Cities of London and Westminster (UK Parliament constituency)

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Cities of London and Westminster
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Cities of London and Westminster in Greater London.
County Greater London
Electorate 65,140 (December 2010)[1]
Current constituency
Created 1950
Member of Parliament Mark Field (Conservative)
Number of members One
Created from City of London (1298–1950), Westminster Abbey, Westminster St George's
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency London

Cities of London and Westminster is a constituency returning a single Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons in the United Kingdom Parliament. It is a borough constituency for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer. As with all constituencies, the election is decided using the first past the post system of election. Since its creation at the 1950 general election, the constituency has always elected the candidate nominated by the Conservative Party. It has been represented since 2001 by Mark Field.

History[edit]

Cities of London and Westminster in the Parliamentary County of London, showing boundaries used from 1950 to 1974

Before 1950 the City of London formed a two-member constituency on its own. The Boundary Commission for England began reviewing constituencies in January 1946 using rules defined under the Representation of the People Act 1944, which excluded the City of London from the redistribution procedure;[2][3] the Commission recommended that the borough of Chelsea and the City of Westminster form a single Parliamentary Borough of Chelsea and Westminster with two divisions.[4]

In February 1948 the Government brought forward a new Representation of the People Bill which removed the right of owners of business premises to a second vote; this would have had the effect of reducing the electorate of the City of London from 12,500 to 4,600. The Bill proposed also to end the City of London as a separate constituency and to merge it with the adjacent boroughs of Finsbury and Shoreditch.[5] During debates on the Bill, the Government amended it to substitute a link between the City of London and the City of Westminster.[6] In introducing the amendment the Home Secretary James Chuter Ede noted that the alterations to the constituencies in Westminster, Chelsea and Kensington had been agreed unanimously at a conference between the Members of Parliament and representatives of the boroughs affected.[7]

No alteration was made by the First Periodical Report on constituency boundaries in 1954.[8] In the Second Periodical Report in 1969, the Boundary Commission wrote that their initial feelings were that "except for a minor alteration to follow a new ward boundary" they felt that there was "no reason to disturb" the constituency, and they received no objections to this proposal. Westminster City Council later suggested that the constituency could be more accurately named as 'The City of London and Westminster South'; the Boundary Commission found opinion divided and left the name unchanged when it published revised proposals for two other constituencies within the City. Subsequent representations on the name were received and the Commission decided that, although justified on historical grounds, the name was "not now entirely accurate" and so proposed the renaming as suggested by the City Council.[9]

In initial proposals during the Third Periodical Review (1983), the Boundary Commission proposed to abolish the St Marylebone constituency and add four wards from it (Cavendish, Baker Street, Bryanston and Regents Park) to the previous City of London and Westminster South constituency; they provisionally named the result 'The City of London and Westminster'. After a local inquiry, the Regents Park ward was removed and Hyde Park ward (from the Paddington constituency) was added; unanimous opinion at the inquiry favoured naming the result 'The City of London and Westminster South'.[10]

For the Fourth Periodical Review (1995), the Boundary Commission paired the City of Westminster with the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea for consideration. The Commission's initial proposals, to expand the constituency by two wards (Bayswater and Lancaster Gate) formerly in Westminster North and to return to the name 'Cities of London and Westminster', were upheld after a local inquiry, despite multiple counter-proposals.[11]

At the Fifth Periodical Review (2007), the initial proposals of the Boundary Commission paired the City of Westminster with the London Borough of Brent although they involved only minor changes to the Cities of London and Westminster constituency to take account of new ward boundaries. Widespread objections ("almost universal hostility") to the pairing led to a local inquiry, which decided that Westminster and the City of London should be reviewed separately and not paired with any other borough. The Commission proposed a new Cities of London and Westminster constituency in which the revised Bayswater and Lancaster Gate wards were removed.[12]

Early proposals made during the abandoned Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies proposed linking the City of London to the southern wards of Islington in a constituency to be known as "The City of London and Islington South".[13] Most of the Westminster wards were proposed to form part of a Westminster and Kensington constituency.[14] This proposal was the first to suggest a split between the two Cities in Parliamentary elections since they were joined and proved unpopular in consultation; the Boundary Commission revised them to return the link between the City of London and the City of Westminster,[15] although the whole review was subsequently abandoned.

Although united for Parliamentary elections, in the London Assembly, the City of London is covered by the City and East constituency, and the area in Westminster by the West Central constituency. The Local Government Commission for England argued that "combining the City of London with areas to its east could assist in focussing regeneration eastwards" and linked it with the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and the London Borough of Newham.[16]

Boundaries[edit]

From 1974 to 1983 the following City of Westminster wards were part of the constituency: Charing Cross, Churchill, Knightsbridge, Millbank, Regent Street, Victoria Street, and Warwick. From 1983 to 1997 the following City of Westminster wards were part of the constituency: Baker Street, Belgrave, Bryanston, Cavendish, Churchill, Hyde Park, Knightsbridge, Millbank, St George’s, St James’s, Victoria, and West End.

The seat covers the entire City of London and most of the City of Westminster lying South of the Marylebone Road and the Westway. In the latter more residential city it covers Westminster, Pimlico, Victoria, Belgravia, Knightsbridge, St. James's, Soho, most of Covent Garden, parts of Fitzrovia, Marylebone, Edgware Road, Paddington and Bayswater.

The seat contains electoral wards of:

  • The entire City of London, the most residential parts of which are Temple, Barbican and Moorgate
  • Bryanston and Dorset Square; Churchill; Hyde Park; Knightsbridge and Belgravia; Marylebone High Street; St James'; Tachbrook; Vincent Square; Warwick; West End in the City of Westminster

Constituency profile[edit]

The constituency covers much of the commercial, historical and touristic heart of London, including the Square Mile, St. Paul's Cathedral, Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, Trafalgar Square, Buckingham Palace and Hyde Park.

Few people live in the City of London's financial district and in the closest parts of the West End such as Covent Garden. Mayfair, Belgravia and Knightsbridge rank among Europe's wealthiest residential districts but around half the electorate are in the more socially mixed areas of Bayswater and Pimlico, or the former council estates of Westminster proper.

Members of Parliament[edit]

Election Member[17] Party
1950 Sir Harold Webbe Conservative
1959 Sir Harry Hylton-Foster Conservative
1959 Speaker
1965 by-election John Smith Conservative
1970 Christopher Tugendhat Conservative
February 1974 constituency renamed 'City of London and Westminster South'
February 1974 Christopher Tugendhat Conservative
1977 by-election Peter Brooke Conservative
1997 constituency renamed 'Cities of London and Westminster'
1997 Peter Brooke Conservative
2001 Mark Field Conservative

Election results[edit]

Named Cities of London and Westminster from 1997 to date

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2010: Cities of London and Westminster[18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Mark Field 19,264 52.2 +3.9
Labour Dave Rowntree 8,188 22.2 -3.1
Liberal Democrat Naomi Smith 7,574 20.5 +2.0
Green Derek Chase 778 2.1 -2.2
UKIP Paul Weston 664 1.8 +0.7
English Democrats Frank Roseman 191 0.5 N/A
Independent Dennis Delderfield 98 0.3 N/A
Pirate Jack Nunn 90 0.2 N/A
Independent Mad Cap'n Tom 84 0.2 N/A
Majority 11,076 30.0
Turnout 36,931 55.5 +4.4
Conservative hold Swing +3.5

Elections in 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Mark Field 17,260 47.3 +1.0
Labour Hywel Lloyd 9,165 25.1 −8.0
Liberal Democrat Marie-Louise Rossi 7,306 20.0 +4.6
Green Tristan Smith 1,544 4.2 +0.3
UKIP Colin Merton 399 1.1 –0.3
Independent Brian Haw 298 0.8 N/A
Christian Peoples Jillian McLachlan 246 0.7 N/A
Veritas David Harris 218 0.6 N/A
Independent Cass Cass-Horne 51 0.1 N/A
Majority 8,095 22.2
Turnout 36,487 50.3 +3.1
Conservative hold Swing +4.5
General Election 2001: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Mark Field 15,737 46.3 –0.9
Labour Mike Katz 11,238 33.1 –2.0
Liberal Democrat Martin Horwood 5,218 15.4 +3.1
Green Hugo Charlton 1,318 3.9 N/A
UKIP Colin Merton 464 1.4 +0.8
Majority 4,499 13.2
Turnout 33,975 47.2 –7.0
Conservative hold Swing +0.5

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Peter Brooke 18,981 47.3 N/A
Labour Kate Green 14,100 35.1 N/A
Liberal Democrat Michael Dumigan 4,933 12.3 N/A
Referendum Party Alan Walters 1,161 2.9 N/A
Independent P. Wharton 266 0.7 N/A
UKIP Colin Merton 215 0.5 N/A
Natural Law R. Johnson 176 0.4 N/A
Monster Raving Loony N. Walsh 138 0.3 N/A
Hemp Coalition G. Webster 112 0.3 N/A
Rainbow Dream Ticket Jerry Sadowitz 73 0.2 N/A
Majority 4,881 12.2 N/A
Turnout 58.2 N/A

Named City of London and Westminster South between 1974 and 1992

General Election 1992: City of London and Westminster South
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Peter Brooke 20,938 60.3
Labour Charlie Smith 7,569 21.8
Liberal Democrat Ms. Jane Smithard 5,392 15.3
Green Guy Herbert 458 1.3
Monster Raving Loony Peter Stockton 147 0.4
Irish Freedom Movement Alex Farrell 107 0.3
Natural Law Richard Johnson 101 0.3
Majority 13,369 38.5
Turnout 63.1
General Election 1987: City of London and Westminster South
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Peter Brooke 19,333 57.8
Liberal J Smithard 7,291 21.8
Labour R Bush 6,821 20.4
Majority 12,042 36.0
Turnout 58.2
General Election 1983: City of London and Westminster South
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Peter Brooke 20,754 59.1
Liberal A Walker-Smith 7,367 21.0
Labour S Jones 6,013 17.1
Ecology R Shorter 419 1.2
Communist A Spence 161 0.5
Independent - Pro Nuclear War Gay Rights V Litvin 147 0.4
Majority 13,387 38.1
Turnout 51.8

Elections in 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: City of London and Westminster South
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Peter Brooke 16,851 60.7
Labour R Profitt 7,067 25.5
Liberal H Ball-Wilson 3,375 12.2
National Front K Mathews 478 1.7
Majority 9,784 35.2
Turnout 55.2
City of London and Westminster South by-election, 1977
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Peter Brooke 11,926 55.49 +3.77
Labour Malcolm Noble 3,997 18.60 -12.35
Liberal Angus Scrimgeour 1,981 9.22 -5.64
National Front Paul Kavanagh 1,051 4.89 +2.42
Pro-Homosexual Civil Rights Peter Mitchel 449 2.09 N/A
National Party Michael Lobb 364 1.69 N/A
New Britain Dennis Delderfield 306 1.42 N/A
Air, Road, Public Safety, White Resident Bill Boaks 61 0.28 N/A
Christian Outreach to Britain, Anti-Pornography William Thompson 43 0.20 N/A
Christ, Crown, Country, Commonwealth, Christian Constitution Ralph Herbert 37 0.17 N/A
Turnout 21,492
Conservative hold Swing
General Election October 1974: City of London and Westminster South
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Christopher Samuel Tugendhat 14,350 51.7
Labour Phil J Turner 8,589 31.0
Liberal TG Underwood 4,122 14.9
National Front D Baxter 686 2.5
Majority 5,761 20.8
Turnout 53.2
General Election February 1974: City of London and Westminster South
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Christopher Samuel Tugendhat 16,945 53.2
Labour Phil J Turner 8,698 27.3
Liberal TG Underwood 6,015 18.9
Independent Conservative CD Wertheim 134 0.4
Majority 8.247 25.9
Turnout 61.4

Named from 1950 to 1970 Cities of London and Westminster

General Election 1970: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Christopher Samuel Tugendhat 19,102 59.4
Labour Alf Dubs 10,062 31.3
Liberal David A Nicholson 2,708 8.4
Independent - Anti-Labour Dr. Willoughby A Clark 157 0.5
Independent - Young Ideas Lord Sutch 157 0.4
Majority 9,040 28.1
Turnout 54.5

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative John Smith 19,242 54.7
Labour Alexander J S Pringle 12,349 35.1
Liberal Thomas P M Houston 3,576 10.2
Majority 6,893 19.6
Turnout 60.0
By-election 1965: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative John Lindsay Smith 15,037 59.33 +1.16
Labour Alexander J S Pringle 8,300 32.86 +2.28
Liberal Stephen Jakobi 1,595 6.31 -4.74
Independent Desmond Burgess 326 6.71 N/A
Majority 6,737
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1964: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Speaker Harry Hylton-Foster 19,242 54.7
Labour Alexander J S Pringle 12,349 35.1
Liberal Thomas P M Houston 3,576 10.2
Majority 6,893 19.6
Turnout 60.0

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Harry Hylton-Foster 27,489 65.1
Labour Will Howie 10,301 24.4
Liberal Derek Monsey 4,409 10.5
Majority 17,188 40.7
Turnout 61.3
General Election 1955: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Harold Webbe 31,314 70.2
Labour Dennis J Nisbet 13,270 29.8
Majority 18,044 40.5
Turnout 60.0
General Election 1951: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Harold Webbe 35,275 66.8
Labour Hugh F Sutherland 17,527 33.2
Majority 17,738 33.6
Turnout 67.2
General Election 1950: Cities of London and Westminster
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Harold Webbe 32,672 61.6
Labour John Lewis Curthoys 14,849 28.0
Liberal Dr J A Gorsky 4,670 8.8
Communist Gabriel "Bill" Carritt 888 1.7
Majority 17,823 33.6
Turnout 72.4

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Whether the City of London returned one or two members was left for the decision of Parliament.
  3. ^ "Initial Report of the Boundary Commission for England", Cmd. 7260, p. 4.
  4. ^ "Initial Report of the Boundary Commission for England", Cmd. 7260, p. 33.
  5. ^ "Redistribution of Seats". The Times. 16 February 1948. p. 4. 
  6. ^ "Proposals For New Seats". The Times. 14 June 1948. p. 4. 
  7. ^ HC Debs 5ser vol 452 col 326.
  8. ^ "Boundary Commission for England", First Periodical Report, Cmd. 9311, p. 25.
  9. ^ "Boundary Commission for England", Second Periodical Report, Cmnd. 4084, pp. 26-27.
  10. ^ "Boundary Commission for England", Third Periodical Report, Cmnd. 8797-I, pp. 37–8.
  11. ^ "Boundary Commission for England", Fourth Periodical Report, HC 433-i of session 1994-95, pp. 38-45.
  12. ^ "Boundary Commission for England", Fifth Periodical Report, Cm 7032-I, pp. 42–51.
  13. ^ Brannen, Aimee (13 September 2011). "Islington parliamentary boundaries could change". Islington Gazette. 
  14. ^ Eysenck, Juliet (13 September 2011). "Boundary changes to affect Westminster". Westminster Chronicle. 
  15. ^ White, Isobel; Johnston, Neil (4 February 2013). "Constituency boundaries: the Sixth General Review in England". House of Commons Library. p. 13. 
  16. ^ "Draft Recommendations: Electoral Areas for the Assembly of the Greater London Authority". Local Government Commission for England. August 1998. paragraph 73. 
  17. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "C" (part 4)[self-published source][better source needed]
  18. ^ Notice of Poll - Cities of London and Westminster Westminster City Council, 20 April 2010
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Cirencester and Tewkesbury
Constituency represented by the Speaker
1959–1965
Succeeded by
Southampton Itchen

Coordinates: 51°31′N 0°08′W / 51.51°N 0.13°W / 51.51; -0.13