Cisco Unified Communications Manager
Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM), formerly Cisco Unified CallManager and Cisco CallManager (CCM), is a software-based call-processing system developed by Cisco Systems. CUCM tracks all active VoIP network components; these include phones, gateways, conference bridges, transcoding resources, and voicemail boxes among others. CallManager often utilizes the Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) as a communications protocol for signaling the hardware endpoints of the system, such as IP Phones. H.323, Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) or Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is used to pass call signaling to gateways.
- 1 History
- 1.1 1997 Selsius-CallManager 1.0
- 1.2 1998 Selsius-CallManager 2.0
- 1.3 2000 Cisco CallManager 3.0
- 1.4 2001 Cisco CallManager 3.1
- 1.5 2004 Cisco CallManager 4.0
- 1.6 2004 Cisco CallManager 4.1
- 1.7 2006 Cisco Unified CallManager 4.2
- 1.8 2007 Cisco Unified CallManager 4.3
- 1.9 2006 Cisco Unified CallManager 5.0
- 1.10 2007 Cisco Unified CallManager 5.1
- 1.11 2007 Cisco Unified Communications Manager 6.0
- 1.12 2008 Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.0
- 1.13 2010 Cisco Unified Communications Manager 8.0
- 1.14 2012 Cisco Unified Communications Manager 9.0
- 2 Operation
- 3 Administration and Configuration
- 4 Session Manager Edition
- 5 Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express
- 6 References
- 7 External links
1997 Selsius-CallManager 1.0
In 1997, it was renamed Selsius-CallManager and changed from a video conferencing solution to a system designed to route voice calls over an IP network. It was during this time that support for the Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) and Simple Gateway Control Protocol (SGCP) were added.
1998 Selsius-CallManager 2.0
By 1998 Selsius-CallManager 2.0 had been released. Selsius Systems was acquired later that year by Cisco Systems, Inc.
2000 Cisco CallManager 3.0
CallManager underwent a large design and engineering effort to enable scalability and redundancy to the software. Clustering was introduced at this time and MGCP support was added.
2001 Cisco CallManager 3.1
This CallManager release was built off of the 3.0 release. This version supported more gateway devices, IP phone devices and added more enhancements and features. The following features and enhancements were introduced in version 3.1.
- Music on hold (MOH)
- Support for digital interfaces on [MGCP] gateways
- Added support for XML and HTML applications in Cisco IP Phones
- Extension mobility
- Call preservation between IP phones and MGCP gateways
- TAPI (Telephony Application Programming Interface) is introduced.
2004 Cisco CallManager 4.0
In 2004 Cisco made a large scale release with CallManager 4.0. Customers were pleased with a large amount of new features. Previously IP phones were restricted to only 2 calls per any given line appearance. This caveat was eliminated and IP phones could now have a user configurable maximum (up to 200) number of calls per line appearance.
Some new features and enhancements added during this release were:
- Hunt group
- Privacy for shared lines
- Call barge
- Improved security with media encryption between phones
- Multi Level Administration (MLA) allowed delegated administration
- Direct transfer allowed a user to select two calls from the same line and connect them together
- Call join allowed users to select several calls from a line and conference them together
- Additional QSIG features added
- Many bug fixes
This version (as well as all Windows 2000-based versions of CallManager (4.0, 4.1 and 4.2) are End of Life (announcement was made November 15, 2007, with an End of Sale date of May, 2008)).
2004 Cisco CallManager 4.1
In a short time after the release of version 4.0, Cisco released a minor upgrade to 4.1. This version focused on improved stability and support for even more features. Several utility tools were added as well. Additionally, some of the new features of CCM 4.0 include greatly enhanced conference calling features, enhanced Client Matter Code (CMC) and Forced Account Code (FAC), Multilevel Precedence and Preemption (MLPP) and Malicious Call Identification (MCID). CallManager 4.1 also enhances the encryption capabilities first introduced in CallManager 4.0. When using Cisco Phones 7940/7960/7970 or 7971 it is now possible to encrypt signaling as well as voice traffic itself.
- More QSIG enhancements
- Dialed number analyzer (DNA) is a tool used to analyze how dialed strings route
- Forced authorization codes (FAC)
- Time of day routing
- Client matter codes (CMC)
- Malicious Call Identification (MCID)
- Increased security through additional support for encryption
2006 Cisco Unified CallManager 4.2
CallManager 4.2 was released in parallel with CallManager 5.0 on 6 March 2006. At the same time Cisco re branded the product "Cisco Unified CallManager"; they also added the Unified tag to all of their Voice and Video offerings (i.e. Cisco Unified Contact Center, Cisco Unified MeetingPlace).
Cisco Unified CallManager 4.2 runs on Windows 2000 and includes new PABX features over 4.1(3) (namely logging into hunt groups and call-forward on no coverage (so, if you forward a line to a hunt group, and the hunt group is unavailable or busy, you can forward calls somewhere else); Also introduced was Call Forward Unregistered, so that if you called a remote site, but the WAN link was down, you could automatically forward that call to the PSTN. This version does not include SIP end-point support.
2007 Cisco Unified CallManager 4.3
CallManager 4.3 runs on MCS Operating System 2003 (Cisco Proprietary Operating system based on Windows 2003).
2006 Cisco Unified CallManager 5.0
CallManager 5.0 was released in parallel with CallManager 4.2 on 6 March 2006. Cisco Unified CallManager 5.0 is Linux based (Cisco VOS) and for the first time can use Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to IP end-points; apart from the addition of SIP it is feature compatible with CallManager 4.1(3). CallManager 5.0 servers are being sold as pre-installed appliances. Cisco Unified CallManager 5.0 can also be installed on compatible MCS servers and Cisco approved HP and IBM servers. Users of CallManager 4.x can upgrade to Unified CallManager 5.0 and keep their current Databases by having another server on the LAN with a shared drive available during the upgrade process. New database being used is IBM Informix. Unified CallManager 5.0 comes with an introduction of a new licensing structure that is based on device-weights. A license file must be acquired and installed before any services can be activated. Operating System access is restricted to some commands. Root access is normally generated via remote account by Cisco TAC or Business Unit.
2007 Cisco Unified CallManager 5.1
This version is essentially bug fixes for Call Manager 5.0.
2007 Cisco Unified Communications Manager 6.0
Cisco renamed the product to Unified Communications Manager. Version 6 was supposed to merge all features of the Linux appliance (SIP support and licensing requirements) between the Linux platform and Windows version, and it was based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The released version of Unified Communications Manager will not support the Windows platform.
This version added an intercom feature between endpoints (station-to-station only), and integrated Mobility Manager (single number reach to multiple destinations, IP Phone, Cell Phone, etc.).
This version utilizes a slightly different licensing model from that found in 5.X. First off, CUCM 6.0 requires service licenses (for Communications Manager, etc.) and comes with a 'starter' license for a single node and 50 device weights (about 10 phones), and will install natively on VMWare for lab purposes; in addition it requires a 'feature license' to activate the CallManager feature.
NOTE: Upgrades to Communications Manager 6.X from Communications Manager 5.X require the acquisition of a new license; proceeding with the upgrade without acquiring this license will result in a non-functional system.
Also released was Cisco Unified Communications Manager Business Edition (CUCMBE, aka Cucumber), which places Cisco Unified Communications Manager 6.0 and Cisco Unity Connection 2.0 (Voicemail) on the same server (an MCS 7828 with dual 250GB hard drives and 6GB of RAM).
Version 6.1 was released in January 2008 and contained bug fixes.
2008 Cisco Unified Communications Manager 7.0
Released in September 2008, this version was originally stated to be available in both Windows and Appliance models. However Cisco has since stated that OS independence will not be a feature of any version of CallManager after 4.3. Cisco refers to their entire suite of products to be released in 2008 as "System 7"; major updates are expected to Presence Server and Client at the same time as Communications Manager 7.0 is released.
Version 7 is an attempt to bring all Cisco Unified Communications products to the same version number (CUCM, CUPS, CER, CUPC, Cisco IP Communicator, UCCX, etc.)
2010 Cisco Unified Communications Manager 8.0
Cisco Unified Communications Manager 8.0(1) in 26 Feb 2010 has published and its 8.0(2c) version released in 6 May 2010.
Direct upgrade is available from 8.0(2b),8.0(2a),8.0(2),8.0(1),7.1(3),7.1(2),7.0(2),7.0(1),6.1(5),6.1(4),6.1(3),6.1(2) versions. Its license is almost same as CCUM 6.0
Cisco Unified Communications Manager 8.6 is an enterprise-class IP communications processing system for up to 40,000 users, extensible to 80,000 users by way of a megacluster. Notable changes introduced in 8.6 (from 8.5) are an upgrade to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5 and "EnergyWise" power saving features.
CUCM 8.X supports virtualization along with the other Cisco Unified Communications Products (CUCCX, CUPS, CUC, etc.).
2012 Cisco Unified Communications Manager 9.0
Version 9.0(1) was released in June 2012.
There are many new features and enhancements, many described on Sunset Learning Institute blog post. Sunset Learning also provides a video demonstrating the new features of CUCM 9.0, SLI CUCM 9.0 Video. These include Single Number Reach Voicemail and a “Ring All Shared Lines” service parameter in their Simultaneous Ring feature set.
CUCM evaluates called numbers and activates gateway events to receive or send calls to the PSTN or IP Network.
Typically, a CUCM cluster can manage up to 40,000 IP Phones using 20 Servers which incorporates a publisher, two TFTP servers, 8 Subscribers (four primary and four secondary) and up to nine media resource servers.
The Cisco Unified Communications Manager "Supercluster" can manage up to 80,000 phones and users, and incorporates a publisher, two TFTP servers, 16 Subscribers (eight primary and eight secondary) and up to nine media resource servers.
See Server and Cluster Maximums in the official Design Guide.
Administration and Configuration
The configuration of the CUCM can be done through a web interface. Therefore the CUCM supports the following browsers: Microsoft Internet Explorer (supported on version 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, but not 8.0 or higher) and Mozilla Firefox. The Bulk Administration Tool (BAT) is available for large imports, exports and changes. In addition to an administrative web access each user may also make changes to the telephony features. As an alternative to using the CUCM web interface, administrators can use Cisco's Unified Communications Management Suite (UCMS) to both provision and provide monitoring/service assurance management. This Cisco management suite consists of Cisco Unified Provisioning Manager, Cisco Unified Operations Manager, Cisco Unified Service Monitor and Cisco Service Statistics Manager.
Access to the Linux operating system (root, or superuser) and the database is no longer available in CUCM version 5.x and higher for end users. The more recent releases only offer a command line interface (CLI) with a limited command set for troubleshooting, including queries regarding system information or database information. The root access is reserved for the technical support from Cisco (TAC). Some users have gained root access by overwriting the password hash or by illegally acquiring the decoder used by Cisco TAC to gain root access, but this is unsupported by Cisco and can result in voided warranty.
Session Manager Edition
Session Manager Edition is essentially a trunk aggregate and is most often used to provide call control between many different Unified Communications solutions, called leaf systems. Session Manager Edition is a modified version of Cisco Unified Communications Manager and it's configuration interface is the same. It is primarily used during (and after) migrations. In distributed call processing environments it can function as a hub for multiple UC systems, greatly simplifying dial plan and trunk configuration on the leaf systems. The current version is 8 and it is available through normal Cisco Sales Channels.
Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express 
Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express (CUCME), formerly Cisco Unified CallManager Express and Cisco CallManager Express, is a Cisco IOS based IP-PBX for small medium business, enterprise branch office and commercial customers. It provides a rich set of call control and voice application features for the above mentioned customer profiles. It supports Cisco IP phones using Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Call Manager Express also provides a rich set of traditional PSTN connectivity options using both digital and analog lines.
For advanced customers, CUCME also provides integrations with TAPI clients, has a basic Automatic call distribution application, provides an integrated Auto Attendant, Voicemail and Interactive voice response systems.
There have been very few that have attempted to provide comprehensive reporting for Cisco UCME. The logs are complex and voluminous. RSI was the first to offer Shadow CMS for communication management.
More information on CUCME can be found on the external Cisco Support Wiki - Cisco CME Support Wiki
- Cisco Systems acquisition of Selsius Systems
- "Cisco Unified Communications Manager - Hardware, Software and Clustering". Retrieved 2009-02-05.
- "Whats new in CallManager 8.6 - recap". IT Knowledge Share. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Release Notes for CUCM 9.0(1)". Cisco. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Cisco Unified Communications Manager on Virtualized Servers".
- Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CallManager)
- Cisco Unified Provisioning Manager (CUPM)
- Cisco Unified Operations Manager (CUOM)
- Cisco Unified Service Monitor (CUSM)
- Cisco Unified Service Statistics Manager (CUSSM)
- CUCM and Active Directory Integration
- Cisco UCS 5100 and IBM BladeCenter H by Harvard Research Group
- HRG Assessment: Comparing IBM PureSystems and Cisco UCS
- Cisco Phone Systems