Circumnavigation (literally, "navigation of a circumference") refers to travelling all the way around an island, a continent, or (usually) the entire planet Earth. The first world circumnavigation in history was the Magellan-Elcano expedition which sailed from Spain in 1519 and returned in 1522 after having crossed the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Indian oceans.
If a person walks completely around either Pole, they will have crossed all meridians, but this is not generally considered a "circumnavigation." A basic definition of a global circumnavigation would be a route which covers at least a great circle, and in particular one which passes through at least one pair of points antipodal to each other. In practice, different definitions of world circumnavigation are used, in order to accommodate practical constraints depending on the method of travel. Since the planet is quasispheroidal, a trip from one Pole to the other, and back again on the other side, would technically be a circumnavigation, but practical difficulties generally preclude such a voyage.
The first single voyage of global circumnavigation was that of the ship Victoria, between 1519 and 1522, known as the Magellan–Elcano expedition. It was a Spanish voyage of discovery led initially by Ferdinand Magellan between 1519 and 1521, and then by Juan Sebastián Elcano from 1521 to 1522. The voyage started in Seville, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, and after several stopovers rounded the southern tip of South America. It then continued across the Pacific "discovering" a number of islands on its way, including Guam and the Philippines. After Magellan's death in the Philippines in 1521, Elcano took command of the expedition and continued the journey across the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope, north along the Atlantic Ocean, and back to Spain in 1522. Elcano and a small group of 18 men were actually the only members of the expedition to make the full circumnavigation.
Apart from some scholars, it is not generally accepted that Magellan and some crew members previously completed a full circumnavigation on several voyages, since Sumatra and Malacca (where Magellan had been twice before, in 1509 and in 1511-1512) lie southwest of Cebu (Philippines). If he has also been in the Moluccas islands (located southeast of Cebu) in early 1512 (dubious and controversial), he completed and clearly exceeded an entire circumnavigation of the Earth in longitude, although one circumnavigation understood in the strict sense implies a return to the same exact point. However, traveling west from Europe, in 1521, Magellan reached a region of Southeast Asia (in the Malay Archipelago) which he had reached on previous voyages traveling east. Magellan thereby achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history.
In 1577, Elizabeth I sent Francis Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake set out from Plymouth, England in November 1577, aboard Pelican, which Drake renamed Golden Hind mid-voyage. In September 1578, he passed through the southern tip of South America, named Drake Passage, which connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. In June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spain's northern-most claim in Alta California, which is known as Drakes Bay, California. Drake completed the second circumnavigation of the world in September 1580.
For the wealthy, long voyages around the world, such as was done by Ulysses S. Grant, became possible in the 19th century, and the two World Wars moved vast numbers of troops around the planet. However, it was later improvements in technology and rising incomes that made such trips relatively common.
The nautical global circumnavigation record is currently held by a wind-powered vessel.
The map on the right shows, in red, a typical, non-competitive, route for a sailing circumnavigation of the world by the trade winds and the Suez and Panama canals; overlaid in yellow are the points antipodal to all points on the route. It can be seen that the route roughly approximates a great circle, and passes through two pairs of antipodal points. This is a route followed by many cruising sailors, going in the western direction; the use of the trade winds makes it a relatively easy sail, although it passes through a number of zones of calms or light winds.
In yacht racing, a round-the-world route approximating a great circle would be quite impractical, particularly in a non-stop race where use of the Panama and Suez Canals would be impossible. Yacht racing therefore defines a world circumnavigation to be a passage of at least 21,600 nautical miles (40,000 km) in length which crosses the equator, crosses every meridian and finishes in the same port as it starts. The map on the left shows the route of the Vendée Globe round-the-world race in red; overlaid in yellow are the points antipodal to all points on the route. It can be seen that the route does not pass through any pairs of antipodal points. Since the winds in the higher latitudes predominantly blow west-to-east it can be seen that there are an easier route (west-to-east) and a harder route (east-to-west) when circumnavigating by sail; this difficulty is magnified for square-rig vessels.
For around the world sailing records, there is a rule saying that the length must be at least 21,600 nautical miles calculated along the shortest possible track from the starting port and back that does not cross land and does not go below 63°S. It is allowed to have one single waypoint to lengthen the calculated track. The equator must be crossed.
The current wind powered circumnavigation record of 45 days 13 hours 42 minutes 53 seconds was established by Loïck Peyron on the maxi-multihull sailing yacht Banque Populaire V and completed on 6 January 2012. The voyage followed the North Atlantic Ocean, Equator, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Equator, North Atlantic Ocean route in an easterly direction.
Since the advent of world cruises in 1922, by Cunard's Laconia, thousands of people have completed circumnavigations of the globe at a more leisurely pace. Typically, these voyages begin in New York City or Southampton, and proceed westward. Routes vary, either travelling through the Caribbean and then into the Pacific Ocean via the Panama Canal, or around Cape Horn. From there ships usually make their way to Hawaii, the islands of the South Pacific, Australia, New Zealand, then northward to Hong Kong, South East Asia, and India. At that point, again, routes may vary: one way is through the Suez Canal and into the Mediterranean; the other is around Cape of Good Hope and then up the west coast of Africa. These cruises end in the port where they began.
The current mechanically powered circumnavigation record of 60 days 23 hours and 49 minutes was established by a voyage of the wave-piercing trimaran Earthrace which was completed on 27 June 2008. The voyage followed the North Atlantic Ocean, Panama Canal, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Suez Canal, Mediterranean Sea route in a westerly direction.
Since the development of commercial aviation at least tens of thousands of people have flown around the world. Some regular routes, such as Pan American Flight One (and later United Airlines Flight One), circled the globe, and today planning such a trip through connections is simple.
Aviation records take account of the wind circulation patterns of the world; in particular the jet streams, which circulate in the northern and southern hemispheres without crossing the equator. There is therefore no requirement to cross the equator, or to pass through two antipodal points, in the course of setting a round-the-world aviation record. Thus, for example, Steve Fossett's global circumnavigation by balloon was entirely contained within the southern hemisphere.
For powered aviation, the course of a round-the-world record must start and finish at the same point and cross all meridians; the course must be at least 36,787.559 kilometres (22,858.729 mi) long (which is the length of the Tropic of Cancer). The course must include set control points at latitudes outside the Arctic and Antarctic circles.
In ballooning, which is totally at the mercy of the winds, the requirements are even more relaxed. The course must cross all meridians, and must include a set of checkpoints which are all outside of two circles, chosen by the pilot, having radii of 3,335.85 kilometres (2,072.80 mi) and enclosing the poles (though not necessarily centred on them).
The first person to fly in space, Yuri Gagarin, also became the first person to complete an orbital spaceflight in the Vostok 1 spaceship, in 1961. Early NASA space missions included only sub-orbital spaceflights.
According to adjudicating bodies Guinness World Records and Explorersweb, Jason Lewis completed the first human-powered circumnavigation of the globe on 6 October 2007. This was part of a thirteen-year journey entitled Expedition 360.
In 2012, Turkish adventurer Erden Eruç of Around-n-Over completed the first entirely solo human-powered circumnavigation. Eruç traveled by rowboat, sea kayak, foot and bicycle from 10 July 2007 to 21 July 2012. Erden crossed the equator two times, passed over 12 antipodal points, and logged 66,299 kilometres (41,196 mi) in 1,026 days of travel time, excluding breaks.
National Geographic lists Colin Angus as being the first to complete a global circumnavigation. However, his journey did not cross the equator or hit the minimum of two antipodal points as stipulated by the rules of Guinness World Records and AdventureStats by Explorersweb.
People have both bicycled and run around the world, but the oceans have had to be covered by air travel, making the distance shorter than the Guinness guidelines. To go from North America to Asia on foot is theoretically possible but very difficult. It involves crossing the Bering Strait on the ice, and around 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) of roadless swamped or freezing cold areas in Alaska and eastern Russia. No one has so far travelled all of this route by foot. David Kunst was the first verified person to walk around the world between 20 June 1970 and 10 October 1974.
- The Spanish Magellan-Elcano expedition of August 1519 to 8 September 1522, started by Portuguese navigator Fernão de Magalhães (Ferdinand Magellan) and completed by Spanish navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano after Magellan's death, was the first global circumnavigation (see Victoria (ship)).
- Francis Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition (and on a single independent voyage), from 1577 to 1580.
- HMS Driver completed the first circumnavigation by a steam ship in 1845–1847.
- The Spanish frigate Numancia, commanded by Juan Bautista Antequera y Bobadilla, completed the first circumnavigation by an ironclad in 1865–1867.
- Joshua Slocum completed the first single-handed circumnavigation in 1895–1898.
- In 1960, the U.S. Navy nuclear-powered submarine USS Triton (SSRN-586) completed the submerged circumnavigation of the world.
- In 2012, PlanetSolar became the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe.
- United States Army Air Service, 1924, first aerial circumnavigation, 175 days, covering 44,360 kilometres (27,560 mi), with examples of the Douglas World Cruiser biplane.
- In 1949, the Lucky Lady II, a Boeing B-50 Superfortress of the U.S. Air Force, commanded by Captain James Gallagher, became the first aeroplane to circle the world non-stop (by refueling the plane in flight). Total time airborne was 94 hours and 1 minute.
- In 1986,Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, made the first non-refueled circumnavigation in an airplane (Rutan Voyager), in 9 days, 3 minutes and 44 seconds.
- In 1999, Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones, achieved the first non-stop balloon circumnavigation in Breitling Orbiter 3.
- In 2005, Steve Fossett, flying a Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer, set the current record for fastest aerial circumnavigation (first non-stop, non-refueled solo circumnavigation in an airplane) in 67 hours, covering 37,000 kilometers.
- In 2014, Matt Guthmiller became the youngest person to solo circumnavigate by air at age 19 years, 7 months, and 15 days. 
- In 1841-1842 Sir George Simpson (administrator) made the first "land circumnavigation", crossing Canada and Siberia and returning to London.
- Ranulph Fiennes is credited with the first north-south circumnavigation of the world.
- Jeffrey Polnaja sets a record as the first Indonesian to travel circumnavigation of the world by motorcycle. . 
- On 13 June 2003, Robert Garside completed the first recognized run around the world, taking 5 ½ years; the run was authenticated in 2007 by Guinness World Records after 5 years of verification.
- On 6 October 2007, Jason Lewis completed the first human-powered circumnavigation of the globe.
- On 21 July 2012, Erden Eruç completed the first entirely solo human-powered circumnavigation of the globe. Eruç set several ocean rowing records during the journey including the first to row three oceans, longest non-stop row and most days at sea for any living rower.
- List of circumnavigations
- Around the world sailing record
- Russian circumnavigations
- First Russian circumnavigation
- "Definition of a Circumnavigation". Expedition360.com. 28 September 1924. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
-  Circumnavigations of the Globe to 1800, Steve Dutch, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
- "ISAF/World Sailing Speed Record Rules for individually attempted Passage Records or Performances Offshore, sec. 26.1.a, Record Courses". Sailspeedrecords.com. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "ISAF/World Sailing Speed Record Rules for individually attempted Passage Records or Performances Offshore". Sailspeedrecords.com. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "FAI Sporting Code Section 2: Powered Aerodynes: Speed around the world non-stop and non-refuelled". Fai.org. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "FAI Sporting Code Section 1: Aerostats: Around-the-World Records". Fai.org.[dead link]
- Guinness World Records (6 October 2007). "Human Powered Circumnavigations" (PDF).
- "Global HPC—Human Powered Circumnavigations". AdventureStats. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "Media Kit: Project Summary Document" (PDF). Around-n-Over (PDF file linked from "http://www.around-n-over.org/media/mediakit.htm"). 22 August 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- The Ocean Rowing Society
- Duane, Daniel (2007). "Adventurers of the Year: The New Magellans". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "Jason Lewis version of circumnavigation". Expedition360.com. 28 September 1924. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "Erden Eruc version of circumnavigation". Around-n-over.org. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Wafaei, Julie; Angus, Colin. "Colin Angus version of circumnavigation". Angusadventures.com. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Totoricagüena, Gloria Pilar (2005). Basque Diaspora: Migration And Transnational Identity. University of Nevada Press. p. 132. ISBN 9781877802454. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- Pigafetta, Antonio; Skelton, Raleigh Ashlin (1994). Magellan's Voyage: A Narrative Account of the First Circumnavigation. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-28099-8.[page needed]
- "Matt Guthmiller, 19, becomes youngest person ever to fly around the world solo". Daily Mail. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Sottorff, Sebastian (March 21, 2015), "Viaje ya abarca 94 paises del mundo: El extenso recorrido por la paz que trajo a Chile a un viajero indonesio", El Mercurio (in Spanish), retrieved 29 March 2015
- "The first fully-authenticated run around the world record has just been accepted" (PDF) (Press release). Guinness World Records.
Although Robert’s record attempt finished in 2003, it has taken 5 years to collate and confirm the record evidence [...] We are very cautious to accept records like this because they are difficult to certify, however Robert has provided us with full evidence which enabled us to authenticate his amazing achievement. We initially evaluated 15 boxes full of credit card statements, receipts in Robert’s name and other useful evidence, which supported Robert’s presence in all of the 29 countries within the time specified. We then moved on to establish whether Robert had actually been running and started to look through an astronomical number of pictures and newspaper cuttings from different parts of Robert’s route. We also reviewed over 300 time-coded tapes featuring Robert running at different locations during his journey. We could finally double check the route followed through statements from several witnesses, and passports stamps and visas...
- "The first fully authenticated run around the world record has just been accepted" (PDF) (Press release). Guinness World records. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- Granahan, Andrea (26 July 2012). "What fueled Erden Eruc’s around-the-world voyage?". The Press Democrat (Santa Rosa, CA). Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "Media Kit: Project Summary Document" (PDF). Around-n-Over. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "Table: First Ocean Rowers by Ocean". The Ocean Rowing Society. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Table: Multiple Crossings". The Ocean Rowing Society. 1 October 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Table - Longest total time at sea (more than 250 days)". The Ocean Rowing Society. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "First Person to Row Three Oceans". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 8 December 2013.