Cistus salviifolius

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Cistus salviifolius
Cistus April 2008-1.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Cistus
Species: C. salviifolius
Binomial name
Cistus salviifolius
L.

Cistus salviifolius, common name Sage-leaved Rock Rose or Salvia Cistus, is a perennial ligneous plant of the Cistaceae family.

Etymology[edit]

The genus name Cistus derives from the Greek words κίσϑος (kisthos) meaning basket, while the species name salviifolius refers the wrinkled leaves similar to those of the sage.[1]

Description[edit]

Cistus salviifolius has spreading stems covered by clumpy hairs. This bushy shrub reaches on average 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) in height, with a maximum of 100 centimetres (39 in). The oval-shaped green leaves are 1 to 4 centimeters long, opposite, reticulate, tomentose on both sides, with a short petiole (2–4 mm).[2]

The inflorescence holds one or more round flowers, long-stalked, arranged at the leaf axils. The five white petals have a yellow spot at the base, forming a corolla 4–6 cm in diameter. The stamens are also yellow and the anthers shed abundant yellow pollen. This plant is pollinated by insects entomophily, especially bees. The flowering period extends from April through May. The fruit is a pentagonal capsule, 5–7 mm long.[2]

Gallery[edit]

Cultivation[edit]

Cistus salviifolius cultivated in the nursery industry, and grown in gardens and public landscapes, often for its drought-tolerant and pollinator habitat attributes.

Distribution[edit]

This showy wildflower is native to the Mediterranean region, in southern Europe [2] and parts of Western Asia and North Africa.

Habitat[edit]

This plant prefers dry hills, scrubs and open woodlands, at an altitude of 0–1,200 metres (0–3,937 ft) above sea level.[2] It grows very quickly after a fire.

Synonyms[edit]

  • Cistus macrocalyx Sennen & Pau
  • Cistus paui Sennen
  • Cistus salomonis Sennen & Malag.
  • Cistus salviifolius [β] macrocalyx Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [1] brevipedunculatus Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [2] longipedunculatus Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [alfa] vulgaris Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [delta] biflorus Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [epsilon] cymosus Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [gamma] grandifolius Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius var. fissipetalus Sennen
  • Cistus salviifolius var. occidentalis Rouy & Foucaud
  • Cistus salviifolius var. rierae Sennen
  • Cistus salviifolius var. schizocalyx Sennen
  • Cistus salviifolius L.
  • Ledonia peduncularis var. salviifolia (L.) Spach
  • Ledonia peduncularis Spach[3]

Chemistry[edit]

Cistus salviifolius contains flavan-3ols, oligomeric proanthocyanidins[4] and prodelphinidins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-hydroxybenzoate), epigallocatechin-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin -3-O-gallate-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-(4β→6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-β-d -(6′-O-galloyl)-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene, epigallocatechin-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-β-d- glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene and rhododendrin (betuloside).[5] It also contains ellagitannins of the punicalagin type.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Acta Plantarum
  2. ^ a b c d Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982. Vol. II, pag. 122
  3. ^ Synonyms in Anthos
  4. ^ Antioxidant oligomeric proanthocyanidins from Cistus salvifolius. Fadi Qa’dan, Frank Petereit, Kenza Mansoor and Adolf Nahrstedt, Natural Product Research, Volume 20, Issue 13, 2006, pages 1216-1224, doi:10.1080/14786410600899225
  5. ^ Flavan-3-ols, prodelphinidins and further polyphenols from Cistus salvifolius. Andreas Danne, Frank Petereit and Adolf Nahrstedt, Phytochemistry, Volume 37, Issue 2, 1994, Pages 533–538, doi:10.1016/0031-9422(94)85094-1
  6. ^ Simultaneous LC-DAD and LC-MS Determination of Ellagitannins, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Acyl-Glycosyl Flavonoids in Cistus salvifolius L. Leaves. E. Saracini, M. Tattini, M. L. Traversi, F. F. Vincieri and P. Pinelli, Chromatographia, Volume 62, Numbers 5-6, pages 245-249, doi:10.1365/s10337-005-0623-7

External links[edit]