|Extinct||ca. 1st century BC?|
The Celtic Cisalpine Gaulish inscriptions are frequently combined with the Lepontic inscriptions under the term Celtic language remains in northern Italy. While it is possible that the Lepontians were autochthonous to northern Italy since the end of the 2nd millennium BC, it is well-known that the Gauls invaded the regions north of the river Po in several waves since the 5th century BC. They apparently took over the art of writing from the Lepontians, including some of the orthographic peculiarities. There are only about half a dozen Cisalpine Gaulish inscriptions, three of which are longer than just one or two words. The inscriptions stem largely from the area south of the Lepontians.
Transalpine Gaulish refers to the Celtic Gaulish language on the other side of the Alps (from Rome).
Lepontic compared to Cisalpine Gaulish
Common features (not in Transalpine Gaulish)
1. nn rather than Transalpine Gaulish *nd: *ande- > -ane-, *and(e)-are- > an-are-, ?*and-o-kom- > ano-Ko-
2. nt rather than Transalpine Gaulish *nt: *kom-bog(i)yos > -Ko-PoKios, Quintus → KuiTos, *arganto- > arKaTo-, *longam > loKan
3. s(s) rather than Transalpine Gaulish *χs: *eχs > es in es-aneKoti, es-oPnos
Differences between Cisalpine Gaulish and Lepontic
1. Endings in *-m# instead of Gaulish -n#: TeuoχTonion, loKan vs. Lep. Pruiam, Palam, uinom naśom (but also Cisalpine-Gaulish PoiKam, aTom [or: atoś?])
2. word formation: ending of 3rd person sg./pl. preterite in -u, cp. karnitu(s) (Gaulish karnitou), versus Lepontic KariTe, KaliTe
- Lepontic language
- Gaulish language
- Continental Celtic languages
- Ancient peoples of Italy
- Cisalpine Gaul
- Cisalpine Celtic
- Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. pp. 52–56.
- Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages. pp. 24–37.