||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Indonesian Wikipedia. (November 2014)|
A Cirebonese Tahu gejrot vendor.
|circa 1.9 million (2000 census)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|West Java, Indonesia|
|Cirebonese language (mixture of Javanese language and Sundanese language), Indonesian language|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Sundanese people, Javanese people (especially Banyumasan people)|
The Cirebonese are an ethnic group centered on the city of Cirebon in the northern part of the island of Java in Indonesia. Numbering approximately 1.9 million, the Cirebonese are mostly Muslim. The language spoken by the Cirebonese is a mixture of Javanese and Sundanese language, with a heavier influence from Javanese. Generally Cirebonese can be considered as an Independent language outside Javanese and Sundanese.
- 1 A recognized ethnic group
- 2 Language
- 3 References
A recognized ethnic group
At first, the existence of the Cirebonese ethnic group of people have always been associated with the presence of Sundanese and Javanese people. However it's presence later led to the formation of its own culture, ranging from a variety of coastal batik that does not really follow the standards of the Javanese palace style or commonly known as interior batik, until the emergence of traditional Islamic patterns that came about in accordance with the construction of the Cirebon palace in the 15th century, which was fully based on Islam. The existence of the Cirebonese ethnic group that does not consider themselves as Sundanese or Javanese people was finally answered in the 2010 population census whereby a column that specifically mentions Cirebonese was made available. This meant that the existence of Cirebonese ethnic group has been recognized nationally as a separate tribe, according to Erna Tresna Prihatin:-
|“||The indicators (Cirebonese tribe) seen from the local language used by the Cirbonese is not the same as with the Javanese or Sundanese people. The Cirebonese community also has a distinguish identity that makes them feel as they are their own ethnicity. Other indicators that characterizes a person as a Cirebonese is the name, which is unlike of those Javanese and Sundanese people. However, there have been no further research that could explain the characteristics identity of the Cirebonese. In order to search for a person's ethnicity, it can be done through the biological patrilineal lineage. In addition, if a person identifies him or herself with the area (Cirebon) in soul and in spirit, then he or she is entitled to feel as part of the tribe in question.||”|
In the past, Cirebon language is used in coastal trade in West Java from Cirebon which was one of the major ports, particularly in the 15th century until the 17th century. Cirebon language is influenced by Sundanese culture since the Cirebonese are located adjacent to the Sundanese cultural region; especially Kuningan and Majalengka, and also influenced by Chinese, Arab and European culture. This is evident in words such as "Taocang" (pigtail) which is an uptake of Chinese language (Hokkien language), the word "Bakda" (after) which is from Arabic language, and then the word "Sonder" (without) which is the absorption of European languages (Dutch language). The Cirebon language also maintains ancient forms of the Javanese language such as phrases and pronunciation, for example "Ingsun" (I) and "Sira" (you) are words that are no longer used by the Baku Javanese language.
The question about Cirebon language as an independent language from the Sundanese and Javanese language has been a fairly long debate, and has involved political government, cultural and linguistic factors.
As a Javanese dialect
Studies made by using questionnaires as a benchmark to indicate vocabulary and basic culture (eating, drinking, and so on) based on Guiter's method showed differences in Cirebonese vocabulary with Javanese language in Central Java and Yogyakarta was up to 75 percent, while differences with the Javanese language dialect in East Java was up to 76 percent.
Although linguistic research to date suggests that Cirebonese language is "only" a dialect (for according to Guiter's observation, it is said that to be a separate language it must have as much as 80% differences from its closest language), but to date the 5th Regional Regulation of West Java Provincial, 2003 still recognizes Cirebonese as a language of its own and not a dialect. According to the Head of Language Bandung, Muh. Abdul Khak, it is legitimate because the regulation is based on political assessment. In the world of language according to him, a language can be recognized on the basis of three things. First, on the basis of the recognition by its speakers, second on the basis of the political, and the third on the basis of linguistics. Language on the basis of political, other examples can be seen from the history of Indonesian language. Indonesian language which stems out from the Malay language, should be named Indonesian dialect of the Malay language. However, on the basis of political interests, eventually development of the Malay language in the country of Indonesia by the Indonesian government that it was claimed and named as Indonesian language. In addition to political reasons, the recognition of Cirebonese as a language can also be viewed from within its geographical borders. Abdul Khak mentioned that Cirebonese is regarded as a dialect if viewed nationally with the involvement of Javanese language. Which means, when regulations was first made only within the area of West Java, Cirebonese language was not regarded as significant in comparison to the Javanese language. What more if compared with Betawi Malay and Sundanese language, Cirebonese is indeed different.
As an independent language
With the revised legislation it has actually allowed various linguistic arguments. However, a greater interest of which is considered from the political standpoint are the Cirebonese speakers, who do not want to be regarded as Javanese or Sundanese people. Chairman of the Institute of Cirebonese Language and Literature, Nurdin M. Noer said, Cirebonese language is a mixture of Javanese and Sundanese language. Although in conversations, Cirebonese people can still understand some of the Javanese language, he said Cirebonese vocabulary continues to develop and does not only "depend" on the vocabulary of the Javanese nor the Sundanese language. He mentioned:
|“||In addition, there are many dialects of the Cirebonese language. For instance the Plered, Jaware, and Dermayon dialect.||”|
If revision were to be made on the regulations mentioned, there will most likely be a protest from the speakers of the Cirebonese community. Linguistic expert, Chaedar Al Wasilah assessed that with the native speakers being more vocal, changes to the recognition should not be done. Therefore what is needed is to protect the Cirebonese language from extinction.
Most of the original vocabularies of this language have nothing in common with the standard Javanese language (Surakarta-Yogyakarta region) neither morphology nor phonetics. Indeed, the Cirebonese language used in Cirebon and with those in Indramayu, although are part of the Javanese language; have huge differences with the "standard Javanese language", which is the language taught in schools that held to the Solo Javanese language. Thus, before the 1970s, textbooks from Solo can no longer be used because it was too difficult for students (and perhaps also, the teacher). Therefore, in the 1970s, textbooks were replaced with Sundanese textbooks which are considered to be easier to understand because speakers of Sundanese language are "closer". However, it turns out that the idea was a misconception (of the Cirebonese language) until movement was emerged to replace the textbook in the language used in the region, namely Cirebonese dialect of the Javanese language. Nevertheless, publishers that supported of regional language to be taught in schools did not include the word "Javanese language of the Cirebonese dialect" again in the following year, but instead used the word "Cirebonese language". It has also been done on published books by supporters of Cirebonese language as a teaching subject in 2001 and 2002. "Cirebonese Language Dictionary" written by the late Sudjana had not put words "Javanese language of Cirebonese dialect" but only "Cirebonese Language Dictionary". So it was with the publishing of "Wyakarana - Cirebonese Grammar" in 2002 which no longer shows the existence of Cirebonese language as part of the Javanese language, but instead as an independent language itself.
Vernacular Cirebonese language
Following is a comparison between Cirebonese language with other languages that are considered cognate, such as Serang Javanese language (Bantenese), Tegal and Pemalangan dialect of the Javanese language, as well as Baku Javanese language (Surakarta-Yogyakarta dialect) of the Bagongan (vernacular) style.
|Cirebonese & Dermayon||North Banten||Banyumasan||Tegal-Brebes||Pemalang||Surakarta-Yogyakarta||Surabaya||Indonesian||English|
|kita / reang / isun||kyta||inyong / nyong||inyong / nyong||nyong||aku||aku||aku / saya||I|
|pysan||pisan||banget||nemen / temen||nemen / temen / teo||tenan||men||sangat||very / truly|
|kepryben / keprywe||keprimen||keprywe||kepriben / priben / pribe||keprimen / kepriben / primen / prime / priben / pribe||piye / kepriye||yaopo||bagaimana||how|
|ora / beli||ore||ora||ora / belih||ora||ora||gak||tidak||no|
|rabi||rabi||kawyn||kawin||kawin||kawin||kawin||kawin / nikah||married|
|manjyng||manjing||mlebu||manjing / mlebu||manjing / mlebu||mlebu||mlebu||masuk||enter|
|arep / pan||arep||arep||pan||pan / pen / ape / pak||arep||katene||akan||will|
|syng||sake||sekang||sing||kadi / kading||seko||teko||dari||from|
According to Mr. Nurdin M. Noer, chairman of the Institute of Cirebonese Language and Literature there are at least a few Cirebonese dialects, some which are Cirebonese Dermayon dialect or also known as Indramayuan dialect, Cirebonese Jawareh dialect (Sawareh Javanese) or Javanese Separuh dialect, Cirebonese Plered dialect and Gegesik dialect (northern region of West Cirebon; today it is divided into Kedawung and Tengah Tani districts).
The Jawareh dialect or also referred to as Sawareh (meaning "partial", or literally "half") Javanese is a dialect of the Cirebonese language that is used around the borders of Cirebon Regency and Brebes Regency, or around the borders of Majalengka Regency and Kuningan Regency. The Jawareh dialect is a combination of part Javanese language and part Sundanese language.
The Cirebonese Dermayon dialect is widely used in the area of Indramayu Regency, according to the Guiter's method, the Dermayon dialect have about 30% differences with the Cirebonese language itself. The main characteristic of Dermayon dialect speakers is to use the word "Reang" as a term for the word "I" instead of using the word "Isun" as those used by Cirebonese language speakers.
The Cirebonese Plered dialect that is used in the west side of Cirebon Regency, is known its strong use of "O" characteristic. For example, in standard Cirebonese language the word "Sira" in western Cirebon Regency dialect is translated as "Siro", which means "You". The word "Apa" in Cirebonese language becomes "Apo" (means, "What") in western Cirebonese dialect, likewise the word "Jendela" becomes "Jendelo" (means, "Window"). For instance, "anak saya masuk teka" will be translated as "anak kita manjing ning teko". Besides that Cirebonese Plered dialect has its own unique accent such as the usage of additional words like "jeh" or "tah" in any conversation. Dialect speakers who occupies the western region of Cirebon Regency tend to express themselves with the title "Wong Cirebon", which is very much different from the standard Cirebonese language (Sira) used by the residents of Cirebon city to refer to themselves as "Tiyang Grage"; although both "Wong Cirebon" and "Tiyang Grage" have the same meaning that is "Cirebonese".
Gegesik dialect is a dialect that is spoken in the northern region of West Cirebon and around Gegesik district, the Cirebonese Gegesik dialect is often used as the intermediary language in Pewayangan from Cirebon by the Dalang (puppet master) himself and there is a possibility that this is a finer dialect compared to the dialect of the "Wong Cirebon" itself.
Comparison of dialects
|Standard Cirebonese language||Indramayu dialect||Plered dialect||Ciwaringin dialect||Indonesian language||English|
|Ana (vernacular)||Ana||Ano||Ana||Ada||There is|
|Bapak (vernacular)||Bapak||Mama' / Bapa||Bapa / Mama||Bapak||Father|
|Beli (vernacular)||Ora||Beli||Beli / Ora||Tidak||No|
|Dulung (vernacular)||Dulang||Dulang||Muluk||Suap (Makan)||Feed (To eat)|
|Elok (vernacular)||Sokat||Lok||Sok||Pernah||Ever / Did before|
|Isun (vernacular)||Reang||Isun||Isun / Kita||Saya||I|
|Lagi apa? (vernacular)||Lagi apa?||Lagi apo?||Lagi apa?||Sedang apa?||What's up? / What are you up to?|
|Laka (vernacular)||Laka||Lako / Langko||Laka||Tidak ada||Don't have|
|Sewang (vernacular)||Sewong||Sawong||-||Seorang (Masing-masing)||Alone (Each one)|
- Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
- Harthana, Timbuktu & Ignatius Sawabi (2010). "Suku Bangsa Ini Bernama Cirebon". Kompass. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- T. D. Sudjana (2001). Kamus Bahasa Cirebon. Humaniora Utama Press. ISBN 9-7992-3138-8.
- "Menimbang-nimbang Bahasa Cirebon". Pikiran Rakyat. 2009.
- Amaliya (2010). "Alasan Politiklah Sebabnya". Pikiran Rakyat. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- Ajip Rosidi (2010). "Bahasa Cirebon And Bahasa Indramayu". Pikiran Rakyat. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- Salana (2002). Wyakarana: Tata Bahasa Cirebon. Humaniora Utama Press. ISBN 9-7992-3157-4.
- Nieza (2009). Jalan-Jalan Ke Cirebon Sega Jamblang Sampai Batik Trusmian. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. ISBN 9-7922-4996-6.
- Nurdin M. Noer. "Wayang Kulit Di Mata Matthew Isaac Cohen". Pikiran Rakyat.
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