January 5, 2013.
- Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. "State of the Nation Address, July 23, 2007". Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- Legaspi, Amita (January 25, 2012). "‘Villar intervened in C-5 project for his own benefit’". GMA News. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
- Map of Proposed C-5 Road North and South Extension-DPWH
- The C5 Extension controversy: An interactive map-GMANews.TV